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The Evolutionary History of Wild, Domesticated, and Feral Brassica Oleracea (Brassicaceae).

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Division of Biological Sciences and Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, U.S.A.

Understanding the evolutionary history of crops, including identifying wild relatives, helps to provide insight for conservation and crop breeding efforts. Cultivated Brassica oleracea has intrigued researchers for centuries due to its wide diversity in forms, which include cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi, and Brussels sprouts. Yet, the evolutionary history of this species remains understudied. Read More

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Potential lead-free small band gap halide double perovskites CsCuMCl (M = Sb, Bi) for green technology.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 21;11(1):12945. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, 474 011, India.

Explorations of stable lead-free perovskites have currently achieved substantial interest to overcome the instability and avoid toxicity related issue faced with the lead-based perovskites. In this study, we have comprehensively studied the stability, nature and origin of electronic, transport and optical properties of inorganic halide double perovskites, which could provide a better understanding of their possible potential applications. The density functional theory is used to investigate the different physical properties of these materials. Read More

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Evolution and expansion of Li concentration gradient during charge-discharge cycling.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 21;12(1):3814. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Analytical Engineering Group, Material Research Center, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Suwon, Republic of Korea.

To improve the performance of Li-ion batteries (LIBs), it is essential to understand the behaviour of Li ions during charge-discharge cycling. However, the analytical techniques for observing the Li ions are limited. Here, we present the complementary use of scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography at identical locations to demonstrate that the evolution of the local Li composition and the corresponding structural changes at the atomic scale cause the capacity degradation of Li(NiCoMn)O (NCM), an LIB cathode. Read More

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Formulation and resolutions of the red sky paradox.

Authors:
David Kipping

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(26)

Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027

Most stars in the Universe are red dwarfs. They outnumber stars like our Sun by a factor of 5 and outlive them by another factor of 20 (population-weighted mean). When combined with recent observations uncovering an abundance of temperate, rocky planets around these diminutive stars, we are faced with an apparent logical contradiction-Why do we not see a red dwarf in our sky? To address this "red sky paradox," we formulate a Bayesian probability function concerning the odds of finding oneself around an F/G/K-spectral type (Sun-like) star. Read More

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Self-excitation of Leidenfrost drops and consequences on their stability.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(26)

Physique et Mécanique des Milieux Hétérogènes, UMR 7636 du CNRS, École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris, PSL Research University, 75005 Paris, France;

Volatile liquids (water, alcohol, etc.) poured on hot solids levitate above a layer of vapor. Unexpectedly, these so-called Leidenfrost drops often suddenly start to oscillate with star shapes, a phenomenon first reported about 140 y ago. Read More

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Visceral adipose tissue imparts peripheral macrophage influx into the hypothalamus.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Jun 21;18(1):140. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.

Background: Obesity is characterized by a systemic inflammation and hypothalamic neuroinflammation. Systemic inflammation is caused by macrophages that infiltrate obese adipose tissues. We previously demonstrated that high-fat diet (HFD)-fed male mice exhibited peripheral macrophage infiltration into the hypothalamus, in addition to activation of resident microglia. Read More

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A Novel Freshwater to Marine Evolutionary Transition Revealed within Bacteria from the Arctic Ocean.

mBio 2021 Jun 22:e0130621. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Biology, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Bacteria inhabiting polar oceans, particularly the Arctic Ocean, are less studied than those at lower latitudes. Discovering bacterial adaptations to Arctic Ocean conditions is essential for understanding responses to the accelerated environmental changes occurring in the North. The are emerging as a model for investigating the genomic basis of habitat adaptation, because related lineages are widely distributed across both freshwater and marine ecosystems. Read More

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Linking a Gene Cluster to Atranorin, a Major Cortical Substance of Lichens, through Genetic Dereplication and Heterologous Expression.

mBio 2021 Jun 22:e0111121. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Korean Lichen Research Institute, Sunchon National Universitygrid.412871.9, Suncheon, South Korea.

The depside and depsidone series compounds of polyketide origin accumulate in the cortical or medullary layers of lichen thalli. Despite the taxonomic and ecological significance of lichen chemistry and its pharmaceutical potentials, there has been no single piece of genetic evidence linking biosynthetic genes to lichen substances. Thus, we systematically analyzed lichen polyketide synthases (PKSs) for categorization and identification of the biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC) involved in depside/depsidone production. Read More

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Benthic marine litter in the coastal zone of Bejaia (Algeria) as indicators of anthropogenic pollution.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Jun 18;170:112634. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Laboratoire d'Ecologie et Environnement, Université Abderrahmane Mira de Bejaia, Faculté des Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Rue de l'Université, Targa-Ouzemour 06000 Bejaia, Algérie.

We studied the abundance of seafloor litter in the bay of Bejaia, Algeria, in order to better understand its sources and distribution and provide scientists with the technical basis for further monitoring and reduction measures. Data were collected during trawl surveys dedicated to fishing activity, between 40 and 200m. After each trawl, litter items were manually sorted and analyzed. Read More

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Karyotypic stability of Fragaria (strawberry) species revealed by cross-species chromosome painting.

Chromosome Res 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

School of Life Sciences, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou, 221116, China.

Chromosome karyotyping analysis is particularly useful in determining species relationships and the origin of polyploid species. Identification of individual chromosomes is the foundation for karyotype development. For Fragaria (strawberry) species, definitive identification of the individual chromosomes is extremely difficult because of their small size and similar shape. Read More

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Comparison of matK and rbcL DNA barcodes for genetic classification of jewel orchid accessions in Vietnam.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 Jun 21;19(1):93. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Plant Mutation Breeding Division, Centre for Isotopes and Radiation Application, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Jl. Lebakbulus Raya No. 49, South Jakarta, Indonesia.

Background: Jewel orchid is the common name of several orchid species which can be alike in morphological characteristics, but variable in medicinal properties. At present, two DNA barcode loci, namely, maturase K (matK) and ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (rbcL), are intensively utilized for plant identification. However, the discrimination effectiveness of these loci is variable among plant species. Read More

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Racial and ethnic disparities in pediatric cancer incidence among children and young adults in the United States by single year of age.

Cancer 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Division of Pediatric Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Background: Incidence rates of pediatric cancers in the United States are typically reported in 5-year age groups, obscuring variation by single year of age. Additionally, racial and ethnic variation in incidence is typically presented in broad categories rather than by narrow age ranges.

Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 data (2000-2017) were examined to calculate frequencies and age-adjusted incidence rates among individuals aged birth to 39 years. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2-Host Chimeric RNA-Sequencing Reads Do Not Necessarily Arise From Virus Integration Into the Host DNA.

Front Microbiol 2021 2;12:676693. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Retroviral Immunology, The Francis Crick Institute, London, United Kingdom.

The human genome bears evidence of extensive invasion by retroviruses and other retroelements, as well as by diverse RNA and DNA viruses. High frequency of somatic integration of the RNA virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into the DNA of infected cells was recently suggested, based on a number of observations. One key observation was the presence of chimeric RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) reads between SARS-CoV-2 RNA and RNA transcribed from human host DNA. Read More

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A Critical Review and Scientific Prospective on Contraceptive Therapeutics from Ayurveda and Allied Ancient Knowledge.

Front Pharmacol 2021 3;12:629591. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of DravyagunaVigynan, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed to be University, College of Ayurved, Pune, India.

Commonly used synthetic or prescribed hormonal drugs are known to interfere with the endocrine system and may have adverse reproductive, neurological, developmental, and metabolic effects in the body. These may also produce adverse effects such as polycystic ovarian disorder, endometriosis, early puberty, infertility or toxicity to gonads, testicular germ cell cancer, breast or prostate cancer, brain developmental problems, and even birth defects. Globally, the emergence of renewed interest in natural products for reproductive health is on the rise, which offers opportunities for new contraceptive developments. Read More

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Acoustic Analysis of Phonation in Children With Smith-Magenis Syndrome.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 3;15:661392. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Informática, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Complex simultaneous neuropsychophysiological mechanisms are responsible for the processing of the information to be transmitted and for the neuromotor planning of the articulatory organs involved in speech. The nature of this set of mechanisms is closely linked to the clinical state of the subject. Thus, for example, in populations with neurodevelopmental deficits, these underlying neuropsychophysiological procedures are deficient and determine their phonation. Read More

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Metabolomics as a marketing tool for geographical indication products: a literature review.

Eur Food Res Technol 2021 Jun 15:1-17. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo (USP), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, Av. do Café s/n, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-903 Brazil.

Geographical indication (GI) is used to identify a product's origin when its characteristics or quality are a result of geographical origin, which includes agricultural products and foodstuff. Metabolomics is an "omics" technique that can support product authentication by providing a chemical fingerprint of a biological system, such as plant and plant-derived products. The main purpose of this article is to verify possible contributions of metabolomic studies to the marketing field, mainly for certified regions, through an integrative review of the literature and maps produced by VOSviewer software. Read More

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Biomarkers of non-infectious inflammatory CNS diseases in dogs: Where are we now? Part 2 - Steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis.

Vet J 2021 Jul 6;273:105692. Epub 2021 May 6.

Copenhagen University, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Dyrlægevej 16, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark. Electronic address:

Steroid responsive meningitis-arteritis (SRMA) in dogs causes severe inflammation of meningeal arteries leading to generalized meningitis with possible neurological signs, as well as a systemic inflammatory response. The etiology and exact pathogenesis are unknown, but an immune-mediated origin has been suggested and is supported by a positive response to immunosuppressive treatment with corticosteroids. A collection of clinical and paraclinical characteristics may be highly indicative of SRMA, but a single and conclusive diagnostic test or biomarker is currently not available. Read More

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Mitochondrial Ca oscillation induces mitophagy initiation through the PINK1-Parkin pathway.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 19;12(7):632. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Dysregulation of the PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy is essential to Parkinson's disease. Although important progress has been made in previous researches, the biochemical reagents that induce global and significant mitochondrial damage may still hinder deeper insights into the mechanisms of mitophagy. The origin of PINK1/Parkin pathway activation in mitophagy remains elusive. Read More

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The Greek Neuropathic Pain Registry (Gr.NP.R.): The structure and objectives of the sole Neuropathic Pain Registry in Greece.

Pain Pract 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Hellenic Society of Pain Management and Palliative Care (PARH.SY.A.), Athens, Greece.

Objectives: Neuropathic pain (NP) is a complex condition that impairs the patients' quality of life. Registries are useful tools, increasingly used as they provide high-quality data. This article aims to describe the Gr. Read More

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An overview of the 35 years of research in the oral radiology: a bibliometric analysis.

Oral Radiol 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to provide a bibliometric overview of the oral radiology journal output, contents, and leading trends, and also include a detailed authorship analysis by evaluating the top contributors, and their geographic distributions between 1985 and 2020 years.

Methods: The databases available on the Scopus and journal's Web Page were searched to identify the all published articles and reports with no restriction regarding publication year or study design. Seven hundred and seventy-seven articles were included and analyzed for the following bibliometric criteria: publication title, authorship, publication year, coauthors, institution of origin, country of origin, collaborating institution and countries, article category, study field, and number of citations based on the Scopus and Google Scholar. Read More

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Differential gene expression response of synovial fibroblasts from temporomandibular joints and knee joints to dynamic tensile stress.

J Orofac Orthop 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Orthodontics, University Medical Centre of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Purpose: Apart from other risk factors, mechanical stress on joints can promote the development of osteoarthritis (OA), which can also affect the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), resulting in cartilage degeneration and synovitis. Synovial fibroblasts (SF) play an important role in upkeeping joint homeostasis and OA pathogenesis, but mechanical stress as a risk factor might act differently depending on the type of joint. We thus investigated the relative impact of mechanical stress on the gene expression pattern of SF from TMJs and knee joints to provide new insights into OA pathogenesis. Read More

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Primary primitive neuroectodermal tumor in the pericardium-a focus on imaging findings: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(17):4336-4341

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China.

Background: Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) are rare, sporadic malignant tumors of the peripheral nervous system, bone, or soft tissues. However, to the best of our knowledge, only three cases of PNET in the pericardium have been reported in the English literature, and their magnetic resonance imaging findings have not previously been described.

Case Summary: A 3-year-old boy was hospitalized with a 1-wk history of recurrent vomiting and weakness. Read More

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Defining laboratory medicine: a circle cannot be squared.

Biochem Med (Zagreb) 2021 Jun;31(2):020401

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital of Padova, Padova, Italy.

At the down of the third millennium, it is rather misleading to consider the "whole population" as a conceptual entity, whereby the population is actually composed by single individuals, who differ broadly in terms of age, sex, ethnic origin, occupation, health, wellbeing, lifestyle and risk factors. While reaffirming strongly that laboratory medicine shall aim to provide data that could be translated into actionable information on "BOTH" an individual and universal level, we confute and refuse the naive and too simplistic approach that the common beneficence shall always be prioritized over the individual good, since the common good is just the sum of many individual beneficences. Read More

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A subterranean adaptive radiation of amphipods in Europe.

Nat Commun 2021 06 17;12(1):3688. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

SubBio Lab, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Adaptive radiations are bursts of evolutionary species diversification that have contributed to much of the species diversity on Earth. An exception is modern Europe, where descendants of ancient adaptive radiations went extinct, and extant adaptive radiations are small, recent and narrowly confined. However, not all legacy of old radiations has been lost. Read More

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Acquired right-sided diaphragmatic hernia in a patient with retroperitoneal hydatidosis: a case report and review of the literature.

J Med Case Rep 2021 Jun 18;15(1):320. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Surgery Department, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Diaphragmatic hernia is primarily congenital in origin and has potentially devastating pulmonary complications. Acquired diaphragmatic hernia as a complication of hydatid disease remains a rare clinical entity. Retroperitoneal hydatidosis, in particular is an exceptionally rare cause behind a similar presentation. Read More

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Genetic features of Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:k:1,5 isolated from abortion cases in sheep, United States, 2020.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Jun 10;138:125-136. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA; Connecticut Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, Department of Pathobiology and Veterinary Science, College of Agriculture, Health and Natural Resources, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA. Electronic address:

Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:(k):1, 5, (7) (sheep associated S. diarizonae, SASd) is the most common Salmonella serotype identified in sheep flocks. Despite the involvement with animal and human infections, there is limited information regarding virulence profiles of SASds and their antibiotic resistance gene complement, particularly for those circulating in the U. Read More

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An Overview on SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and Other Human Coronaviruses and Their Detection Capability via Amplification Assay, Chemical Sensing, Biosensing, Immunosensing, and Clinical Assays.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Nov 2;13(1):18. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Quchan University of Technology, Quchan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

A novel coronavirus of zoonotic origin (SARS-CoV-2) has recently been recognized in patients with acute respiratory disease. COVID-19 causative agent is structurally and genetically similar to SARS and bat SARS-like coronaviruses. The drastic increase in the number of coronavirus and its genome sequence have given us an unprecedented opportunity to perform bioinformatics and genomics analysis on this class of viruses. Read More

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November 2020

Lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) reconstruction for the treatment of recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: a comparison with open débridement of the extensor origin.

JSES Int 2021 May 16;5(3):578-587. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Inje University, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Background: Based on the controversy over whether the extensor tendon is the only lesion of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow and numerous reports of concomitant lateral collateral ligament involvement, potential damage to the lateral collateral ligament complex should be considered for the treatment.

Methods: About 25 elbows in 23 patients (débridement group) and 22 elbows in 20 patients (reconstruction group) who were diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis and had an average of 22 months of symptoms revealing anatomical lesion on MRI were included. The capitellum-sublime tubercle-radial head (CSR) angle was measured on both sides preoperatively, and the visual analog scale (VAS) and Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) were measured over 12 months, postoperatively. Read More

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Prodromal neuroinvasion of pathological α-synuclein in brainstem reticular nuclei and white matter lesions in a model of α-synucleinopathy.

Brain Commun 2021 14;3(2):fcab104. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Biomedicine, Danish Research Institute of Translational Neuroscience (DANDRITE), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.

Neuropathological observations in neurodegenerative synucleinopathies, including Parkinson disease, implicate a pathological role of α-synuclein accumulation in extranigral sites during the prodromal phase of the disease. In a transgenic mouse model of peripheral-to-central neuroinvasion and propagation of α-synuclein pathology (via hindlimb intramuscular inoculation with exogenous fibrillar α-synuclein: the M83 line, expressing the mutant human Ala53Thr α-synuclein), we studied the development and early-stage progression of α-synuclein pathology in the CNS of non-symptomatic (i.e. Read More

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Phenotypic integration in the carnivoran backbone and the evolution of functional differentiation in metameric structures.

Evol Lett 2021 Jun 10;5(3):251-264. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Departamento de Ecología y Geología, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de Málaga Málaga 29071 Spain.

Explaining the origin and evolution of a vertebral column with anatomically distinct regions that characterizes the tetrapod body plan provides understanding of how metameric structures become repeated and how they acquire the ability to perform different functions. However, despite many decades of inquiry, the advantages and costs of vertebral column regionalization in anatomically distinct blocks, their functional specialization, and how they channel new evolutionary outcomes are poorly understood. Here, we investigate morphological integration (and how this integration is structured [modularity]) between all the presacral vertebrae of mammalian carnivorans to provide a better understanding of how regionalization in metameric structures evolves. Read More

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