Subcell Biochem 2007 ;44:295-315
Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.
Mitochondria are the major intracellular sites of oxygen consumption producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) as toxic by-products of oxidative phosphorylation, primarily via electron leakage from the respiratory chain. The resultant types of chemical damage to lipids, DNA and proteins are described as well as the broader implications for the involvement of ROS in disease onset and progression. The relative contributions of mitochondrial, enzyme-linked, antioxidant defence systems to tissue protection are also reviewed as is the emerging importance of the peroxiredoxin family in general to H2O2-mediated signalling The constituent enzymes of the mitochondrial PrxIII pathway are discussed in detail including the roles of PrxIII and PrxV in their capacities as typical 2-cys and atypical 2-cys thioredoxin-dependent hydroperoxide reductases, respectively. Read More