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Conjugates of Ciprofloxacin and Amphiphilic Block Copoly(2-alkyl-2-oxazolines)s Overcome Efflux Pumps and Are Active against CIP-Resistant Bacteria.

Mol Pharm 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Biomaterials and Polymer Science, Department of Bio- and Chemical Engineering, TU Dortmund, Emil-Figge-Str. 66, 44227 Dortmund, Germany.

Conjugation of antibiotics with polymers is an emerging strategy to improve the performance of these important drugs. Here, the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) was conjugated with amphiphilic poly(2-oxazoline) (POx) block copolymers to investigate whether the activity of the antibiotic was enhanced due to additionally induced membrane activity. The resulting polymer-antibiotic conjugates (PACs) are an order of magnitude more active against the bacterial strain than CIP and show high activities against numerous pathogenic bacterial strains. Read More

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Mitochondria-targeted vitamin E succinate delivery for reversal of multidrug resistance.

J Control Release 2021 Jul 16;337:117-131. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Ministry of Education (MOE) Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China. Electronic address:

Inducing mitochondrial malfunction is an appealing strategy to overcome tumor multidrug resistance (MDR). Reported here a versatile mitochondrial-damaging molecule, vitamin E succinate (VES), is creatively utilized to assist MDR reversal of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX·HCl) via a nanovesicle platform self-assembled from amphiphilic polyphosphazenes containing pH-sensitive 1H-benzo-[d]imidazol-2-yl) methanamine (BIMA) groups. Driven by multiple non-covalent interactions, VES is fully introduced into the hydrophobic membrane of DOX·HCl-loaded nanovesicles with loading content of 23. Read More

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Longitudinal Observation of Insulin use and glucose Sensor metrics in Pregnant women with type 1 diabetes using continuous glucose monitors and insulin pumps: The LOIS-P Study.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Harvard University, 29 Oxford St., Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, 02138.

Background: Suboptimal glycemic control is associated with maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes (T1D). Prospective analysis of continuous glucose monitor (CGM) metrics, insulin pump settings, and insulin delivery can better characterize the changes in glycemic levels and insulin use throughout pregnancy with T1D.

Materials And Methods: Prescribed parameters, insulin delivery, carbohydrate intake, and CGM data for 25 pregnant women with T1D from three US sites were collected biweekly. Read More

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[Research progress on analytical methods for the determination of hexachlorobutadiene].

Se Pu 2021 Jan;39(1):46-56

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) is one of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in Annex A and Annex C of the Stockholm Convention in 2015 and 2017, respectively. Research on the sources, environmental occurrences, and biological effects of HCBD has a great significance in controlling this newly added POPs. Sensitive and credible methods for the determination of HCBD are preconditions and form the basis for related research work. Read More

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January 2021

Quantifying residence times of bank filtrate: A novel framework using radon as a natural tracer.

Water Res 2021 Jun 23;201:117376. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Limnological Research Station, Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BAYCEER), University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Germany.

Bank filtration is a cost-effective and sustainable method of improving surface water quality for drinking water production. During aquifer transit, natural biodegradation and physiochemical filtration improve the quality of the raw water by removing sediments, pollutants, and pathogens. Strict regulations prohibit the use of substances that can be used to estimate aquifer residence times to define water protection areas for bank filtration. Read More

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Effect on breastfeeding practices of providing in-home lactation support to vulnerable women through the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program: protocol for a pre/post intervention study.

Int Breastfeed J 2021 Jul 2;16(1):49. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Nutritional Sciences, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Only one-third of Canadian infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life as recommended. Skilled lactation support in the early postpartum period is one strategy for improving breastfeeding outcomes by building breastfeeding self-efficacy and resolving difficulties. Access to such support is limited among vulnerable women, including those who are new immigrants, low income, under-educated, young or single. Read More

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Glucagon delivery - An overview of current and future devices.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 May 29;15(4):102155. Epub 2021 May 29.

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences University, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Glucagon is crucial in the treatment of Type 1 diabetes mellitus due to the prevalence of hypoglycemia in patients with this disorder. Hypoglycemia can be life-threatening, leading to loss of consciousness, and requiring emergency glucagon to reverse the effects. Emergency kits are difficult to use, requiring reconstitution of glucagon, which itself is not stable for lengthy periods. Read More

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Targeted Chemotherapy of Glioblastoma Spheroids with an Iontronic Pump.

Adv Mater Technol 2021 May 12;6(5):2001302. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Gottfried Schatz Research Center - Biophysics Medical University of Graz Graz 8010 Austria.

Successful treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most lethal tumor of the brain, is presently hampered by (i) the limits of safe surgical resection and (ii) "shielding" of residual tumor cells from promising chemotherapeutic drugs such as Gemcitabine (Gem) by the blood brain barrier (BBB). Here, the vastly greater GBM cell-killing potency of Gem compared to the gold standard temozolomide is confirmed, moreover, it shows neuronal cells to be at least 10-fold less sensitive to Gem than GBM cells. The study also demonstrates the potential of an electronically-driven organic ion pump ("GemIP") to achieve controlled, targeted Gem delivery to GBM cells. Read More

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Resident opinions of diabetes management in training: a survey.

J Osteopath Med 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

System Director, Diabetes Program and Director, Transplant Endocrinology at Houston Methodist in Houson, TX; Assistant Clinical Professor, Weill Cornell Medical College in New York, NY; and Adjunct Assistant Professor, Texas A&M Health Sciences in Bryan, Bryan, TX, USA.

Context: Primary care physicians need a strong foundation in diabetes management, as they are the first line of care for patients with this complex disease, which is increasing in frequency in the United States. This foundational training begins in medical school, but its applications become more important during residency.

Objectives: To quantify osteopathic and allopathic family medicine residents' amount of exposure to diabetes in residency training, investigate referral patterns related to diabetes management, and assess comfort levels with various diabetes treatment modalities. Read More

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Electrochemically Switchable Double-Gate Nanofluidic Logic Device as Biomimetic Ion Pumps.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 30;13(27):32479-32485. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Biological ion pumps with two separate gates can actively transport ions against the concentration gradient. Developing an artificial nanofluidic device with multiple responsive sites is of great importance to improve its controllability over ion transport to further explore its logic function and mimic the biological process. Here, we propose an electrochemical polymerization method to fabricate electrochemically switchable double-gate nanofluidic devices. Read More

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Perceptions of Diabetes Technology Use in Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Management.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Diabetes technologies are associated with improvements in glycemic control and health-related quality of life among people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Use and perceptions of continuous glucose monitors (CGM) and insulin pumps within the cystic fibrosis (CF) community have not been well studied. A 30-item online survey addressing cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) diagnosis, CGM and insulin pump use, and perceptions of diabetes technologies was sent to a CF community group, including people with CF (pwCF) and parents of children with CF (cwCF). Read More

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Utilizing Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices in Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jun 12(172). Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Cardiology, Loma Linda University Medical Center;

Cardiogenic shock is defined as persistent hypotension, accompanied by evidence of end organ hypo-perfusion. Percutaneous ventricular assist devices (PVADs) are used for the treatment of cardiogenic shock in an effort to improve hemodynamics. Impella is currently the most common PVAD and actively pumps blood from the left ventricle into the aorta. Read More

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Gibberellic acid-induced fatty acid metabolism and ABC transporters promote astaxanthin production in Phaffia rhodozyma.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

School of Biological Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, China.

Aims: Astaxanthin is an important natural antioxidant with various biological functions; however, the production of astaxanthin does not meet the requirements for industrialization. The aim of the present study was to identify an inducer that increases astaxanthin yield and to evaluate the regulatory mechanism of the induction of astaxanthin synthesis in Phaffia rhodozyma.

Methods And Results: The effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA) on astaxanthin synthesis were studied by fermentation kinetics analysis. Read More

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Can Innovative Technologies Overcome HbA1c Disparity for African-American Youth with Type 1 Diabetes?

J Diabetes Sci Technol 2021 Jun 17:19322968211021386. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children's Hospital of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Achieving normal or near-normal glycemic control as reflected by HbA1c levels in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is important for preventing the development and progression of chronic complications. Despite delineation and dissemination of HbA1c management targets and advances in insulin pharmacology, insulin delivery systems, and glucose monitoring, the majority of children with T1D do not achieve HbA1c goals. In particular, African Americans are more likely not to reach HbA1c goals and have persistently higher HbA1c than Non-Hispanic Whites. Read More

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Interventions to Reduce Medication Dispensing, Administration, and Monitoring Errors in Pediatric Professional Healthcare Settings: A Systematic Review.

Front Pediatr 2021 26;9:633064. Epub 2021 May 26.

Hospital Pharmacy, Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.

Pediatric patients cared for in professional healthcare settings are at high risk of medication errors. Interventions to improve patient safety often focus on prescribing; however, the subsequent stages in the medication use process (dispensing, drug administration, and monitoring) are also error-prone. This systematic review aims to identify and analyze interventions to reduce dispensing, drug administration, and monitoring errors in professional pediatric healthcare settings. Read More

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Surveying the Challenges to Improve Linear Accelerator-based Radiation Therapy in Africa: a Unique Collaborative Platform of All 28 African Countries Offering Such Treatment.

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; International Cancer Expert Corps, Washington, DC, USA; CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Radiation therapy is a critical component for curative and palliative treatment of cancer and is used in more than half of all patients with cancer. Yet there is a global shortage of access to this treatment, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, where there is a shortage of technical staff as well as equipment. Linear accelerators (LINACs) offer state-of-the-art treatment, but this technology is expensive to acquire, operate and service, especially for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and often their harsh environment negatively affects the performance of LINACs, causing downtime. Read More

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American Association of Clinical Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline: The Use of Advanced Technology in the Management of Persons With Diabetes Mellitus.

Endocr Pract 2021 06;27(6):505-537

Unger Primary Care Concierge Medical Group, Rancho Cucamonga, California.

Objective: To provide evidence-based recommendations regarding the use of advanced technology in the management of persons with diabetes mellitus to clinicians, diabetes-care teams, health care professionals, and other stakeholders.

Methods: The American Association of Clinical Endocrinology (AACE) conducted literature searches for relevant articles published from 2012 to 2021. A task force of medical experts developed evidence-based guideline recommendations based on a review of clinical evidence, expertise, and informal consensus, according to established AACE protocol for guideline development. Read More

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Electronics-free pneumatic circuits for controlling soft-legged robots.

Sci Robot 2021 Feb;6(51)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Pneumatically actuated soft robots have recently shown promise for their ability to adapt to their environment. Previously, these robots have been controlled with electromechanical components, such as valves and pumps, that are typically bulky and expensive. Here, we present an approach for controlling the gaits of soft-legged robots using simple pneumatic circuits without any electronic components. Read More

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February 2021

[Nursing management of patients with intrathecal pumps in oncology].

Rev Infirm 2021 May 6;70(271):47-48. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institut de cancérologie de l'Ouest, service chirurgie ambulatoire, 15, rue Boquel, 49000 Angers, France.

Some pains, especially in oncology, are refractory to standard analgesics. Epidural analgesia is an efficient way to manage them. It allows the patient to be relieved, to improve his quality of life and the conditions of his return home or in an institution. Read More

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Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization of Penicillin and Macrolide-Resistant Serotypes Among Pediatric Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 12;14:1765-1772. Epub 2021 May 12.

Laboratory Bacteriology Research, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: In several countries, introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) has led to a decline in antimicrobial-resistant pneumococcal disease but has also resulted in a concomitant increase in antimicrobial-resistant, non-vaccine serotypes of . We sought to determine the magnitude of penicillin and macrolide resistance among pneumococcal serotypes and the mechanisms of macrolide resistance in Ethiopia, 5 years after the introduction of PCV10 in the country.

Methods: Susceptibility to penicillin and erythromycin of 119 pneumococcal isolates collected from pediatric patients aged 0-15 years in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was tested using disc diffusion, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also determined by Etest. Read More

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Roles of Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 in Microbial Infections and Inflammatory Diseases.

Authors:
Wei Liu Yutian Liu

Microb Drug Resist 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Hand Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Numerous studies have reported the emergence of antimicrobial resistance during the treatment of common infections. Multidrug resistance (MDR) leads to failure of antimicrobial treatment, prolonged illness, and increased morbidity and mortality. Overexpression of multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) as drug efflux pumps are one of the main contributions of MDR, especially multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Read More

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Subcutaneous vitamin B12 administration using a portable infusion pump in cobalamin-related remethylation disorders: a gentle and easy to use alternative to intramuscular injections.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 05 12;16(1):215. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Lindwurmstr. 4, 80337, Munich, Germany.

Background: Cobalamin (cbl)-related remethylation disorders are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders comprising the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine and affecting multiple organ systems, most prominently the nervous system and the bone marrow. To date, the parenteral, generally intramuscular, lifelong administration of hydroxycobalamin (OHCbl) is the mainstay of therapy in these disorders. The dosage and frequency of OHCbl is titrated in each patient to the minimum effective dose in order to account for the painful injections. Read More

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Evaluation of the Quality of Chest Compression with Oxyhemoglobin Level by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in a Rat Asphyxia Cardiac Arrest Model.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1269:265-269

Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Northwell Health System, Manhasset, NY, USA.

The real-time evaluation of chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is important to increase the chances of survival from a cardiac arrest (CA). In addition, cerebral oxygen level measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) plays an important role as an indicator of return of spontaneous circulation. Recently, we developed a new method to improve the quality of chest compression using a thoracic pump in conjunction with the classic cardiac pump in a rat asphyxia CA model. Read More

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Type 1 Diabetes Care in Mexico: An Analysis of the RENACED-DT1 National Registry.

Rev Invest Clin 2021 05 4;73(4):222-230. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Medicine, UNAM, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Information regarding diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with type 1 diabetes (PWT1D) in Mexico is limited. We developed an on-line platform Registro Nacional de Pacientes con Diabetes Tipo 1 (RENACED-DT1).

Objective: The objective of the study was to describe the characteristics and healthcare of PWT1D registered in RENACED-DT1. Read More

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Organ allocation and procurement in cardiac transplantation.

Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2021 Jun;26(3):282-289

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Purpose Of Review: There is a critical shortage of organs in cardiac transplantation. Recent advancements in both organ allocation and donor utilization have intended to address this shortage and optimally allocate allografts. This review evaluates several important aspects of recipient and donor management. Read More

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Quantitative model analysis of the resting membrane potential in insect skeletal muscle: Implications for low temperature tolerance.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2021 Jul 28;257:110970. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

Abiotic stressors, such as cold exposure, can depolarize insect cells substantially causing cold coma and cell death. During cold exposure, insect skeletal muscle depolarization occurs through a 2-stage process. Firstly, short-term cold exposure reduces the activity of electrogenic ion pumps, which depolarize insect muscle markedly. Read More

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Breastfeeding at the workplace: a systematic review of interventions to improve workplace environments to facilitate breastfeeding among working women.

Int J Equity Health 2021 Apr 29;20(1):110. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Research Center for Equitable Development EQUIDE, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongación Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01219, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Breastfeeding can be affected by maternal employment. This is important considering that in 2019, 47.1% of women globally participated in the labor force. Read More

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An Empirical Model for the Churning Losses Prediction of Fluid Flow Analysis in Axial Piston Pumps.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 3;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, China.

The manufacturing development of axial piston pumps usually takes the trend of high speed and miniaturization, and increases power density. Axial piston pumps are usually characterized as high speed to improve the power density; thus, high-speed churning losses caused by the internal rotating components stirring the oil can increase significantly. In order to improve the efficiency, more attention should be given to the churning losses in axial piston pumps, especially in high-speed conditions. Read More

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Yield, profitability, and prospects of irrigated Boro rice cultivation in the North-West region of Bangladesh.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0250897. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Bangladesh Rice Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh.

The North-West (NW) region of Bangladesh is pivotal for the country's agricultural development, mainly in producing irrigated Boro rice. However, increasing cost of irrigation water, fertilizers, labour and other inputs, and the spatio-temporal variation in actual yield, market price and profitability of rice, have added uncertainty to the sustainability of Boro rice cultivation. In this study, we evaluated the productivity, profitability, and prospect of Boro rice production using comprehensive field data collected directly from 420 farmers' fields over two consecutive seasons (2015-16 and 2016-17), across seven geographically distributed locations in the NW region. Read More

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