15,856 results match your criteria protein inducers

Endomembrane-Targeting Effectors Modulate PAMP Triggered Immune Responses in Plants.

Front Microbiol 2021 1;12:651279. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

is a devastating obligate, intracellular, biotrophic pathogen that causes clubroot disease in crucifer plants. Disease progression is regulated by effector proteins secreted by . Twelve putative effectors (PEs), expressed at various stages of disease development [0, 2, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post inoculation (DPI)] in Arabidopsis and localizing to the plant endomembrane system, were studied for their roles in pathogenesis. Read More

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Optimizing the Expression and Solubilization of an E. coli-Produced Leukemia Inhibitory Factor for Anti-LIF Antibody Production and Use Thereof for Contraception in Mice.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Animal Biotechnology Group, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran, Iran.

Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is an essential cytokine for blastocyst implantation. This study evaluated the effect of LIF inhibition on the blockage of embryo implantation. A truncated mouse LIF (tmLIF) was designed and expressed in E. Read More

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Bifunctional modalities for repurposing protein function.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 Jul;28(7):1081-1089

Chemical Biology and Therapeutics Science, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Divisions of Renal Medicine and Engineering, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Nature takes advantage of induced proximity to perform various functions. Taking inspiration from nature, we can also trigger desired biological processes using bifunctional small molecules that artificially induce proximity. For example, bifunctional small molecules have been designed to trigger the ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation of intracellular proteins. Read More

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Screening and characterization of hypothetical proteins of Plasmodium falciparum as novel vaccine candidates in the fight against malaria using reverse vaccinology.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 Jul 16;19(1):103. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Bio-molecular Resources and Bio-lab Sciences, School of Biosecurity, Biotechnology and Laboratory Sciences (SBLS), College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P.O Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Plasmodium falciparum is the most deadly and leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. About 90% of all malaria deaths in the world today occur in Sub-Saharan Africa especially in children aged < 5 years. In 2018, it was reported that there were 228 million malaria cases that resulted in 405,000 deaths from 91 countries. Read More

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Shear type and magnitude affect aortic valve endothelial cell morphology, orientation, and differentiation.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2021 Jul 14:15353702211023359. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-3121, USA.

Valvular endothelial cells line the outer layer of heart valves and can withstand shear forces caused by blood flow. In contrast to vascular endothelial cells, there is limited amount of research over valvular endothelial cells. For this reason, the exact physiologic behavior of valvular endothelial cells is unclear. Read More

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Chemical Autophagy Regulators.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1208:289-309

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Autophagy is a catabolic process that removes aggregated proteins and damaged organelles via lysosomal degradation. Increasing evidence suggests that dysfunction of autophagy is associated with a variety of human pathologies, including aging, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, heart diseases, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. Current research suggests that the regulation of autophagy may be a novel target for the treatment of these diseases. Read More

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Regulation of Gene Expression by Amino Acids in Animal Cells.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1332:1-15

Department of Animal Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.

Amino acids have pleiotropic roles in animal biology including protein and glucose synthesis, cellular metabolism, antioxidant reactions, immune enhancers, and inducers or suppressors of gene expression. Recent studies have revealed important roles of amino acids in the regulation of gene expression in animals. Discoveries of cellular amino acid sensors and their mechanistic pathways have broadened our understanding of how the body responds to the deprivation of nutrients and amino acids in particular. Read More

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Small-molecule modulators of INAVA cytosolic condensate and cell-cell junction assemblies.

J Cell Biol 2021 Sep 12;220(9). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces distinctively express the inflammatory bowel disease risk gene INAVA. We previously found that INAVA has dual and competing functions: one at lateral membranes where it affects mucosal barrier function and the other in the cytosol where INAVA enhances IL-1β signal transduction and protein ubiquitination and forms puncta. We now find that IL-1β-induced INAVA puncta are biomolecular condensates that rapidly assemble and physiologically resolve. Read More

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September 2021

Primary Amine Tethered Small Molecules Promote the Degradation of X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 8;143(28):10571-10575. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

We hypothesized that the proximity-driven ubiquitylation of E3-interacting small molecules could affect the degradation of E3 ubiquitin ligases. A series of XIAP BIR2 domain-binding small molecules was modified to append a nucleophilic primary amine. This modification transforms XIAP binders into inducers of XIAP degradation. Read More

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Prediction and identification of T cell epitopes of COVID-19 with balanced cytokine response for the development of peptide based vaccines.

In Silico Pharmacol 2021 28;9(1):40. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

DS Kothari Central Facility for Interdisciplinary Research, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 India.

Recent outbreak of 2019 novel Corona virus poses serious challenge for the global health system. In lieu of paucity of experimental data, tools and the very basic understanding of host immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, well thought effective measures are needed to control COVID-19 pandemic. We have identified specific overlapping antigenic peptide epitopes (OAPE) within the 4 structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 predictive of triggering robust CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in host using bio-informatics tools (NetMHC4. Read More

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Effect of vorinostat on INK4 family and HDACs 1, 2, and 3 in pancreatic cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Res Pharm Sci 2021 Jun 12;16(3):260-268. Epub 2021 May 12.

Research Center for Non-Communicable Diseases, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, I.R. Iran.

Background And Purpose: In mammalian cells, several distinct surveillance systems, named cell cycle checkpoints, can interrupt normal cell-cycle progression. The cyclin-dependent kinases are negatively regulated by proteins of cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors comprising INK4 and Cip/Kip families. Histone deacetylation induced by histone deacetylases (HDACs) inactivates the INK4 and Cip/Kip families lead to cancer induction. Read More

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Autophagy: Instructions from the extracellular matrix.

Matrix Biol 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Institute of Biochemistry II, School of Medicine, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; Buchmann Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. Electronic address:

In recent years, extensive research has uncovered crucial regulatory roles for the extracellular matrix (ECM) in regulating autophagy. Autophagy is a ubiquitous and highly conserved catabolic process that allows the selective removal and recycling of cytosolic components via lysosomal or vacuolar degradation. Due to its pivotal role in cellular homeostasis, the impairment of autophagy is involved in the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, comprising infectious diseases, immune and neurodegenerative disorders, renal and hepatic diseases, intervertebral and cartilage disorders, as well as fibrosis and cancer. Read More

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Investigation of the lipidomic changes in differentiated glioblastoma cells after drug treatment using MALDI-MS.

Talanta 2021 Oct 29;233:122570. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Chemistry, Beijing Key Laboratory of Microanalytical Methods and Instrumentation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China. Electronic address:

Lipids differences between tumor and normal tissue have been proved to be of diagnostic and therapeutic significance. The research of lipidomics in tumor is more and more important. Mass spectrometry like matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) can be more convenient and informative for lipids researching in biological and clinical researches. Read More

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October 2021

Role of a Heat Shock Transcription Factor and the Major Heat Shock Protein Hsp70 in Memory Formation and Neuroprotection.

Cells 2021 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Laboratory of Molecular Mechanisms of Biological Adaptation, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow, Russia.

Heat shock proteins (Hsps) represent the most evolutionarily ancient, conserved, and universal system for protecting cells and the whole body from various types of stress. Among Hsps, the group of proteins with a molecular weight of 70 kDa (Hsp70) plays a particularly important role. These proteins are molecular chaperones that restore the native conformation of partially denatured proteins after exposure to proteotoxic forms of stress and are critical for the folding and intracellular trafficking of de novo synthesized proteins under normal conditions. Read More

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CDC2 Is an Important Driver of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation via FOXM1 and PLK1 in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 28;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Tupper Research Institute and Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Division, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA.

A key feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the hyperplastic proliferation exhibited by the vascular smooth muscle cells from patients (HPASMC). The growth inducers FOXM1 and PLK1 are highly upregulated in these cells. The mechanism by which these two proteins direct aberrant growth in these cells is not clear. Read More

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SIRT3 Overexpression Ameliorates Asbestos-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis, mt-DNA Damage, and Lung Fibrogenic Monocyte Recruitment.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 25;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Jesse Brown VA Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.

Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) mitochondrial (mt) DNA damage and fibrotic monocyte-derived alveolar macrophages (Mo-AMs) are implicated in the pathobiology of pulmonary fibrosis. We showed that sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a mitochondrial protein regulating cell fate and aging, is deficient in the AECs of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients and that asbestos- and bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis is augmented in Sirt3 knockout () mice associated with AEC mtDNA damage and intrinsic apoptosis. We determined whether whole body transgenic SIRT3 overexpression () protects mice from asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis by mitigating lung mtDNA damage and Mo-AM recruitment. Read More

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Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for Selumetinib to Evaluate Drug-Drug Interactions and Pediatric Dose Regimens.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Clinical Pharmacology & Quantitative Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Safety Science, BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Selumetinib (ARRY-142886), an oral, potent and highly selective allosteric mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2 inhibitor, is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of pediatric patients aged ≥2 years with neurofibromatosis type 1 with symptomatic, inoperable plexiform neurofibromas. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was constructed to predict plasma concentration-time profiles of selumetinib, and to evaluate the impact of coadministering moderate cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/2C19 inhibitors/inducers. The model was also used to extrapolate pharmacokinetic exposures from older children with different body surface area to guide dosing in younger children. Read More

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LED control of gene expression in a nanobiosystem composed of metallic nanoparticles and a genetically modified E. coli strain.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Jun 26;19(1):190. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL. Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad s/n. CD. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, 66451, Nuevo León, México.

Background: Within the last decade, genetic engineering and synthetic biology have revolutionized society´s ability to mass-produce complex biological products within genetically-modified microorganisms containing elegantly designed genetic circuitry. However, many challenges still exist in developing bioproduction processes involving genetically modified microorganisms with complex or multiple gene circuits. These challenges include the development of external gene expression regulation methods with the following characteristics: spatial-temporal control and scalability, while inducing minimal permanent or irreversible system-wide conditions. Read More

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Physiological impact of flavonoids on nodulation and ureide metabolism in legume plants.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun 16;166:512-521. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rua Domingos da Costa Lopes 780, Postal Code 17602-496, Tupã, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Legume plants from Fabaceae family (phylogenetic group composed by three subfamilies: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) into ammonia (NH) by the symbiotic relationship with rhizobia bacteria. These bacteria respond chemotactically to certain compounds released by plants such as sugars, amino acids and organic acids. Root secretion of isoflavonoids acts as inducers for nod genes in rhizobia and ABC transporters and ICHG (isoflavone conjugates hydrolyzing beta-glucosidase) at apoplast are related to the exudation of genistein and daidzein in soybean roots. Read More

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Metformin induces Ferroptosis by inhibiting UFMylation of SLC7A11 in breast cancer.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 23;40(1):206. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310000, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Ferroptosis is a newly defined form of regulated cell death characterized by the iron-dependent accumulation of lipid peroxidation and is involved in various pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. Targeting ferroptosis is considered to be a novel anti-cancer strategy. The identification of FDA-approved drugs as ferroptosis inducers is proposed to be a new promising approach for cancer treatment. Read More

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Medicinal chemistry of anthranilic acid derivatives: A mini review.

Drug Dev Res 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Chemistry, UGC Sponsored Centre for Advanced Studies, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Anthranilic acid and its analogues present a privileged profile as pharmacophores for the rational development of pharmaceuticals deliberated for managing the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of various diseases. The substitution on anthranilic acid scaffold provides large compound libraries, which enable a comprehensive assessment of the structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis for the identification of hits and leads in a typical drug development paradigm. Besides, their widespread applications as anti-inflammatory fenamates, the amide and anilide derivatives of anthranilic acid analogues play a central role in the management of several metabolic disorders. Read More

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Bullatacin triggers immunogenic cell death of colon cancer cells by activating endoplasmic reticulum chaperones.

J Inflamm (Lond) 2021 Jun 10;18(1):23. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Jiangsu Cancer Hospital & Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research & The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

Background: It is well accepted that the immune system efficiently contributes to positive outcomes of chemotherapeutic cancer treatment by activating immunogenic cell death (ICD). However, only a limited number of ICD-inducing compounds are well characterized at present; therefore, identification of novel ICD inducers is urgently needed for cancer drug discovery, and the need is becoming increasingly urgent.

Methods: Herein, we assessed the antitumour activity of bullatacin by MTS assay and apoptosis assay. Read More

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Zika Virus Induces an Atypical Tripartite Unfolded Protein Response with Sustained Sensor and Transient Effector Activation and a Blunted BiP Response.

mSphere 2021 Jun 9;6(3):e0036121. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

To study how the Zika virus (ZIKV) interacts with the host unfolded protein response (UPR), we undertook a kinetics study. We show that ZIKV infection triggers an atypical tripartite UPR in A549 cells involving transient activation of the effectors X-box-binding protein 1, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein, and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 during early infection and sustained activation of all three UPR sensors: RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum-resident kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring kinase-1α (IRE1α), and ATF6. Sustained phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and rRNA degradation coincide with host translational shutoff, cell lysis, and virus release during late infection. Read More

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Impact of cholesterol-pathways on breast cancer development, a metabolic landscape.

J Cancer 2021 19;12(14):4307-4321. Epub 2021 May 19.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina Mexicali, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, 21000 Mexicali, México.

ApoB-lipoproteins and their components modulate intracellular metabolism and have been associated with the development of neoplastic phenomena, such as proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer invasion. In cancer cells, the modulation of targets that regulate cholesterol metabolism, such as synthesis , endocytosis, and oxidation, are contributing factors to cancer development. While mechanisms associated with sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP-2)/mevalonate, the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and liver X receptor (LXR) have been linked with tumor growth; metabolites derived from cholesterol-oxidation, such as oxysterols and epoxy-cholesterols, also have been described as tumor processes-inducers. Read More

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Heparan sulfate proteoglycans in beta cells provide a critical link between endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and type 2 diabetes.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252607. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Immunology and Infectious Disease, The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) consist of a core protein with side chains of the glycosaminoglycan heparan sulfate (HS). We have previously identified (i) the HSPGs syndecan-1 (SDC1), and collagen type XVIII (COL18) inside mouse and human islet beta cells, and (ii) a critical role for HS in beta cell survival and protection from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objective of this study was to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to oxidative stress and type 2 diabetes (T2D) by depleting beta cell HSPGs/HS. Read More

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Mitochondria-dependent synthetic small-molecule vaccine adjuvants for influenza virus infection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(23)

Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0809;

Vaccine adjuvants enhance and prolong pathogen-specific protective immune responses. Recent reports indicate that host factors-such as aging, pregnancy, and genetic polymorphisms-influence efficacies of vaccines adjuvanted with Toll-like receptor (TLR) or known pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) agonists. Although PRR independent adjuvants (e. Read More

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Engineering Gac/Rsm Signaling Cascade for Optogenetic Induction of the Pathogenicity Switch in .

ACS Synth Biol 2021 06 2;10(6):1520-1530. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale; Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China.

Bacterial pathogens operate by tightly controlling the pathogenicity to facilitate invasion and survival in host. While small molecule inducers can be designed to modulate pathogenicity to perform studies of pathogen-host interaction, these approaches, due to the diffusion property of chemicals, may have unintended, or pleiotropic effects that can impose limitations on their use. By contrast, light provides superior spatial and temporal resolution. Read More

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Ginsenoside CK Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transformation through the HIF-1α/NF-κB Feedback Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Foods 2021 May 26;10(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, 229 Taibai North Road, Xi'an 710069, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a kind of malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) is crucial for HCC progression and prognosis. Characteristics of the tumor microenvironment, such as hypoxia, and excessive activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway have been identified as the key inducers of EMT in HCC. Read More

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Polyphenols Modulating Effects of PD-L1/PD-1 Checkpoint and EMT-Mediated PD-L1 Overexpression in Breast Cancer.

Nutrients 2021 May 19;13(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Institute of Public Health Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307, USA.

Investigating dietary polyphenolic compounds as antitumor agents are rising due to the growing evidence of the close association between immunity and cancer. Cancer cells elude immune surveillance for enhancing their progression and metastasis utilizing various mechanisms. These mechanisms include the upregulation of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) cell phenotype activation. Read More

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A Cell Membrane-Level Approach to Cicatricial Alopecia Management: Is Caveolin-1 a Viable Therapeutic Target in Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia?

Biomedicines 2021 May 19;9(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Dr. Phillip Frost Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33186, USA.

Irreversible destruction of the hair follicle (HF) in primary cicatricial alopecia and its most common variant, frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA), results from apoptosis and pathological epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of epithelial HF stem cells (eHFSCs), in conjunction with the collapse of bulge immune privilege (IP) and interferon-gamma-mediated chronic inflammation. The scaffolding protein caveolin-1 (Cav1) is a key component of specialized cell membrane microdomains (caveolae) that regulates multiple signaling events, and even though Cav1 is most prominently expressed in the bulge area of human scalp HFs, it has not been investigated in any cicatricial alopecia context. Interestingly, in mice, Cav1 is involved in the regulation of (1) key HF IP guardians (TGF-β and α-MSH signaling), (2) IP collapse inducers/markers (IFNγ, substance P and MICA), and (3) EMT. Read More

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