89 results match your criteria pseudohyperkalaemia

Pseudohyperkalaemia in essential thrombocytosis: an important clinical reminder.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Apr 1;2021. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Mater Dei Hospital of Malta, Department of Medicine, Msida, Malta.

Summary: An 82-year-old female was admitted to a general hospital due to progressive bilateral lower limb weakness. A T8-T9 extramedullary meningioma was diagnosed by MRI, and the patient was referred for excision of the tumour. During the patient's admission, she was noted to have persistent hyperkalaemia which was refractory to treatment. Read More

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Order of draw of blood samples affect potassium results without K-EDTA contamination during routine workflow.

Biochem Med (Zagreb) 2021 Jun 15;31(2):020704. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Lüleburgaz State Hospital, Kırklareli, Turkey.

Introduction: A specific sequence is recommended for filling blood tubes during blood collection to prevent erroneous test results due to carryover of additives. However, requirement of this procedure is still debatable. This study was aimed to investigate the potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K-EDTA) contamination in blood samples taken after a tube containing the additive during routine workflow. Read More

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The potential role of the eGFR in differentiating between true and pseudohyperkalaemia.

Ann Clin Biochem 2020 11 26;57(6):444-455. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Blood Sciences, Epsom and St Helier University Hospitals NHS Trust, London, UK.

Background: Differentiating between true and pseudohyperkalaemia is essential for patient management. The common causes of pseudohyperkalaemia include haemolysis, blood cell dyscrasias and EDTA contamination. One approach to differentiate between them is by checking the renal function, as it is believed that true hyperkalaemia is rare with normal function. Read More

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November 2020

Further improvement of the quality of tube transportation system is needed to prevent 'seasonal' pseudohyperkalaemia.

Clin Chim Acta 2020 Nov 14;510:644-646. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Clinical Pathology Unit, ASST Fatebenefratelli-Sacco, Milan, Italy.

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November 2020

A case of severe pseudohyperkalaemia due to muscle contraction.

Biochem Med (Zagreb) 2020 Jun;30(2):021004

Clinical Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Introduction: Severe hyperkalaemia is a serious medical condition requiring immediate medical attention. Before medical treatment is started, pseudohyperkalaemia has to be ruled out.

Case Description: A 10-month old infant presented to the emergency department with fever and coughing since 1 week. Read More

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Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of red cell membrane disorders.

Br J Haematol 2019 10 31;187(1):13-24. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, Federico II" University of Naples, Naples, Italy.

Hereditary erythrocyte membrane disorders are caused by mutations in genes encoding various transmembrane or cytoskeletal proteins of red blood cells. The main consequences of these genetic alterations are decreased cell deformability and shortened erythrocyte survival. Red blood cell membrane defects encompass a heterogeneous group of haemolytic anaemias caused by either (i) altered membrane structural organisation (hereditary spherocytosis, hereditary elliptocytosis, hereditary pyropoikilocytosis and Southeast Asian ovalocytosis) or (ii) altered membrane transport function (overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis or xerocytosis, familial pseudohyperkalaemia and cryohydrocytosis). Read More

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October 2019

Big data analysis reveals the existence of seasonal pseudohyperkalaemia even in temperate climates.

Clin Chim Acta 2019 Oct 19;497:110-113. Epub 2019 Jul 19.

Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, National Health Laboratory Service Tshwane Academic Division, Pretoria, South Africa; Division of Chemical Pathology, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: Seasonal pseudohyperkalaemia has been described in colder northern hemisphere countries. The lower temperatures may inhibit red cell Na-K-ATPase allowing the efflux of potassium and higher measured levels. It has not been described in warmer subtropical climates. Read More

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October 2019

Reversible iatrogenic paraparesis secondary to masked hypokalaemia in thrombocytosis-associated pseudohyperkalaemia.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Mar 22;12(3). Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Sanz Medical Centre, Laniado Hospital, Netanya, Israel.

An elderly patient who presented with recent recurrent falls was admitted, reporting inability to stand and recent acute diarrhoeal illness. Paraparesis was diagnosed but extensive investigations did not elucidate its cause. He had atherosclerotic cardiac and vascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease and pancreatectomy/splenectomy for a lesion that turned out to be benign. Read More

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A case of undiagnosed pseudohyperkalaemia following a splenectomy.

Marco Grech

Age Ageing 2018 09;47(5):758-759

St. Vincent de Paul Residence, Triq l-Ingiered, Luqa LQA, Malta.

Pseudohyperkalaemia is defined as a rise in serum potassium with concomitantly normal plasma potassium. The case of long undiagnosed pseudohyperkalaemia in an 84-year-old lady with thrombocytosis post splenectomy is presented. Presenting a historical perspective and the multifactorial aetiology of pseudohyperkalaemia the author underlines the importance of detecting apparent hyperkalaemia by testing the plasma potassium. Read More

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September 2018

Pseudohyperkalaemia: a rare complication of splenectomy.

R Wilson R T Skelly

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2017 Feb 23;99(2):e52-e53. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Department of Surgery, Causeway Hospital , Coleraine, Antrim, Northern Ireland , UK.

Pseudohyperkalaemia is an uncommon and frequently unrecognised biochemical abnormality. It occurs as a consequence of aggregation and lysis of platelets in vitro. As a result, potassium is released, which causes an elevated serum concentration. Read More

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February 2017

Postsplenectomy thrombocytosis with pseudohyperkalaemia.

BMJ Case Rep 2015 Sep 7;2015. Epub 2015 Sep 7.

London Sarcoma Service & NCL HPB Unit, University College Hospital, London, UK.

A 52-year old man developed hyperkalaemia on the 11th postoperative day following an extensive open retroperitoneal liposarcoma resection that included splenectomy. Despite thorough investigations, no aetiology for the hyperkalaemia was identified and standard empirical treatment was ineffective. On reconsideration, in view of the patient's concurrent thrombocytosis, a pseudofactual or artefactual hyperkalaemia was suspected. Read More

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September 2015

Deceptive potassium and magnesium measurements.

Diagnosis (Berl) 2014 Dec;1(4):277-282

3Consultant Rheumatologist, Stepping Hill hospital, Stockport, Cheshire, UK.

Potassium and magnesium are important circulating cations and are predominantly intracellular elements. Only a small fraction of these elements is present in extracellular fluids including blood (∼1%). Measurement of the concentration of such small fractions in blood is commonly used to assess and reflect their body content levels. Read More

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December 2014

Seasonal factitious increase in serum potassium: still a problem and should be recognised.

Clin Biochem 2014 Dec 3;47(18):283-6. Epub 2014 Sep 3.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Lewisham Hospital NHS Trust, SE13 6LH, UK. Electronic address:

Aim: Spurious serum elevation of potassium concentration can occur in the presence of cold ambient temperatures and the aim of this study was to assess the effect of changes in temperature on the average serum potassium concentration in our population.

Method: We conducted a retrospective review of all serum potassium samples received to the laboratory between January 2009 and September 2012 from accident & emergency (AE), general practice (GP), in-patient (IP) and out-patient (OP) departments and compared these with the mean ambient temperatures for these months supplied by the Met Office for South East and Central England.

Results: We have identified that in a relatively condensed south London region seasonal factitious serum potassium elevation occurs in primary care samples but also somewhat surprisingly also in hospital in-patient and out-patient samples although apparently less so in AE samples. Read More

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December 2014

Pseudohyperkalaemia with acute leukaemia: association with pneumatic tube transport of blood specimens.

Hong Kong Med J 2014 Apr;20(2):158-60

Department of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Chai Wan, Hong Kong.

Falsely elevated serum or plasma potassium level can be the result of mechanical injury to blood cells. We describe pseudohyperkalaemia caused by pneumatic tube transport of blood specimens from a patient with leukaemia. Clinicians should be aware of this possibility when interpreting the clinical significance of hyperkalaemia. Read More

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Pseudohyperkalaemia is troublesome but 'fictitious normokalaemia' is sinister, insidious and inconspicuous.

Adel A A Ismail

Ann Clin Biochem 2013 Nov 18;50(Pt 6):623-4. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Consultant in Clinical Biochemistry and Chemical Endocrinology (Retired), Wakefield, West Yorkshire, UK.

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November 2013

Pseudohyperkalaemia in leukaemic patients: the effect of test tube type and form of transport to the laboratory.

Ann Clin Biochem 2014 Jan 17;51(Pt 1):110-3. Epub 2013 Sep 17.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University Hospital Brno, Czech Republic.

Background: The present study was aimed at determining the effect of the tube type used for primary sample collection and the manner of transport prior to assessment (either manual or by pneumatic tube) on the degree of pseudohyperkalaemia in leukaemic patients.

Methods: Blood from six leukaemic patients was collected into seven primary sample tubes (Monovette®, Sarstedt): sample A, heparinized blood gas syringe (potassium reference value); sample B, plasma Li-heparin without separator gel; sample C, plasma Li-heparin with separator gel; and sample D, serum with separator gel. The primary sample tubes designated B, C and D were transported to the laboratory manually. Read More

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January 2014

Studies on the use of BD Vacutainer® SST II™ and RST™ in general practice: investigation of artefactual hyperkalaemia.

Ann Clin Biochem 2014 Jan 29;51(Pt 1):30-7. Epub 2013 Jul 29.

Department of General Practice, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Current sampling and transport conditions of samples in general practice can result in pseudohyperkalaemia. This study was undertaken to determine, in a general practice setting, whether there is any difference in haemolysis obtained when using BD Vacutainer® Rapid Serum Tubes (BD RST) compared with using BD Vacutainer® SST™ II Advance Blood Collection Tubes (BD SSTII).

Methods: Blood was collected from 353 patients requiring blood sampling who were attending 31 general practitioner practices in Belgium. Read More

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January 2014

[Must we always treat hyperkalaemia?].

G Ital Nefrol 2013 Jan-Feb;30(1)

Pseudohyperkalaemia that occurs in conditions with raised platelet counts is caused by an in vitro rise of the serum potassium concentration during whole blood coagulation together with lysis of platelets and other cellular components, in the presence of normal renal function and plasma potassium levels. Here, we report the case of a 66-year-old man presenting a myeloproliferative disorder with thrombocythaemia. His serum potassium level was 6. Read More

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The impact of centrifugation in primary care on pseudohyperkalaemia: a retrospective evaluation.

Ann Clin Biochem 2013 Jul 12;50(Pt 4):371-3. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen, UK.

Background: Spurious hyperkalaemia is a relatively common occurrence in samples originating from primary care. Failure to identify spurious hyperkalaemia carries a significant risk of patient mismanagement. We have carried out a retrospective evaluation to review the impact of the use of centrifuges in primary care for biochemistry blood samples on the management of hyperkalaemia. Read More

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Pseudohyperkalaemia or spurious hyperkalaemia.

M A Crook

Ann Clin Biochem 2013 Mar;50(Pt 2):180-1

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Metabolic Medicine, University Hospital Lewisham, and Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals, London SE13 6LH, UK.

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Pseudohyperkalaemia associated with leukaemic cell lysis during pneumatic tube transport of blood samples.

Pediatr Nephrol 2012 Jun 26;27(6):1029-31. Epub 2012 Feb 26.

Department of Haematology, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Manchester, UK.

Background: Pseudohyperkalaemia is relatively uncommon in children, but needs to be considered in cases where extreme hyperkalaemia is associated with normal renal function.

Case: A previously well 12 year-old boy presented with new onset T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia associated with a high peripheral blood white cell count. Plasma biochemistry tests on a blood sample sent to the laboratory using a pneumatic tube system showed a high plasma potassium level of 16. Read More

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Unrecognized pseudohyperkalaemia in essential thrombocythaemia.

JRSM Short Rep 2011 Nov 9;2(11):85. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

Norfolk and Norwich Hospitals - Breast and Endocrine Surgery , Norwich , UK.

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November 2011

Seasonal pseudohyperkalaemia: no longer an issue?

Ann Clin Biochem 2012 Jan 8;49(Pt 1):94-6. Epub 2011 Nov 8.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, 1st Floor, Link Building, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, UK.

Background: Spurious hyperkalaemia is a well-recognized problem when reporting potassium results in samples originating from Primary Care. This is particularly relevant in laboratories serving large geographical areas where sample transport can cause significant delays in sample centrifugation. We have carried out a retrospective audit comparing serum potassium results on samples centrifuged at the general practice (GP) with those centrifuged on arrival at the clinical laboratory. Read More

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January 2012

Leaky cell syndrome: a rare cause of pseudohyperkalaemia.

Ann Clin Biochem 2012 Jan 31;49(Pt 1):97-100. Epub 2011 Oct 31.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Medisch Spectrum Twente Hospital Group, PO Box 50000, Enschede 7500 KA, The Netherlands.

Life-threatening situations of hyperkalaemia are often caused by renal failure, hyperglycaemia or medication. However pseudohyperkalaemia, a falsely elevated potassium concentration, is usually caused by haemolysis, repeated clenching of the fist during venepuncture or abnormal cell numbers. Another rare cause of pseudohyperkalaemia is familial pseudohyperkalaemia, an autosomal dominantly inherited trait, with increased leakage of potassium from erythrocytes. Read More

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January 2012

The management of acute hyperkalaemia in neonates and children.

Arch Dis Child 2012 Apr 13;97(4):376-80. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Children's Kidney Centre, University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK.

This review article describes the pathophysiology and common aetiologies of hyperkalaemia including pseudohyperkalaemia, renal impairment, medication, rhabdomyolysis and aldosterone deficiency. Two clinical cases are used to describe symptoms (mainly muscle weakness and arrhythmias) and illustrate different management options. An approach to management including relevant investigations and interpretation of ECG changes is described. Read More

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The severity of pseudohyperkalaemia is not dependent upon the stage of chronic kidney disease: a prospective study.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2011 Jun 6;49(6):1005-9. Epub 2011 Apr 6.

Department of Nephrology, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospital Trust, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Pseudohyperkalaemia may result from delay in centrifugation and storage at 4°C. We investigated whether the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD), its aetiology or medications influence this.

Methods: Seventy-seven patients with CKD were recruited. Read More

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Spurious hyperkalaemia: an insight.

J Pak Med Assoc 2011 Mar;61(3):297-9

Department of Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi.

Hyperkalaemia is a common electrolyte disorder with potentially lethal consequences and can lead to life-threatening cardiac dysrhythmias. Spurious hyperkalaemia, also known as pseudohyperkalaemia or factitious hyperkalaemiais, is also quite common in clinical practice and it's a source of avoidable emergency department visits or hospital admissions. We report a case in which alarming hyperkalaemia was found in a patient having Chronic Monomyelocytic Leukaemia on two different occasions, later diagnosed to be spurious. Read More

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Investigation of outpatients referred to a chemical pathologist with potential pseudohyperkalaemia.

J Clin Pathol 2009 Oct;62(10):920-3

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, The Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich, UK.

Background: Pseudohyperkalaemia is when the in vitro blood potassium concentration is artefactually raised while the in vivo concentration is normal. With unexplained hyperkalaemia, pseudohyperkalaemia needs to be excluded to avoid unnecessary and potentially detrimental therapy. There are numerous causes, but no systematic approach for the investigation of outpatients with potential pseudohyperkalaemia exists in the literature. Read More

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October 2009