84,471 results match your criteria proteolytic breakdown

Mitochondrial matrix proteases - quality control and beyond.

FEBS J 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute for Mitochondrial Diseases and Aging, Medical Faculty, University of Cologne, D-50931, Cologne, Germany.

To ensure correct function, mitochondria have developed several mechanisms of protein quality control (QC). Protein homeostasis highly relies on chaperones and proteases to maintain proper folding and remove damaged proteins that might otherwise form cell-toxic aggregates. Besides quality control, mitochondrial proteases modulate and regulate many essential functions, such as trafficking, processing, and activation of mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial dynamics, mitophagy, and apoptosis. Read More

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Kinetics of peripheral blood neutrophils in severe coronavirus disease 2019.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 29;10(4):e1271. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation Rega Institute, KU Leuven Leuven Belgium.

Objectives: Emerging evidence of dysregulation of the myeloid cell compartment urges investigations on neutrophil characteristics in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We isolated neutrophils from the blood of COVID-19 patients receiving general ward care and from patients hospitalised at intensive care units (ICUs) to explore the kinetics of circulating neutrophils and factors important for neutrophil migration and activation.

Methods: Multicolour flow cytometry was exploited for the analysis of neutrophil differentiation and activation markers. Read More

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Upregulation of glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 is a promising diagnostic and predictive indicator for poor survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jun 22;21(6):488. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Tongji Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200065, P.R. China.

Lung adenocarcinoma, a type of non-small cell lung cancer, is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Great efforts have been made to identify the underlying mechanism of adenocarcinoma, especially in relation to oncogenes. The present study by integrating computational analysis with western blotting, aimed to understand the role of the upregulation of glucosamine-phosphate N-acetyltransferase 1 (GNPNAT1) in carcinogenesis. Read More

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Identification of a Potentially Functional circRNA-miRNA-mRNA Regulatory Network in Melanocytes for Investigating Pathogenesis of Vitiligo.

Front Genet 2021 21;12:663091. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Dermatology, People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, China.

CircRNAs have been reported to play essential roles in regulating immunity and inflammation, which may be an important regulatory factor in the development of vitiligo. However, the expression profile of circRNAs and their potential biological functions in vitiligo have not been reported so far. In our study we found there are 64 dysregulated circRNAs and 14 dysregulated miRNAs in the patients with vitiligo. Read More

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SmKFB5 Protein Regulate Phenolic Acids Biosynthesis via Controlling the Degradation of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Plant Secondary Metabolism and Regulation, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China.

Phenolic acids are the major secondary metabolites and significant bioactive constituents of medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza. Many enzyme-encoding genes and transcription factors involved in phenolic acids biosynthesis have been identified, but the underlying posttranslational regulatory mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that the S. Read More

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Cardiac Troponin T: The Impact of Posttranslational Modifications on Analytical Immunoreactivity in Blood up to the Excretion in Urine.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1306:41-59

Unit of Clinical Chemistry, Central Diagnostic Laboratory, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is a sensitive and specific biomarker for detecting cardiac muscle injury. Its concentration in blood can be significantly elevated outside the normal reference range under several pathophysiological conditions. The classical analytical method in routine clinical analysis to detect cTnT in serum or plasma is a single commercial immunoassay, which is designed to quantify the intact cTnT molecule. Read More

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Ubiquitin-proteasome-system and enzymes of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of patients with HFpEF and HFrEF.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Technische Universität Dresden, Heart Center Dresden - University Hospital, Herzzentrum Dresden, Universitätsklinik, Fetscherstraße 76, Dresden, 01307, Germany.

Background: Skeletal muscle (SM) alterations contribute to exercise intolerance in heart failure patients with preserved (HFpEF) or reduced (HFrEF) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome-system (UPS), nuclear apoptosis, and reduced mitochondrial energy supply is associated with SM weakness in HFrEF. These mechanisms are incompletely studied in HFpEF, and a direct comparison between these groups is missing. Read More

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Ac-SDKP Attenuates Activation of Lung Macrophages and Bone Osteoclasts in Rats Exposed to Silica by Inhibition of TLR4 and RANKL Signaling Pathways.

J Inflamm Res 2021 27;14:1647-1660. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Basic Medical College, Hebei Key Laboratory for Chronic Diseases, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei Province, 063210, People's Republic of China.

Background: Silica-induced inflammatory activation is associated with silicosis and various non-respiratory conditions. The present study was designed to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) on lung macrophages and bone osteoclasts after silica inhalation in rats.

Methods: Wistar rats and NR8383 and RAW 264. Read More

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Manifestations of Age on Autophagy, Mitophagy and Lysosomes in Skeletal Muscle.

Cells 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada.

Sarcopenia is the loss of both muscle mass and function with age. Although the molecular underpinnings of sarcopenia are not fully understood, numerous pathways are implicated, including autophagy, in which defective cargo is selectively identified and degraded at the lysosome. The specific tagging and degradation of mitochondria is termed mitophagy, a process important for the maintenance of an organelle pool that functions efficiently in energy production and with relatively low reactive oxygen species production. Read More

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Phosphodiesterase 4 inhibition restrains muscle proteolysis in diabetic rats by activating PKA and EPAC/Akt effectors and inhibiting FoxO factors.

Life Sci 2021 Apr 27;278:119563. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Clinical Analysis, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aim: There is growing evidence about the ability of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling and nonselective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on mitigate muscle atrophy. PDE4 accounts for the major cAMP hydrolyzing activity in skeletal muscles, therefore advances are necessary about the consequences of treatment with PDE4 inhibitors on protein breakdown in atrophied muscles. We postulated that rolipram (selective PDE4 inhibitor) may activate cAMP downstream effectors, inhibiting proteolytic systems in skeletal muscles of diabetic rats. Read More

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Chemical, Thermal, Time, and Enzymatic Stability of Silk Materials with Silk I Structure.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 16;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

The crystalline structure of silk fibroin Silk I is generally considered to be a metastable structure; however, there is no definite conclusion under what circumstances this crystalline structure is stable or the crystal form will change. In this study, silk fibroin solution was prepared from B. Mori silkworm cocoons, and a combined method of freeze-crystallization and freeze-drying at different temperatures was used to obtain stable Silk I crystalline material and uncrystallized silk material, respectively. Read More

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The Urokinase Receptor: A Multifunctional Receptor in Cancer Cell Biology. Therapeutic Implications.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 16;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, Fisciano, 84084 Salerno, Italy.

Proteolysis is a key event in several biological processes; proteolysis must be tightly controlled because its improper activation leads to dramatic consequences. Deregulation of proteolytic activity characterizes many pathological conditions, including cancer. The plasminogen activation (PA) system plays a key role in cancer; it includes the serine-protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Read More

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Muscle Proteomic and Transcriptomic Profiling of Healthy Aging and Metabolic Syndrome in Men.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 19;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Université Clermont Auvergne, INRAE, UNH, Unité de Nutrition Humaine, CRNH Auvergne, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.

(1) Background: Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle mass and function. Aging is also a primary risk factor for metabolic syndrome, which further alters muscle metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain to be clarified. Read More

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Cell Force-Driven Basement Membrane Disruption Fuels EGF- and Stiffness-Induced Invasive Cell Dissemination from Benign Breast Gland Acini.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 12;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Biological Information Processing 2 (IBI-2): Mechanobiology, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425 Jülich, Germany.

Local basement membrane (BM) disruption marks the initial step of breast cancer invasion. The activation mechanisms of force-driven BM-weakening remain elusive. We studied the mechanical response of MCF10A-derived human breast cell acini with BMs of tuneable maturation to physical and soluble tumour-like extracellular matrix (ECM) cues. Read More

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Monoclonal Antibody Aggregation Associated with Free Radical Induced Oxidation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 12;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Pharmaceutical Development, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Oxidation is an important degradation pathway of protein drugs. The susceptibility to oxidation is a common concern for therapeutic proteins as it may impact product efficacy and patient safety. In this work, we used 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) as an oxidative stress reagent to evaluate the oxidation of therapeutic antibodies. Read More

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Antiretroviral Drugs Impact Autophagy with Toxic Outcomes.

Cells 2021 Apr 15;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

Antiretroviral drugs have dramatically improved the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV (PLWH). While current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are generally well-tolerated, risks for side effects and toxicity remain as PLWH must take life-long medications. Antiretroviral drugs impact autophagy, an intracellular proteolytic process that eliminates debris and foreign material, provides nutrients for metabolism, and performs quality control to maintain cell homeostasis. Read More

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Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of microRNAs during Challenge with the Entomopathogenic Fungus .

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Apr 14;7(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Genetic Engineering Research Center, School of Life Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331, China.

The resistance of the notorious rice pest to many insecticides has caused significant concerns. Our previous study demonstrated that the fungus CQMa421 shows great potential for the control of this pest, but the interactions between them are still unclear. Thus, we further investigated fungal infection-related microRNAs (miRNAs) in during CQMa421 challenge using Illumina sequencing. Read More

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Phosphorylation of GAPVD1 Is Regulated by the PER Complex and Linked to GAPVD1 Degradation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 6;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical Faculty, University of Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Repressor protein period (PER) complexes play a central role in the molecular oscillator mechanism of the mammalian circadian clock. While the main role of nuclear PER complexes is transcriptional repression, much less is known about the functions of cytoplasmic PER complexes. We found with a biochemical screen for PER2-interacting proteins that the small GTPase regulator GTPase-activating protein and VPS9 domain-containing protein 1 (GAPVD1), which has been identified previously as a component of cytoplasmic PER complexes in mice, is also a bona fide component of human PER complexes. Read More

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IP-assisted CSN-COP1 competition regulates a CRL4-ETV5 proteolytic checkpoint to safeguard glucose-induced insulin secretion.

Nat Commun 2021 04 28;12(1):2461. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Life Sciences, Department of Biology, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

COP1 and COP9 signalosome (CSN) are the substrate receptor and deneddylase of CRL4 E3 ligase, respectively. How they functionally interact remains unclear. Here, we uncover COP1-CSN antagonism during glucose-induced insulin secretion. Read More

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Metabolomic profiling reveals the effects of early-life lactoferrin intervention on protein synthesis, energy production and antioxidative capacity in the liver of suckling piglets.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 22;12(8):3405-3419. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

National Center for International Research on Animal Gut Nutrition, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Nutrition and Animal Health, Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center of Animal Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Jiangsu Province 210095, P. R. China.

This study aimed to determine the effects of an early-life lactoferrin (LF) intervention on liver metabolism in suckling piglets. Sixty newborn piglets with an average initial body weight (BW) of 1.51 ± 0. Read More

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Experimental evaluation of Enalapril effect on protein oxidative modification, proteolytic processes and cerebral morphological changes in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Pol Merkur Lekarski 2021 Apr;49(290):138-142

Bukovinian State Medical University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine: Department of Hygiene and Ecology.

Neurodegenerative processes with type 2 diabetes mellitus in particular aggravate the course of the disease, change the usual life rhythm, and are a considerable part of high disability and lethality rates.

Aim: The aim of the study was to examine enalapril effect on protein peroxide oxidation, activity of proteolysis and fibrinolysis enzymes and morphological state of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus under conditions of neurodegeneration in case of experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Materials And Methods: Changes in the content of protein peroxide oxidation products activity of proteolysis and fibrinolysis enzymes in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are examined under enalapril effect (1 mg/kg) in nonlinear laboratory albino male rats with neurodegeneration under conditions of type 2 diabetes mellitus simulated by streptozotocin and high-fat diet. Read More

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Analysis of High-Risk Missense Variants in Human Gene and Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Biomed Res Int 2021 9;2021:6685840. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Virology Unit, Immunovirology Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, 20360 Casablanca, Morocco.

SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus uses for entry to human host cells a SARS-CoV receptor of the angiotensin-converting enzyme () that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin II into angiotensin (1-7). To understand the effect of missense variants on protein structure, stability, and function, various bioinformatics tools were used including SIFT, PANTHER, PROVEAN, PolyPhen2.0, I. Read More

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Faecal microbial metabolites of proteolytic and saccharolytic fermentation in relation to degree of insulin resistance in adult individuals.

Benef Microbes 2021 Apr 21:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Human Biology, School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 40, 6229 ET Maastricht, the Netherlands.

The gut microbiota may affect host metabolic health through microbial metabolites. The balance between the production of microbial metabolites by saccharolytic and proteolytic fermentation may be an important determinant of metabolic health. Amongst the best-studied saccharolytic microbial metabolites are the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate. Read More

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ARIH1 signaling promotes anti-tumor immunity by targeting PD-L1 for proteasomal degradation.

Nat Commun 2021 04 20;12(1):2346. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biochemistry and Research Center of Clinical Pharmacy of The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Cancer expression of PD-L1 suppresses anti-tumor immunity. PD-L1 has emerged as a remarkable therapeutic target. However, the regulation of PD-L1 degradation is not understood. Read More

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Transcriptome Analysis of the Molecular Mechanism of Bacteriocin Synthesis in KLDS1.0391 Under Nanoparticle NaCl Stress.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Mar;17(3):369-381

is an important industrial lactic acid bacteria, which can be used as a starter culture for fermented milk and meat products. Many strains can produce bacteriocins with broad-spectrum antibacterial properties, heat stability, and easy to be hydrolyzed by protease in the process of food fermentation and metabolism, and their potential as biopreservative starter culture in the preservation of fermented food has been recognized. However, the high salt environment in the food matrix can affect bacteriocin production. Read More

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Structure of mouse cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT2A8 provides insight into sulfonation of 7α-hydroxyl bile acids.

J Lipid Res 2021 Apr 16:100074. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong; Center for Protein Science and Crystallography, School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyze the transfer of a sulfonate group from the cofactor 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to a hydroxyl (OH) containing substrate and play a critical role in the homeostasis of endogenous compounds including hormones, neurotransmitters and bile acids. In human, SULT2A1 sulfonates the 3-OH of bile acids, however, bile acid metabolism in mouse is dependent on a 7α-OH sulfonating SULT2A8 via unknown molecular mechanisms. In this study, the crystal structure of SULT2A8 in complex with adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate and cholic acid was resolved at 2. Read More

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A noncanonical heme oxygenase specific for the degradation of c-type heme.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 13:100666. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA. Electronic address:

Heme oxygenases (HOs) play a critical role in recouping iron from the labile heme pool. The acquisition and liberation of heme iron is especially important for the survival of pathogenic bacteria. All characterized HOs, including those belonging to the HugZ superfamily, preferentially cleave free b-type heme. Read More

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Administration of isoliquiritigenin prevents nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through a novel IQGAP2-CREB-SIRT1 axis.

Phytother Res 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

Isoliquiritigenin (ISO) is a flavonoid extracted from the root of licorice, which serves various biological and pharmacological functions including antiinflammatory, antioxidation, liver protection, and heart protection. However, the mechanism of its action remains elusive and the direct target proteins of ISO have not been identified so far. Through cell-based screening, we identified ISO as a potent lipid-lowering compound. Read More

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Wobble tRNA modification and hydrophilic amino acid patterns dictate protein fate.

Nat Commun 2021 04 15;12(1):2170. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Cancer Signaling, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.

Regulation of mRNA translation elongation impacts nascent protein synthesis and integrity and plays a critical role in disease establishment. Here, we investigate features linking regulation of codon-dependent translation elongation to protein expression and homeostasis. Using knockdown models of enzymes that catalyze the mcms wobble uridine tRNA modification (U-enzymes), we show that gene codon content is necessary but not sufficient to predict protein fate. Read More

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The E3 ligase MREL57 modulates microtubule stability and stomatal closure in response to ABA.

Nat Commun 2021 04 12;12(1):2181. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry; Department of Plant Sciences, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Regulation of stomatal movement is critical for plant adaptation to environmental stresses. The microtubule cytoskeleton undergoes disassembly, which is critical for stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid (ABA). However, the mechanism underlying this regulation largely remains unclear. Read More

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