320,008 results match your criteria provide evidence

Meta-analysis on the ecological impacts of widely spread non-indigenous species in the Baltic Sea.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 28;786:147375. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Center, Latokartanonkaari 11, 00790 Helsinki, Finland.

The introduction of non-indigenous species (NIS) is a major driver for global change in species biogeography, often associated with significant consequences for recipient ecosystems and services they provide for humans. Despite mandated by several high-level international legislative instruments, comprehensive quantitative evaluation on ecosystem impacts of marine NIS is scarce and lack a robust and data-driven assessment framework. The current study is aiming at fulfilling this gap, through quantitative assessment on the effects of the widespread NIS of the Baltic Sea on multiple ecosystem features and components including direct food-web effects. Read More

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Development of an analytical method for the determination of pimavanserin and its impurities applying analytical quality by design principles as a risk-based strategy.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 24;201:114091. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Trg Marka Marulića 19, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address:

Pimavanserin is an atypical antipsychotic indicated for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis. As it is a relatively new drug on the market, limited number of pharmacokinetic information and analytical methods are available. This paper presents an ultra-high performance chromatography for the simultaneous determination of pimavanserin and its four process impurities. Read More

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Parental and provider perspectives on social media about ankyloglossia.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 28;146:110741. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Otolaryngology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA; Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Children's Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

Objectives: To investigate and identify the concerns and opinions expressed in both parental and provider posts on social media about ankyloglossia.

Methods: In this study, posts on Twitter between 1/1/2008 and 12/31/2018 were collected using search terms and hashtags specific to pediatric ankyloglossia. The search terms included a primary phrase to indicate ankyloglossia along with a pediatric identifier. Read More

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Facial first impressions form two clusters representing approach-avoidance.

Cogn Psychol 2021 May 5;126:101387. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Psychology, University of Lincoln, UK.

Existing models of facial first impressions indicate between two and four factors that underpin all social trait judgements. Here, we submitted several large databases of these first impression ratings to unsupervised learning algorithms with the aim of clustering together faces, rather than traits, to examine the ways in which impressions may be grouped together. Experiment 1 revealed two clusters of faces that exist in both a full-dimensional, and two- or three-factor representations, of social impressions, while Experiment 2 indicated that these clusters also emerged in additional datasets. Read More

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The effect of monetary reward on listening effort and sentence recognition.

Hear Res 2021 Apr 24;406:108255. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck surgery, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Ear & Hearing, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, De Boelelaan 1117, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Recently we showed that higher reward results in increased pupil dilation during listening (listening effort). Remarkably, this effect was not accompanied with improved speech reception. Still, increased listening effort may reflect more in-depth processing, potentially resulting in a better memory representation of speech. Read More

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Ginsenosides in vascular remodeling: cellular and molecular mechanisms of their therapeutic action.

Pharmacol Res 2021 May 5:105647. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518067, China. Electronic address:

Evidence is mounting that abnormal vascular remodeling (VR) is a vital pathological event that precedes many cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This provides us with a new research perspective that VR can be a pivotal target for CVD treatment and prevention. However, the current drugs for treating CVD does not fundamentally reverse VR and repair vascular function. Read More

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Design and Synthesis of Novel Diosgenin-triazole Hybrids Targeting Inflammation as Potential Neuroprotective Agents.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 May 5:128092. Epub 2021 May 5.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, and its incidence is expected to increase as the global population ages. Recent studies provide increasing evidence that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of AD. Diosgenin, an active ingredient in Dioscorea nipponica Makino, is a promising bioactive lead compound in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, which exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. Read More

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Developing a Database of Systematic Reviews of Animal Studies.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 5:104940. Epub 2021 May 5.

Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory animal Experimentation (SYRCLE), Department for Health Evidence, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Systematic reviews (SRs) are common practice in clinical and public health research, but less common in non-human animal research. Systematic reviews of animal studies can be valuable to inform clinical research, to evaluate the need for further animal experiments on a given topic, and to assess the hazard of an environmental exposure in the evaluation of toxicological studies. In the last 10 years, there has been an increase in the number of SRs of animal research, as well as several publications with detailed guidance on how to perform high-quality systematic reviews of experimental animal studies. Read More

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Effects of brain radiotherapy on cognitive performance in adult low-grade glioma patients: A Systematic Review.

Radiother Oncol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds, UK.

Grade II gliomas are slow growing tumours that usually affect younger patients. The mainstream treatment modality at present is surgical. The role of radiation therapy in the management of grade II gliomas has been the subject of considerable debate. Read More

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Identification of common features within massage therapists' professional identity.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Objectives: In Ontario, Canada, MTs are regulated and have a common scope of practice. However, diverse practice settings and approaches to care create a need for MTs to articulate their professional identity. This study sought to answer, "what common features are foundational to the professional identity of MTs in Ontario?"

Methods: This quantitative research study was a part of a larger exploratory sequential mixed methods study. Read More

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Pharmacological SARM1 inhibition protects axon structure and function in paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy.

Brain 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Disarm Therapeutics, a wholly owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly & Co., Cambridge MA 02142, USA.

Axonal degeneration is an early and ongoing event that causes disability and disease progression in many neurodegenerative disorders of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major cause of morbidity and the main cause of dose reductions and discontinuations in cancer treatment. Preclinical evidence indicates that activation of the Wallerian-like degeneration pathway driven by SARM1 is responsible for axonopathy in CIPN. Read More

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Biallelic mutations in RNF220 cause laminopathies featuring leukodystrophy, ataxia and deafness.

Brain 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Genetics and Rare Diseases Research Division, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy.

Leukodystrophies are a heterogeneous group of rare inherited disorders that involve preferentially the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). These conditions are characterized by a primary glial cell and myelin sheath pathology of variable etiology, which causes secondary axonal degeneration, generally emerging with disease progression. Whole exome sequencing performed in 5 large consanguineous nuclear families allowed to identify homozygosity for two recurrent missense variants affecting highly conserved residues of RNF220 as the causative event underlying a novel form of leukodystrophy with ataxia and sensorineural deafness. Read More

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Fitness facility staff demonstrate high fidelity when implementing an evidence-based diabetes prevention program.

Transl Behav Med 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus, University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada.

Translating evidence-based diabetes prevention programs into the community is needed to make promising interventions accessible to individuals at-risk of type 2 diabetes. To increase the likelihood of successful translation, implementation evaluations should be conducted to understand program outcomes and provide feedback for future scale-up sites. The purpose of this research was to examine the delivery of, and engagement with, an evidence-based diet and exercise diabetes prevention program when delivered by fitness facility staff within a community organization. Read More

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Dietary patterns and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a population-based case-control study in southern China.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Dietary factors, such as consumption of preserved foods, fresh vegetables, and fruits, have been linked to the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, little is known about associations between dietary patterns and the risk of NPC in NPC-endemic areas.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate whether dietary patterns are associated with NPC risk. Read More

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An increase in normetanephrine in hair follicles of acne lesions through the sympatho-adrenal medullary system in acne patients with anxiety.

J Dermatol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

Acne vulgaris, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, has been associated with not only sebaceous gland dysfunction but also various endogenous and exogenous stresses. Since sebaceous glands are under neuroendocrine control, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neuro-autocrine mechanisms, it remains unclear how psychological stress relates to the pathogenesis of acne. In this study, we investigated the relationship between psychological stress and catecholamine in acne lesions from 18 patients with mild or moderate acne. Read More

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BDNF Participates in Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain via Transcriptionally Activating P2X in Primary Sensory Neurons.

Mol Neurobiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510120, China.

Neuropathic pain, resulting from the pathological changes of the somatosensory nervous system, remains a severe public health problem worldwide. The effect of treatment targeting neuropathic pain is very limited, as the underlying mechanism of neuropathic pain is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was remarkably and time-dependently increased in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Read More

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Genetic diversity and population structure of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' associated with citrus Huanglongbing in India based on the prophage types.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 8;37(6):95. Epub 2021 May 8.

Plant Pathology Lab, ICAR-Central Citrus Research Institute, Amravati Road, Nagpur, 440033, India.

Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as 'citrus greening', is an extremely destructive disease of citrus worldwide. HLB is associated with three species of the fastidious proteobacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas), Ca. L. Read More

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Reproductive- and social-state plasticity of multiple sensory systems in a cichlid fish.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, 202 Life Sciences Bldg., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 70803.

Intra- and inter-sexual communication is vital to the survival and reproductive success of animals. In species that cycle in and out of breeding or other physiological condition, sensory function can be modulated to optimize communication at crucial times. Little is known, however, about how widespread this sensory plasticity is across taxa, whether it occurs in multiple senses or both sexes within a species, and what potential modulatory substances and substrates are involved. Read More

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Draft nuclear genome and complete mitogenome of the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, a major pest of maize.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, IRD, UMR Évolution, Génomes, Comportement et Écologie, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

The Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) is a major pest of maize in Europe and Africa. Here, we report an assembly of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome of a pool of inbred males and females third instar larvae, based on short- and long-read sequencing. The complete mitochondrial genome is 15,330 bp and contains all expected 13 and 24 protein-coding and RNA genes, respectively. Read More

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Clinical studies on pharmacological treatment of hypertension in Japan.

J Hum Hypertens 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Geriatric and General Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Japan.

Differences in the epidemiology and phenotypes of hypertension in Japan compared with Western countries mean that optimal approaches to the pharmacological management of hypertension should be based on local data. Fortunately, there is a large body of evidence from studies conducted in Japanese populations to inform guidelines and treatment decisions. This article highlights treatment recommendations and BP targets for Japanese patients with hypertension, and summarizes key literature supporting these recommendations. Read More

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Loss of function mutations in GEMIN5 cause a neurodevelopmental disorder.

Nat Commun 2021 May 7;12(1):2558. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pediatric Neurophysiology AP-HP, Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris University, Paris, France.

GEMIN5, an RNA-binding protein is essential for assembly of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein complex and facilitates the formation of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), the building blocks of spliceosomes. Here, we have identified 30 affected individuals from 22 unrelated families presenting with developmental delay, hypotonia, and cerebellar ataxia harboring biallelic variants in the GEMIN5 gene. Mutations in GEMIN5 perturb the subcellular distribution, stability, and expression of GEMIN5 protein and its interacting partners in patient iPSC-derived neurons, suggesting a potential loss-of-function mechanism. Read More

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YAP inhibits autophagy and promotes progression of colorectal cancer via upregulating Bcl-2 expression.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 7;12(5):457. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Hubei University of Medicine, 442000, Shiyan, Hubei, P. R. China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most aggressive and lethal cancers. The role of autophagy in the pathobiology of CRC is intricate, with opposing functions manifested in different cellular contexts. The Yes-associated protein (YAP), a transcriptional coactivator inactivated by the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway, functions as an oncoprotein in a variety of cancers. Read More

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Purifying selection on noncoding deletions of human regulatory loci detected using their cellular pleiotropy.

Genome Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Genomic deletions provide a powerful loss-of-function model in noncoding regions to assess the role of purifying selection on genetic variation. Regulatory element function is characterized by nonuniform tissue and cell type activity, necessarily linking the study of fitness consequences from regulatory variants to their corresponding cellular activity. We generated a callset of deletions from genomes in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and used deletions from The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium (1000GP) in order to examine whether purifying selection preserves noncoding sites of chromatin accessibility marked by DNase I hypersensitivity (DHS), histone modification (enhancer, transcribed, Polycomb-repressed, heterochromatin), and chromatin loop anchors. Read More

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COVID-19, lockdowns and motor vehicle collisions: empirical evidence from Greece.

Sotiris Vandoros

Inj Prev 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

King's Business School, King's College London, London, UK

Reduced mobility during COVID-19 lockdowns means not only fewer vehicles at risk of collision, but also an opportunity to speed on empty streets. The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of the first wave of the pandemic and the first lockdown on motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) and associated injuries and deaths in Greece. Using monthly data at the regional unit level, I provide descriptive evidence and subsequently follow a difference-in-differences econometric approach, comparing trends in 2020 with those of the previous 5 years while controlling for unemployment and petrol prices. Read More

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User testing of a diagnostic decision support system with machine-assisted chart review to facilitate clinical genomic diagnosis.

BMJ Health Care Inform 2021 May;28(1)

SimulConsult, Inc, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: There is a need in clinical genomics for systems that assist in clinical diagnosis, analysis of genomic information and periodic reanalysis of results, and can use information from the electronic health record to do so. Such systems should be built using the concepts of human-centred design, fit within clinical workflows and provide solutions to priority problems.

Methods: We adapted a commercially available diagnostic decision support system (DDSS) to use extracted findings from a patient record and combine them with genomic variant information in the DDSS interface. Read More

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Indicators of poor mental health and stressors during the COVID-19 pandemic, by disability status: A cross-sectional analysis.

Disabil Health J 2021 Apr 21:101110. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

4770 Buford Hwy NE, Division of Human Development and Disability, National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30341-3717, USA; Commissioned Corps, U.S. Public Health Service, USA.

Background: Evidence from previous public health emergencies indicates that adults with disabilities have higher risk for morbidity (physical and mental) and mortality than adults without disabilities.

Objective: To provide estimates of mental health indicators and stressors for US adults by disability status during April and May 2020, shortly following the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: We analyzed data from Porter Novelli View 360 opt-in Internet panel survey conducted during the weeks of April 20th and May 18th 2020 among 1004 English-speaking adults aged ≥18 years without and with disabilities (serious difficulty with hearing, vision, cognition, or mobility; any difficulty with self-care or independent living). Read More

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Insights into the mechanisms of alveolarization - Implications for lung regeneration and cell therapies.

Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Mar 29:101243. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Sinclair Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO) and CHEO Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Although the lung has extensive regenerative capacity, some diseases affecting the distal lung result in irreversible loss of pulmonary alveoli. Hitherto, treatments are supportive and do not specifically target tissue repair. Regenerative medicine offers prospects to promote lung repair and regeneration. Read More

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Checkpoint inhibition in combination with an immunoboost of external beam radiotherapy in solid tumors (CHEERS): study protocol for a phase 2, open-label, randomized controlled trial.

BMC Cancer 2021 May 7;21(1):514. Epub 2021 May 7.

Cancer Research Institute Ghent (CRIG), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: While the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) as standard of care treatment for various tumor types has led to considerable improvements in clinical outcome, the majority of patients still fail to respond. Preclinical data suggest that stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) could work synergistically with CPIs by acting as an in situ cancer vaccine, thus potentially increasing response rates and prolonging disease control. Though SBRT administered concurrently with CPIs has been shown to be safe, evidence of its efficacy from large randomized trials is still lacking. Read More

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Designing Evidence-Based Preventive Interventions That Reach More People, Faster, and with More Impact in Global Contexts.

Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2021 May;17:551-575

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA; email:

This article demonstrates the substantial similarities globally among preventive, evidence-based interventions (EBIs) designed to address HIV by providing four examples: an HIV family-focused intervention, the Community Popular Opinion Leader intervention, a South African maternal/child health program, and an EBI for sex workers in India. Each identified the key problems in the target population, utilized well-established social cognitive theories, created processes for engaging the target population, set standards for staff accountability, and included routine data collection to facilitate iterative program improvements over time. Building EBIs based on these common, robust features is an alternative design strategy to replication with fidelity. Read More

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Perspective: Framework for Developing Recommended Intakes of Bioactive Dietary Substances.

Adv Nutr 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Weaver & Associates Consulting, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO, USA.

Dietary bioactives are food substances that promote health but are not essential to prevent typical deficiency conditions. Examples include lutein and zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acids, and flavonoids. When quality evidence is available, quantified intake recommendations linking dietary bioactives with specific health benefits will enable health professionals to provide evidence-based information to consumers. Read More

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