94,715 results match your criteria pulmonary tuberculosis


Outcomes of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treated with bedaquiline or delamanid.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Since September 1, 2016, bedaquiline and delamanid have been administered for treatment of patients with multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis after the official approval in South Korea. This study aimed to assess and compare the final treatment outcomes of patients who received bedaquiline with those of patients who received delamanid.

Methods: This is a nationwide cohort study of patients with multidrug-resistant/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in whom bedaquiline or delamanid was administered from September 1, 2016, to February 28, 2018, after receiving the official approval in South Korea. Read More

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The Treatment of Tuberculosis.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of infectious death worldwide, and poverty is a major driver. Clinically, TB presents as "latent" TB and active TB disease, and the treatment for each is different. TB drugs can display "early bactericidal activity (EBA)" and / or "sterilizing activity" (clearing persisters). Read More

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The risk of pulmonary tuberculosis after traumatic brain injury.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 9;11(1):7840. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medical Research, Chi Mei Medical Center, No 901, Zhonghua Road, Yongkang District, Tainan City 710, Taiwan.

After traumatic brain injury (TBI), an inflammatory response in the brain might affect the immune system. The risk of pulmonary infection reportedly increases in patients with TBI. We aimed to evaluate the risk of tuberculosis (TB) in patients with TBI in Taiwan. Read More

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Immune cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Ugandan adults who resist versus those who develop latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(4):e0249477. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Tuberculosis Research Unit and Division of Infectious Diseases, Case Western Reserve University and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

Background: The search for immune correlates of protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection in humans is limited by the focus on peripheral blood measures. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can safely be done and provides insight into cellular function in the lung where infection is first established. In this study, blood and lung samples were assayed to determine if heavily MTB exposed persons who resist development of latent MTB infection (RSTR) vs those who develop latent MTB infection (LTBI), differ in the make-up of resident BAL innate and adaptive immune cells. Read More

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A simple x-ray scoring system for the diagnosis of Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis.

Mycoses 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Dean, St. John's Medical college Hospital, Bengaluru, India.

Background: Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a severe form of post tuberculosis lung disease (PTBLD). Considering the high burden of TB in India, it can be concluded that the prevalence of CPA is also high. Chest x-ray though most feasible, interpretation is subjective. Read More

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Changes in Incidence and Epidemiological Characteristics of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Mainland China, 2005-2016.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Apr 1;4(4):e215302. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Importance: The World Health Organization End TB (Tuberculosis) Strategy aims to decrease the global incidence and mortality of TB by 90% and 95%, respectively, as of 2035.

Objective: To characterize the recent epidemiological trend of pulmonary TB (PTB) in mainland China based on the national surveillance data.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study collected demographic and clinical data of all patients reported in the national Tuberculosis Information Management System of China from January 1, 2005, to November 21, 2016. Read More

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Hypoalbuminaemia in orthopaedic trauma patients in a rural hospital in South Africa.

Int Orthop 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Orthopaedics, School of Clinical Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: The deleterious effects of hypoalbuminaemia in the peri-operative period are well documented. We aimed to review serum albumin levels in a cohort of orthopaedic trauma patients to determine the prevalence of hypoalbuminaemia. Secondarily, we aimed to identify factors associated with an increased risk of hypoalbuminaemia. Read More

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Sputum smear conversion and associated factors among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Apr 8;21(1):118. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

Background: Sputum smear conversion is a key indicator of treatment response and reduced infectivity among bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. This study aimed at estimating sputum smear conversion and identifying factors hindering sputum smear conversion among bacteriologically confirmed PTB cases in East Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

Methods: A total of 282 bacteriologically confirmed PTB patients were followed for 22 weeks through weekly sputum smear examination. Read More

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Clinical Features and Prognosis of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pleuritis: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Keio University School of Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan;

Rationale: The clinical features and prognosis of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pleuritis and pleural effusion combined with NTM lung disease (NTM-LD) remain unclear.

Objectives: To investigate the clinical features and prognosis of NTM pleuritis.

Methods: This retrospective observational study included patients with NTM pleuritis from January 2001 to June 2018 across eight hospitals in Japan. Read More

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Clinical value of endobronchial ultrasound-guided aspiration and local isoniazid injection in the treatment of mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Endoscopy, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the value of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) guided purulence aspiration and local isoniazid injection after lymph node puncture in the treatment of refractory mediastinal tuberculous lymphadenitis (MTLA) as compared to systemic anti-tuberculosis treatment.

Methods: This was a retrospective study. A total of 92 patients with MTLA and suppurative lymphadenitis who were treated in the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2015 and December 2018 were included into present study and divided into systemic chemotherapy (CT) group and interventional therapy (IT) group. Read More

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Active screening of patients with diabetes mellitus for pulmonary tuberculosis in a tertiary care hospital in Sri Lanka.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249787. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

World Health Organization Country Office for Sri Lanka, Colombo, Sri Lanka.

End TB strategy by the WHO suggest active screening of high-risk populations for tuberculosis (TB) to improve case detection. Present study generates evidence for the effectiveness of screening patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) for Pulmonary TB (PTB). A study was conducted among 4548 systematically recruited patients over 45 years attending DM clinic at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka. Read More

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Performance of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra for diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, one year of use in a multi-centric hospital laboratory in Brussels, Belgium.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249734. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Microbiology, Laboratoire Hospitalier Universitaire de Bruxelles-Universitair Laboratorium Brussel (LHUB-ULB), Brussels, Belgium.

Among the challenges in controlling tuberculosis, a rapid and accurate diagnostic test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBc) and its resistance to first line therapies is crucial. We evaluated the performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra assay (Xpert Ultra) for the rapid detection of MTBc and rifampicin resistance (RR) in 1120 pulmonary and 461 extra-pulmonary clinical specimens and compared it with conventional phenotypic techniques. The Xpert Ultra assay detected MTBc in 223 (14. Read More

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Spatial patterns of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) cases in Zimbabwe from 2015 to 2018.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249523. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Parirenyatwa Hospital, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Introduction: Accurate mapping of spatial heterogeneity in tuberculosis (TB) cases is critical for achieving high impact control as well as guide resource allocation in most developing countries. The main aim of this study was to explore the spatial patterns of TB occurrence at district level in Zimbabwe from 2015 to 2018 using GIS and spatial statistics as a preamble to identifying areas with elevated risk for prioritisation of control and intervention measures.

Methods: In this study Getis-Ord Gi* statistics together with SaTscan were used to characterise TB hotspots and clusters in Zimbabwe at district level from 2015 to 2018. Read More

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Accuracy and Incremental Yield of the Chest X-Ray in Screening for Tuberculosis in Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Tuberc Res Treat 2021 19;2021:6622809. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Makerere University Lung Institute, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Uganda.

The WHO END TB strategy requires ≥90% case detection to combat tuberculosis (TB). Increased TB case detection requires a more sensitive and specific screening tool. Currently, the symptoms recommended for screening TB have been found to be suboptimal since up to 44% of individuals with TB are asymptomatic. Read More

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Functional and Activation Profiles of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells in Patients With Tuberculosis and HIV in a High Endemic Setting.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:648216. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

MAIT cells are non-classically restricted T lymphocytes that recognize and rapidly respond to microbial metabolites or cytokines and have the capacity to kill bacteria-infected cells. Circulating MAIT cell numbers generally decrease in patients with active TB and HIV infection, but findings regarding functional changes differ. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the effect of HIV, TB, and HIV-associated TB (HIV-TB) on MAIT cell frequencies, activation and functional profile in a high TB endemic setting in South Africa. Read More

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A solitary pulmonary nodule caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. BCG after intravesical BCG treatment: a case report.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 Apr 7;21(1):115. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Respiratory Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita, 879-5593, Japan.

Background: Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as a treatment for superficial bladder cancer rarely causes pulmonary complications. While published cases have been pathologically characterized by multiple granulomatous lesions due to disseminated infection, no case presenting as a solitary pulmonary nodule has been reported.

Case Presentation: A man in his 70 s was treated with intravesical BCG for early-stage bladder cancer. Read More

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Knowledge about tuberculosis, treatment adherence and outcome among ambulatory patients with drug-sensitive tuberculosis in two directly-observed treatment centres in Southwest Nigeria.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 7;21(1):677. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Pulmonary/Chest unit, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan and University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Although TB is curable provided the treatment commenced quickly, appropriately and uninterrupted throughout TB treatment duration. However, high default rate, treatment interruption and therapy non-adherence coupled with inadequate disease knowledge significantly contribute to poor TB treatment outcome, especially in developing countries. Read More

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Reduction in Hospitalizations for Respiratory Diseases during the First COVID-19 Wave in Greece.

Respiration 2021 Apr 7:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Respiratory Medicine Department University of Ioannina Faculty of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece.

Introduction: During the first COVID-19 wave, a considerable decline in hospital admissions was observed worldwide.

Aim: This retrospective cohort study aimed to assess if there were any changes in the number of patients hospitalized for respiratory diseases in Greece during the first CO-VID-19 wave.

Methods: In the present study, we evaluated respiratory disease hospitalization rates across 9 tertiary hospitals in Greece during the study period (March-April 2020) and the corresponding period of the 2 previous years (2018-2019) that served as the control periods. Read More

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Is Glycemic Control the Secret to Tuberculosis Control?

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

University of California San Francisco, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, San Francisco, California, United States.

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Seasonality in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis notifications in Germany 2004-2014- a time series analysis.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 6;21(1):661. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Seasonality in tuberculosis (TB) has been found in different parts of the world, showing a peak in spring/summer and a trough in autumn/winter. The evidence is less clear which factors drive seasonality. It was our aim to identify and evaluate seasonality in the notifications of TB in Germany, additionally investigating the possible variance of seasonality by disease site, sex and age group. Read More

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Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium intracellulare: implications for clinical taxonomic classification in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex disease.

BMC Microbiol 2021 Apr 6;21(1):103. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Bacteriology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.

Background: Mycobacterium intracellulare is a representative etiological agent of emerging pulmonary M. avium-intracellulare complex disease in the industrialized countries worldwide. The recent genome sequencing of clinical strains isolated from pulmonary M. Read More

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Uptake of universal drug susceptibility testing among people with TB in a south Indian district: How are we faring?

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

State TB Cell, Directorate of Health Services, Bengaluru, India.

Background: India implements universal drug susceptibility testing (UDST) using rapid genotypic tests (cartridge-based nucleic acid amplification test CBNAAT - and line probe assay - LPA). to bridge the gap of diagnosis of multidrug/rifampicin-resistant TB. There is limited evidence assessing the implementation of UDST in India. Read More

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[Morphological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis concurrent with lung cancer].

Arkh Patol 2021 ;83(3):19-24

Saint Petersburg State Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology of the Ministry of Health of Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia.

The pathogenetic relationship between pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer in their concurrence is now still the subject of discussion.

Objective: To study the pathogenetic relationship between pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer.

Material And Methods: The investigators examined surgical material from 51 patients (41 men) aged 41-73 years (mean age, 63. Read More

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THE PULMONARY AND METABOLIC EFFECTS OF SUSPENSION BY THE FEET COMPARED WITH LATERAL RECUMBENCY IN IMMOBILIZED BLACK RHINOCEROSES (DICEROS BICORNIS) CAPTURED BY AERIAL DARTING.

J Wildl Dis 2021 Apr;57(2):357-367

Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, 930 Campus Road, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

Aerial translocation of captured black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) has been accomplished by suspending them by their feet. We expected this posture would compromise respiratory gas exchange more than would lateral recumbency. Because white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) immobilized with etorphine alone are hypermetabolic, with a high rate of carbon dioxide production (VCO2), we expected immobilized black rhinoceroses would also have a high VCO2. Read More

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Diagnostic utility of bronchoalveolar lavage in children with complicated intrathoracic tuberculosis.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Desmond Tutu TB Centre, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Introduction: Bronchoscopy can be a useful tool in children with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) with severe disease potentially requiring intervention or in the face of diagnostic dilemmas. The aim of this study was to determine the value of Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples in children with complicated PTB.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of children with clinically diagnosed PTB, who underwent routine bronchoscopy over a five year period at a large referral hospital. Read More

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Outcomes of Daily Dose versus Part-daily Dose Treatment for Lung Tuberculosis: A Real-World Database Study in an Indonesian Hospital.

Acta Med Indones 2021 Jan;53(1):18-23

1. Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia. 2. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Christian Krida Wacana, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Background: a meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) on category I pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) treatments showed that either part-daily (2RHZE/4R3H3) or daily dose (2RHZE/4RH) had the same failure and recurrence rates. However, the World Health Organization (WHO) concluded that the part-daily dose had higher failure and recurrence rates. Therefore, this study was conducted to compare the treatment outcomes between both regimens, whether daily dose regimen has a better treatment outcome than part-daily dose regimen, and the adverse effects between both regimens. Read More

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January 2021

Diagnostic Pitfalls of Urogenital Tuberculosis.

Trop Med Int Health 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Blizard Institute, Barts The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University, London, UK.

Objectives: To describe characteristics, details of diagnosis and outcomes of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) in a low prevalence country.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of 37 consecutive patients diagnosed with UGTB between 1 January 2014 and 31 October 2019 in an East London hospital.

Results: 68% (25/37) of patients were male and the median age was 42 years (IQR 34-55). Read More

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GeneXpert Technology for the diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis: Is scale-up worth it?

Open Life Sci 2020 30;15(1):458-465. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pathology, Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Punjab, 54590, Pakistan.

Recent evaluations of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for the simultaneous detection of and drug resistance in less than 2 h have stimulated tremendous enthusiasm. This is the breakthrough that tuberculosis (TB) control has been waiting for. In this (retrospective review) case study, sputum samples from strongly suspected pulmonary tuberculosis patients were collected and assessed for the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosing TB and drug resistance in comparison with other tests, including Ziehl-Neelsen smear and Löwenstein-Jensen test. Read More

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Diagnostic Accuracy of Pleural Effusion Mononuclear Cells/Leukocyte Ratio in Tuberculous Pleurisy.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 18;8:639061. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, China.

Tuberculous pleurisy (TBP) is a common clinical type of tuberculosis (TB) in China. TBP is difficult to diagnose. Whether the mononuclear cell/leukocyte (MNC/LEU) ratio in pleural effusion can contribute to accurate TBP diagnosis remains yet unclear. Read More

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Harnessing Big Data to Optimize an Algorithm for Rapid Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Real-World Setting.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 18;11:650163. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Pediatrics, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: The prompt diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) remains a challenge in clinical practice. The present study aimed to optimize an algorithm for rapid diagnosis of PTB in a real-world setting.

Methods: 28,171 adult inpatients suspected of having PTB in China were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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