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High Dimensional Imaging Mass Cytometry Panel to Visualize the Tumor Immune Microenvironment Contexture.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:666233. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Université Côte d'Azur, CNRS UMR7275, Institut de Pharmacologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Valbonne, France.

The integrative analysis of tumor immune microenvironment (TiME) components, their interactions and their microanatomical distribution is mandatory to better understand tumor progression. Imaging Mass Cytometry (IMC) is a high dimensional tissue imaging system which allows the comprehensive and multiparametric exploration of tumor microenvironments at a single cell level. We describe here the design of a 39-antibody IMC panel for the staining of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human tumor sections. Read More

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Objective and comprehensive re-evaluation of anxiety-like behaviors in mice using the Behavior Atlas.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 28;559:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Shenzhen Key Lab of Neuropsychiatric Modulation and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Brain Connectome and Behavior, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Brain Cognition and Brain Disease Institute (BCBDI), Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute of Brain Science-Shenzhen Fundamental Research Institutions, Shenzhen, 518055, China; University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China. Electronic address:

Various animal models of anxiety have been developed to evaluate anxiety and anxiolytic drugs. However, non-uniform measuring paradigms, variability in apparatus use and individual differences in animals confound study results. In this study, when all animals were included in the data analysis, we found no significant differences between control and stressed mice using standard behavioral paradigms for assessing anxiety (elevated plus maze and open field test). Read More

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Generating human prostate cancer organoids from leukapheresis enriched circulating tumour cells.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Apr 27;150:179-189. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Circulating tumour cell (CTC)-derived organoids have the potential to provide a powerful tool for personalised cancer therapy but are restrained by low CTC numbers provided by blood samples. Here, we used diagnostic leukapheresis (DLA) to enrich CTCs from patients with metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) and explored whether organoids provide a platform for ex vivo treatment modelling.

Methods: We prospectively screened 102 patients with mPCa and performed DLA in 40 patients with ≥5 CTCs/7. Read More

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Unique ion filter - A data reduction tool for chemometric analysis of raw comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - mass spectrometry data.

J Sep Sci 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G2, Canada.

Comprehensive GC with time of flight MS, is a powerful tool in the analysis of complex samples. Chemometric analysis of raw chromatographic data is more useful in one- and two-dimensional separations relative to peak tables. The data volume from such experiments generally necessitates the use of data reduction tools. Read More

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Quantification of Myocardial Deformation Applying CMR-Feature-Tracking-All About the Left Ventricle?

Curr Heart Fail Rep 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, Georg-August University Göttingen and German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), partner site Göttingen, University Medical Center Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Straße 40, 37075, Göttingen, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Cardiac magnetic resonance-feature-tracking (CMR-FT)-based deformation analyses are key tools of cardiovascular imaging and applications in heart failure (HF) diagnostics are expanding. In this review, we outline the current range of application with diagnostic and prognostic implications and provide perspectives on future trends of this technique.

Recent Findings: By applying CMR-FT in different cardiovascular diseases, increasing evidence proves CMR-FT-derived parameters as powerful diagnostic and prognostic imaging biomarkers within the HF continuum partly outperforming traditional clinical values like left ventricular ejection fraction. Read More

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TMTpro Complementary Ion Quantification Increases Plexing and Sensitivity for Accurate Multiplexed Proteomics at the MS2 Level.

J Proteome Res 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, United States.

Multiplexed proteomics is a powerful tool to assay cell states in health and disease, but accurate quantification of relative protein changes is impaired by interference from co-isolated peptides. Interference can be reduced by using MS3-based quantification, but this reduces sensitivity and requires specialized instrumentation. An alternative approach is quantification by complementary ions, the balancer group-peptide conjugates, which allows accurate and precise multiplexed quantification at the MS2 level and is compatible with most proteomics instruments. Read More

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Antioxidants in Smokers.

Nutr Res Rev 2021 Apr 30:1-77. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biosciences (Department of Excellence 2018-2022), Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 26, I-20133 Milan, Italy.

Cigarette smoke (CS) is likely the most common preventable cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Consequently, inexpensive interventional strategies for preventing CS-related diseases would positively impact health systems. Inhaled CS is a powerful inflammatory stimulus and produces a shift in the normal balance between antioxidants and oxidants inducing oxidative stress in both the respiratory system and throughout the body. Read More

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Metagenome-assembled genomes infer potential microbial metabolism in alkaline sulphidic tailings.

Environ Microbiome 2021 Apr 29;16(1). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Hebei Key Laboratory of Soil Ecology, Key Laboratory for Agricultural Water Resource, Center for Agricultural Resources Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijiazhuang, 050021, China.

Background: Mine tailings are hostile environment. It has been well documented that several microbes can inhabit such environment, and metagenomic reconstruction has successfully pinpointed their activities and community structure in acidic tailings environments. We still know little about the microbial metabolic capacities of alkaline sulphidic environment where microbial processes are critically important for the revegetation. Read More

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LCM and RNA-seq analyses revealed roles of cell cycle and translational regulation and homoeolog expression bias in cotton fiber cell initiation.

BMC Genomics 2021 Apr 29;22(1):309. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, and Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712, USA.

Background: Cotton fibers provide a powerful model for studying cell differentiation and elongation. Each cotton fiber is a singular and elongated cell derived from epidermal-layer cells of a cotton seed. Efforts to understand this dramatic developmental shift have been impeded by the difficulty of separation between fiber and epidermal cells. Read More

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Spectrally Selective Nanoparticle Mixture Coating for Passive Daytime Radiative Cooling.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Anam-ro 145, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea.

Passive daytime radiative cooling, which is a process that removes excess heat to cold space as an infinite heat sink, is an emerging technology for applications that require thermal control. Among the different structures of radiative coolers, multilayer- and photonic-structured radiative coolers that are composed of inorganic layers still need to be simple to fabricate. Herein, we describe the fabrication of a nanoparticle-mixture-based radiative cooler that exhibits highly selective infrared emission and low solar absorption. Read More

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Nanobodies for Medical Imaging: About Ready for Prime Time?

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 26;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Recent advances in medical treatments have been revolutionary in shaping the management and treatment landscape of patients, notably cancer patients. Over the last decade, patients with diverse forms of locally advanced or metastatic cancer, such as melanoma, lung cancers, and many blood-borne malignancies, have seen their life expectancies increasing significantly. Notwithstanding these encouraging results, the present-day struggle with these treatments concerns patients who remain largely unresponsive, as well as those who experience severely toxic side effects. Read More

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In Vitro-In Vivo Correlation in Dermal Delivery: The Role of Excipients.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Apr 13;13(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pharmaceutics, UCL School of Pharmacy, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX, UK.

The composition of topical and transdermal formulations is known to determine the rate and the extent of drug delivery to and through the skin. However, to date, the role of excipients in these formulations on skin delivery of actives has received little attention from scientists in the field. Monitoring skin absorption of both drug and vehicle may provide insights into the mechanism by which excipients promote permeation and may facilitate the design of effective and safer products. Read More

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Factors Affecting the Number of Pollen Grains per Male Strobilus in Japanese Cedar ().

Plants (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata City, Niigata 950-2181, Japan.

Japanese cedar () is the most important timber species in Japan; however, its pollen is the primary cause of pollinosis in Japan. The total number of pollen grains produced by a single tree is determined by the number of male strobili (male flowers) and the number of pollen grains per male strobilus. While the number of male strobili is a visible and well-investigated trait, little is known about the number of pollen grains per male strobilus. Read More

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Multiregional Sequencing of IDH-WT Glioblastoma Reveals High Genetic Heterogeneity and a Dynamic Evolutionary History.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Fondazione Pisana per la Scienza, 56017 Pisa, Italy.

Glioblastoma is one of the most common and lethal primary neoplasms of the brain. Patient survival has not improved significantly over the past three decades and the patient median survival is just over one year. Tumor heterogeneity is thought to be a major determinant of therapeutic failure and a major reason for poor overall survival. Read More

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Polyphenols and Fish Oils for Improving Metabolic Health: A Revision of the Recent Evidence for Their Combined Nutraceutical Effects.

Molecules 2021 Apr 22;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IIM-CSIC), Eduardo Cabello 6, E-36208 Vigo, Spain.

Polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish oils, i.e., eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, are well-recognized nutraceuticals, and their single antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have been demonstrated in several studies found in the literature. Read More

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Comparative Analysis of the Microbiome across the Gut-Skin Axis in Atopic Dermatitis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 19;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a refractory and relapsing skin disease with a complex and multifactorial etiology. Various congenital malformations and environmental factors are thought to be involved in the onset of the disease. The etiology of the disease has been investigated, with respect to clinical skin symptoms and systemic immune response factors. Read More

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Paper and Other Fibrous Materials-A Complete Platform for Biosensing Applications.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 21;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Escuela de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Avenida Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey 64849, NL, Mexico.

Paper-based analytical devices (PADs) and Electrospun Fiber-Based Biosensors (EFBs) have aroused the interest of the academy and industry due to their affordability, sensitivity, ease of use, robustness, being equipment-free, and deliverability to end-users. These features make them suitable to face the need for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics, monitoring, environmental, and quality food control applications. Our work introduces new and experienced researchers in the field to a practical guide for fibrous-based biosensors fabrication with insight into the chemical and physical interaction of fibrous materials with a wide variety of materials for functionalization and biofunctionalization purposes. Read More

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Elucidation of Early Evolution of HIV-1 Group M in the Congo Basin Using Computational Methods.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Medical Virology, School of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town 7505, South Africa.

The Congo Basin region is believed to be the site of the cross-species transmission event that yielded HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M). It is thus likely that the virus has been present and evolving in the region since that cross-species transmission. As HIV-1M was only discovered in the early 1980s, our directly observed record of the epidemic is largely limited to the past four decades. Read More

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Can't simply roll it out: Evaluating a real-world virtual reality intervention to reduce driving under the influence.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(4):e0250273. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Centre for Accident Research and Road Safety-Queensland (CARRS-Q), Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Driving under the influence (DUI) increases the risk of crashes. Emerging technologies, such as virtual reality (VR), represent potentially powerful and attractive tools for the prevention of risky behaviours, such as DUI. Therefore, they are embraced in prevention efforts with VR interventions primed to grow in popularity in near future. Read More

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Toward a remote assessment of walking bout and speed: application in patients with multiple sclerosis.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Apr 29;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Gait speed as a powerful biomarker of mobility is mostly assessed in controlled environments, e.g. in the clinic. Read More

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Risk-Based Monitoring in Clinical Trials: Past, Present, and Future.

Ther Innov Regul Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Association of Clinical Research Organizations (ACRO), Washington, DC, USA.

Risk-based monitoring (RBM) is a powerful tool for efficiently ensuring patient safety and data integrity in a clinical trial, enhancing overall trial quality. To better understand the state of RBM implementation across the clinical trial industry, the Association of Clinical Research Organizations (ACRO) conducted a landscape survey among its member companies across 6,513 clinical trials ongoing at the end of 2019. Of these trials, 22% included at least 1 of the 5 RBM components: key risk indicators (KRIs), centralized monitoring, off-site/remote-site monitoring, reduced source data verification (SDV), and reduced source document review (SDR). Read More

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The antibacterial activities of honey.

Authors:
Saad Almasaudi

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 16;28(4):2188-2196. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Honey is a powerful antimicrobial agent with a wide range of effects. Various components contribute to the antibacterial efficacy of honey: the sugar content; polyphenol compounds; hydrogen peroxide; 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds; and bee defensin-1. All of these elements are present at different concentrations depending on the source of nectar, bee type, and storage. Read More

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Intracellular interferon signalling pathways as potential regulators of covalently closed circular DNA in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;27(14):1369-1391

Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 138648, Singapore.

Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still a major global health threat as 250 million people worldwide continue to be chronically infected with the virus. While patients may be treated with nucleoside/nucleotide analogues, this only suppresses HBV titre to sub-detection levels without eliminating the persistent HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) genome. As a result, HBV infection cannot be cured, and the virus reactivates when conditions are favorable. Read More

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Depletion of NK Cells Resistant to Ionizing Radiation Increases Mutations in Mice After Whole-body Irradiation.

In Vivo 2021 May-Jun;35(3):1507-1513

Environmental Safety Research Team, Risk and Environmental Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Background: Ionizing radiation is a very powerful genetic mutagenic agent. Although immune cells are very sensitive to radiation, their sensitivity varies between different types of immune cell. We hypothesized that radiation-resistant immune cells survive after irradiation and then play a role in removing mutant cells. Read More

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February 2021

Near-infrared -term MCD spectroscopy of octahedral uranium(V) complexes.

Dalton Trans 2021 Apr;50(16):5483-5492

Department of Chemistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA.

C-term magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy is a powerful method for probing d-d and f-f transitions in paramagnetic metal complexes. However, this technique remains underdeveloped both experimentally and theoretically for studies of U(v) complexes of Oh symmetry, which have been of longstanding interest for probing electronic structure, bonding, and covalency in 5f systems. In this study, C-term NIR MCD of the Laporte forbidden f-f transitions of [UCl6]- and [UF6]- are reported, demonstrating the significant fine structure resolution possible with this technique including for the low energy Γ7 → Γ8 transitions in [UF6]-. Read More

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Comparison of Arterial-Venous Balance and Tracer Incorporation Methods for Measuring Muscle Fractional Synthesis and Fractional Breakdown Rates.

J Burn Care Res 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR.

Loss of muscle mass in response to injury or immobilization impairs functional capacity and metabolic health, thus hindering rehabilitation. Stable isotope techniques are powerful in determining skeletal muscle protein fluxes. Traditional tracer incorporation methods to measure muscle protein synthesis and breakdown are cumbersome and invasive to perform in vulnerable populations such as children. Read More

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Biosynthesis and synthetic biology of psychoactive natural products.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. and Invizyne Technologies, Inc., Monrovia, CA, USA.

Psychoactive natural products play an integral role in the modern world. The tremendous structural complexity displayed by such molecules confers diverse biological activities of significant medicinal value and sociocultural impact. Accordingly, in the last two centuries, immense effort has been devoted towards establishing how plants, animals, and fungi synthesize complex natural products from simple metabolic precursors. Read More

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Boosting Detection of Low-Abundance Proteins in Thermal Proteome Profiling Experiments by Addition of an Isobaric Trigger Channel to TMT Multiplexes.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, United States.

The study of low-abundance proteins is a challenge to discovery-based proteomics. Mass spectrometry (MS) applications, such as thermal proteome profiling (TPP), face specific challenges in the detection of the whole proteome as a consequence of the use of nondenaturing extraction buffers. TPP is a powerful method for the study of protein thermal stability, but quantitative accuracy is highly dependent on consistent detection. Read More

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Analysis of Oligomeric and Glycosylated Proteins by Size-Exclusion Chromatography Coupled with Multiangle Light Scattering.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2271:343-359

La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Analytical size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a powerful technique that separates proteins based on their hydrodynamic radii. This approach can provide some rudimentary information about the molecular weight of proteins, but results are also influenced by the in-solution protein conformation and hydrophobicity. SEC also can be affected by nonspecific interactions with the column matrix that influence protein separation. Read More

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January 2021

Efficacy and safety of pediatric massage in the treatment of anorexia: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(17):e25654

Affiliated Hospital of Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, China.

Background: Anorexia is a common and frequent disease in clinical pediatrics. It refers to a chronic digestive disorder syndrome with loss of appetite or disappearance and reduced food intake. The incidence of anorexia in children is very high, if not timely, safe and effective treatment, will have a huge impact on the growth and development of children. Read More

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