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Environmental Health Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: A Visual Overview and a Renewed Call for Coordination.

Rachel M Shaffer

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, 3980 15th Avenue, Seattle, 98195, United States.

In the United States (U.S.), chemical evaluations and assessments are conducted by seven federal agencies responding to distinct statutory requirements and focusing on different exposure scenarios. Read More

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In Situ Coupling of Catalytic Centers into Artificial Substrate Mesochannels as Super-Active Metalloenzyme Mimics.

Small 2021 Jul 26:e2101455. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Hierarchical Nanomaterials, Shanghai, 200237, China.

Highly evolved substrate channels in natural enzymes facilitate the rapid capture of substrates and direct transfer of intermediates between cascaded catalytic units, thus rationalizing their efficient catalysis. In this study, a nanoscale ordered mesoporous Ce-based metal-organic framework (OMUiO-66(Ce)) is designed as an artificial substrate channel, where MnO is coupled to Ce-O clusters as a super-active catalase (CAT). An in situ soft template reduction strategy is developed to deposit well-dispersed and exposed MnO in the mesochannels of OMUiO-66(Ce). Read More

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Scoping opinion: Speech and language therapists' views on extending their role to the urgent ear, nose and throat pathway.

Int J Lang Commun Disord 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Language and Communication Science, School of Health Sciences, City, University of London, Northampton Square, Clerkenwell, London, UK.

Background: In the UK, there is increasing pressure on ear, nose and throat (ENT) clinicians and departments, which is anticipated to amplify in the coming months and years due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and other workforce pressures. In the context of a national drive to advance practice of Allied Health Professionals to address some key challenges facing the National Health Service, we explored whether UK speech and language therapists (SLTs) felt it is possible to utilize and extend their existing skills to patients on the urgent 2-week wait (2ww) ENT pathway.

Aims: To explore SLTs' views of extending their role to work with patients referred on the ENT 2ww pathway. Read More

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Inferring cell junction tension and pressure from cell geometry.

Development 2021 Sep 12;148(18). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Matière et Systèmes Complexes, Université de Paris - Diderot, CNRS UMR7057, 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13, France.

Recognizing the crucial role of mechanical regulation and forces in tissue development and homeostasis has stirred a demand for in situ measurement of forces and stresses. Among emerging techniques, the use of cell geometry to infer cell junction tensions, cell pressures and tissue stress has gained popularity owing to the development of computational analyses. This approach is non-destructive and fast, and statistically validated based on comparisons with other techniques. Read More

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September 2021

Are dietary factors involved in the association of methylation and breast cancer risk?

Br J Nutr 2021 Jul 26:1-36. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, P. R. China.

DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic modifications in breast cancer (BC) development, and long-term dietary habits have been shown to alter DNA methylation. Cadherin-4 (CDH4, a member of the cadherin family) encodes Ca2+-dependent cell-cell adhesion glycoproteins. We conducted a case-control study (380 newly-diagnosed breast cancers and 439 cancer-free controls) to explore the relationship of CDH4 methylation in peripheral blood leukocyte DNA (PBL), as well as its combined and interactive effects with dietary factors and lifestyle on BC risk. Read More

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Acoustic Ejection Mass Spectrometry: A Fully Automatable Technology for High-Throughput Screening in Drug Discovery.

SLAS Discov 2021 Jul 26:24725552211028135. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Drug Discovery Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma, Biberach an der Riß, Germany.

Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE)-open port interface (OPI)-mass spectrometry (MS) has recently been introduced as a versatile analytical method that combines fast and contactless acoustic sampling with sensitive and accurate electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS-based analyte detection. The potential of the technology to provide label-free measurements in subsecond analytical cycle times makes it an attractive option for high-throughput screening (HTS). Here, we report the first implementation of ADE-OPI-MS in a fully automated HTS environment, based on the example of a biochemical assay aiming at the identification of small-molecule inhibitors of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate (GMP-AMP) synthase (cGAS). Read More

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Agent-Based Modeling for Implementation Research: An Application to Tobacco Smoking Cessation for Persons with Serious Mental Illness.

Implement Res Pract 2021 Jan-Dec;2. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Civil and Systems Engineering, Johns Hopkins University.

Background: Implementation researchers have sought ways to use simulations to support the core components of implementation, which typically include assessing the need for change, designing implementation strategies, executing the strategies, and evaluating outcomes. The goal of this paper is to explain how agent-based modeling could fulfill this role.

Methods: We describe agent-based modeling with respect to other simulation methods that have been used in implementation science, using non-technical language that is broadly accessible. Read More

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Reference to nutrition in medical accreditation and curriculum guidance: a comparative analysis.

BMJ Nutr Prev Health 2021 8;4(1):307-318. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Medicine, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: Poor diet is a leading cause of death worldwide. Doctors are well placed to provide dietary advice, yet nutrition remains insufficiently integrated into medical education. Enforcement of curriculum or accreditation requirements such as nutrition requires relevant regulatory frameworks. Read More

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Characteristics and Safety of CO for the Fire Prevention Technology with Gob-Side Entry Retaining in Goaf.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 8;6(28):18518-18526. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Economics and Management, North China Institute of Science and Technology, Beijing 101601, China.

The mining technology of gob-side entry retaining without a coal pillar is gradually becoming a mature and increasingly important mining technology. As it maintains the roadway near goaf, the air leakage should be greater than a U-type ventilation system in goaf, so it is prone to cause coal spontaneous combustion problems. CO is an inert gas, and it is usually used to prevent spontaneous combustion and extinguish coal fire. Read More

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Out-of-field dose in stereotactic radiotherapy for paediatric patients.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Jul 4;19:1-5. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

RMIT University, School of Science, Melbourne, Australia.

Background And Purpose: Stereotactic radiotherapy combines image guidance and high precision delivery with small fields to deliver high doses per fraction in short treatment courses. In preparation for extension of these treatment techniques to paediatric patients we characterised and compared doses out-of-field in a paediatric anthropomorphic phantom for small flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) photon beams.

Method And Materials: Dose measurements were taken in several organs and structures outside the primary field in an anthropomorphic phantom of a 5 year old child (CIRS) using thermoluminescence dosimetry (LiF:Mg,Cu,P). Read More

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Adolescent Assent and Reconsent for Biobanking: Recent Developments and Emerging Ethical Issues.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 9;8:686264. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Indiana University Center for Bioethics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States.

Research biobanks that enroll minors face important practical, ethical, and regulatory challenges in reconsenting participants when they reach the age of 18. Federal regulations governing research in the United States provide minimal guidance and allow for a range of practices, including waiving the requirement to obtain reconsent. Some commentators have argued that institutional review boards should indeed grant such waivers, given the low risks of biobank-based research and the impracticality of contacting all participants when they turn 18. Read More

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Recent research on expiratory particles in respiratory viral infection and control strategies: A review.

Sustain Cities Soc 2021 Oct 18;73:103106. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505, Japan.

The global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 poses a significant threat to human health. In this study, recent research on the characteristics of expiratory particles and flow is reviewed, with a special focus on different respiratory activities, to provide guidance for reducing the viral infection risk in the built environment. Furthermore, environmental influence on particle evaporation, dispersion, and virus viability after exhalation and the current methods for infection risk assessment are reviewed. Read More

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October 2021

Postpartum care indications and methodological quality:a systematic review of guidelines.

Z Gesundh Wiss 2021 Jul 19:1-15. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Nursing, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, No. 232, Waihuan East Road, Guangzhou University City, Panyu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong China.

Background: The coverage of postpartum care is not ideal, and has not been used very well due to not enough attention being paid to the puerperal women and newborns, especially in developing countries. Practice guidelines on postpartum care provide beneficial practice guidance and help to reduce maternal mortality. However, little is known about the credibility and consistency of those guidelines. Read More

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Nursing Observation on the Clinical Efficacy and Toxicity of Lobaplatin Compared with Cisplatin in the Treatment of Locally Advanced Hypopharyngeal Carcinoma Based on Intelligent CT Imaging.

J Healthc Eng 2021 30;2021:9982888. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Radiotherapy, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar 161000, Heilongjiang, China.

With the acceleration of people's life rhythm, the incidence of hypopharyngeal cancer has generally increased. This study mainly explores the clinical efficacy and toxicity of lobaplatin compared with cisplatin in the treatment of locally advanced hypopharyngeal carcinoma based on intelligent CT imaging. Group A received lobaplatin combined with docetaxel induction chemotherapy for 2 cycles after cisplatin combined with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Read More

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Correlation analysis between rim enhancement features of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):7193-7199. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Ultrasound Medicine, Heping Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College Changzhi, Shanxi, China.

Objective: To explore the correlation between rim enhancement features of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and lymphatic metastasis, and to provide theoretical support for clinical treatment of breast cancer.

Methods: 387 breast cancer patients (748 axillary lymph nodes in total) treated in our hospital from January 2017 to January 2020 were selected and analyzed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Pathological examination showed that 540 axillary lymph nodes showed metastasis whereas 208 axillary lymph nodes did not show metastasis. Read More

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The CT morphological characteristics and the clinical management strategy of posterior malleolar fractures with talar subluxation.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6478-6487. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University Suzhou 215004, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: The optimal clinical treatment and the computed tomography (CT) morphological characteristics of posterior malleolar fractures (PMF) with talar subluxation remain inconclusive. Clinically, both plate screws and lag screws are widely used to fix posterior malleolar fragments using a direct or indirect approach. We sought to summarize the morphological characteristics and modified classification on the basis of CT and the intraoperative strategy for posterior talar subluxation in PMF. Read More

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A Chaotic Neural Network Model for English Machine Translation Based on Big Data Analysis.

Comput Intell Neurosci 2021 2;2021:3274326. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Chengdu Angke Technologies Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610000, China.

In this paper, the chaotic neural network model of big data analysis is used to conduct in-depth analysis and research on the English translation. Firstly, under the guidance of the translation strategy of text type theory, the translation generated by the machine translation system is edited after translation, and then professionals specializing in computer and translation are invited to confirm the translation. After that, the errors in the translations generated by the machine translation system are classified based on the Double Quantum Filter-Muttahida Quami Movement (DQF-MQM) error type classification framework. Read More

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Epitranscriptomic Analysis of m6A Methylome After Peripheral Nerve Injury.

Front Genet 2021 9;12:686000. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Orthopedics, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is one of the most plentiful internal RNA modifications, especially in eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA), which plays pivotal roles in the regulation of mRNA life cycle and nerve development. However, the mRNA m6A methylation pattern in peripheral nervous injury (PNI) has not been investigated. In this study, sciatic nerve samples were collected from 7 days after sciatic nerve injury (SNI) and control rats. Read More

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Sex-Specific Linear Polyubiquitination Is a Critical Regulator of Contextual Fear Memory Formation.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 9;15:709392. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Neuroscience, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, United States.

Strong evidence supports that protein ubiquitination is a critical regulator of fear memory formation. However, as this work has focused on protein degradation, it is currently unknown whether polyubiquitin modifications that are independent of the proteasome are involved in learning-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here, we present the first evidence that atypical linear (M1) polyubiquitination, the only ubiquitin chain that does not occur at a lysine site and is largely independent of the proteasome, is critically involved in contextual fear memory formation in the amygdala in a sex-specific manner. Read More

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Responding to the pandemic: Nursing education and the ACEN.

Teach Learn Nurs 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing (ACEN), Atlanta, GA, USA.

The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of some of the ways in which nursing education programs and the Accreditation Commission for Education in Nursing (ACEN) adapted to the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the longer-term impacts of the pandemic cannot be known, it is clear that nurse educators rose to the challenge of educating nurses during a pandemic through rapid implementation of innovative teaching strategies and student support. The article also provides some guidance for ACEN-accredited nursing education programs regarding substantive changes that may be permanently implemented as a result of what programs learned during the pandemic. Read More

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Separating From the Mothership: A Coordinated Individual and Parent-Based Approach to Severe Agoraphobia in a Young Adult.

Cogn Behav Pract 2021 Aug 24;28(3):422-434. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Yale Child Study Center.

Families are invested in an older adolescent gradually separating from the family to live independently as an adult, but for many families, adolescent psychopathology makes this transition difficult. Addressing such psychopathology is critical in preventing "failure to launch," a breakdown in gaining age-appropriate independence from parents. This case study illustrates a promising approach directed at helping an 18-year-old female with agoraphobia and panic disorder who, upon intake, was at risk for long-lasting, prohibitive dependence on her parents. Read More

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[Changes of carotid artery elasticity before and after CPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea by ultrasonic ultrafast pulse wave velocity technique].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Aug;35(8):707-711

Department of Ultrasound,the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University,Jinzhou,121000,China.

To examine the changes of carotid artery elasticity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea(OSA) before and after continuous positive airway pressure(CPAP) treatment by ultrafast pulse wave velocity(UFPWV) technique,and to explore the influencing factors of carotid artery elasticity in OSA patients,and to provide guidance for clinical prevention and treatment of cardiovascular complications. Methods:Fifty cases of moderate and severe OSA patients diagnosed with PSG monitoring from January 2020 to December 2020 were collected as the OSA group,at the same time,40 healthy subjects who participated in physical examination and matched with OSA group in age and gender were selected as the control group.The OSA group was treated with CPAP for 12 weeks. Read More

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[The bacteriological characteristics and drug resistance of the nasopharyngeal region in 311 cases of adenoid hypertrophy with secretory otitis media].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 May;35(5):428-431

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University,Qingdao,266555,China.

To analyze the bacteriological distribution and drug resistance of nasopharynx in patients with adenoid hypertrophy complicated with secretory otitis media, and to clarify the distribution of pathogenic bacteria, so as to provide guidance and basis for antibiotic use in clinical treatment. A retrospective analysis was performed on 311 patients with adenoid hypertrophy and secretory otitis media who underwent surgical treatment in the department of otolaryngology head and neck surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from February 2013 to January 2020. They were divided into 3 groups by age: Group A(0-5 years old), Group B(6-10 years old), and Group C(11-16 years old). Read More

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Near Peer Mentors to Address Socio-Emotional Issues Among Underrepresented Minority High School Students in Research Intensive STEM Programs: Perceptions of Students and Mentors.

J STEM Outreach 2020 14;3(1). Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

A Near Peer Mentoring Program (NPMP) was developed in which Medical Student Training Program (MSTP) students met weekly with small groups of high school students who were participating in an intensive summer biomedical research immersion program. The goal of the NPMP was to provide and engage the high school students with opportunities to express and discuss their research and more importantly, their stresses and concerns. After initial reservations, the NPMP provided a comfortable venue for high school students to engage in discussions of both laboratory and personal topics. Read More

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[Construction of professional competency model of center for disease prevention and control].

Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Jul;55(7):916-920

Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing Preventive Medical Research Center, Public Health School of Capital Medical University, Beijing 100013, China.

Analyze and contruct the post competency model of professionals in centers for disease prevention and control in Beijing, so as to provide information for cultivation and construction of public health personnel, and the human Resource Management in relevant institutions. Cross-sectional research method was used, and based on literature research, functional analysis and referring to Hay Group Competency Dictionary and McClellan Competency Dictionary, the post competency dictionary was established after the unified discussion of the subject group. Hierarchical cluster sampling method was used to investigate an online survey on competency factors of professionals in centers for Disease prevention and Control in Beijing, and factor analysis was conducted on the survey data. Read More

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The mismeasure of conservation.

Trends Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences & Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

One of the basic purposes of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation interventions is to achieve conservation impact, the sum of avoided biodiversity loss and promoted recovery relative to outcomes without protection. In the context of the Convention on Biological Diversity's negotiations on the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework, we find that targets for area-based interventions are framed overwhelmingly with measures that fail to inform decision-makers about impact and that risk diverting limited resources away from achieving it. We show that predicting impact in space and time is feasible and can provide the basis for global guidance for jurisdictions to develop targets for conservation impact and shift investment priorities to areas where impact can be most effectively achieved. Read More

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Palliative effects of metformin on testicular damage induced by triptolide in male rats.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 22;222:112536. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Shaanxi Province, Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, No. 22 Xinong Road, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

As a widely existing traditional Chinese medicine component, TP (triptolide) has serious reproductive toxicity which causes severe damage to the reproductive system and limits its application prospect. TP and MET (metformin) have shown great potential in combined with each other in anticancer and anti-inflammatory. Whether metformin can resist the reproductive toxicity caused by triptolide, the effects of MET on TP-induced reproductive capacity has not been reported. Read More

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Spatio-temporal biodistribution of Zr-oxine labeled huLym-1-A-BB3z-CAR T-cells by PET imaging in a preclinical tumor model.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 23;11(1):15077. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1501 San Pablo Street, ZNI 117, Los Angeles, CA, 90033, USA.

Quantitative in vivo monitoring of cell biodistribution offers assessment of treatment efficacy in real-time and can provide guidance for further optimization of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified cell therapy. We evaluated the utility of a non-invasive, serial Zr-oxine PET imaging to assess optimal dosing for huLym-1-A-BB3z-CAR T-cell directed to Lym-1-positive Raji lymphoma xenograft in NOD Scid-IL2Rgamma (NSG) mice. In vitro experiments showed no detrimental effects in cell health and function following Zr-oxine labeling. Read More

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International Consensus Recommendations for the Treatment of Pediatric NMDAR Antibody Encephalitis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 Jul 22;8(5). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

From the Paediatric Neurology and Neurophysiology Unit (M.N.), Department of Women's and Children's Health, University Hospital of Padova; Neuroimmunology Group (M.N.), Paediatric Research Institute "Città della Speranza," Padova, Italy; Department of Paediatrics (T.T.), Neurology Service, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore; School of Biomedical Engineering & Imaging Sciences (M.E.), King's College London; Children's Neurosciences (M.E.), Evelina London Children's Hospital at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Pediatric Neurology (B.A.), Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey; Neuroimmunology Program (T.A.), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona; Pediatric Neuroimmunology Unit (T.A.), Neurology Department, Sant Joan de Déu (SJD) Children's Hospital, University of Barcelona, Spain; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute (S.M.B.), Department of Pediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary; Division of Rheumatology (T.C.), Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (K.D.), Pediatric Neurology Department, University Hospitals Paris Saclay, Bicêtre Hospital, France; French Reference Network of Rare Inflammatory Brain and Spinal Diseases (K.D.), Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France and European Reference Network-RITA; Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics (W.G.), Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Palo Alto, CA; Division of Pediatric Neurology (G.G.), Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine and Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, GA; Department of Neurology (M.P.G.), Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Neuroinflammation (Y.H.), Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London; Department of Paediatric Neurology (Y.H.), Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, United Kingdom; Department of Pediatrics (Y.J.), Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China; Department of Pediatrics (B.C.L.), Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience Center, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, South Korea; Department of Pediatrics (E.M.), Section Rheumatology, Co-appointment in the Section of Neurology and Developmental Neuroscience, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston; Division of Paediatric Neurology (A.N.), Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, University of Cape Town; Faculty of Health Sciences (A.N.), University of Cape Town Neuroscience Institute, South Africa; Department of Neurology (R.N.), Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Pediatric Neurology (K.R.), Children's Hospital Datteln, University Witten/Herdecke, Germany; Department of Brain and Neural Science (H.S.), Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Japan; Department of Pediatrics (Neurology Division) (S.S.), Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India; Department of Neurology (S.N.T.), National Pediatric Hospital Dr. J. Garrahan, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Department of Pediatrics (H.A.V.M.), Duke University, Durham, NC; Department of Neurology (E.W.), Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC; Neuropaediatric Unit (R.W.), Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurology (A.K.Y.), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York; Oxford Autoimmune Neurology Group (S.R.I.), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital; Department of Neurology (S.R.I.), Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom; Neuroimmunology Program (J.D.), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (J.D.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) (J.D.), Barcelona, Spain; Children's Neurosciences (M.L.), Evelina London Children's Hospital at Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust; King's Health Partners Academic Health Science Centre (M.L.); Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine (M.L.), King's College Hospital, United Kingdom; and Kids Neuroscience Centre (R.C.D.), The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: To create an international consensus treatment recommendation for pediatric NMDA receptor antibody encephalitis (NMDARE).

Methods: After selection of a panel of 27 experts with representation from all continents, a 2-step Delphi method was adopted to develop consensus on relevant treatment regimens and statements, along with key definitions in pediatric NMDARE (disease severity, failure to improve, and relapse). Finally, an online face-to-face meeting was held to reach consensus (defined as ≥75% agreement). Read More

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