31,510 results match your criteria prospective cross-over

Selecting Software Pipelines for Change in Flortaucipir SUVR: Balancing Repeatability and Group Separation.

Neuroimage 2021 Jun 9:118259. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN, USA.

Since tau PET tracers were introduced, investigators have quantified them using a wide variety of automated methods. As longitudinal cohort studies acquire second and third time points of serial within-person tau PET data, determining the best pipeline to measure change has become crucial. We compared a total of 415 different quantification methods (each a combination of multiple options) according to their effects on a) differences in annual SUVR change between clinical groups, and b) longitudinal measurement repeatability as measured by the error term from a linear mixed-effects model. Read More

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Prevalence and Impact of Obesity on Disease-Specific Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Southwest Rochester, MN, USA.

Background And Aims: There remains a historical misconception that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are underweight. However, recent data suggests rates of obesity in IBD parallel those of the general population. The impact obesity has on the natural history of IBD is unclear. Read More

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Probing the effects of single-session iTBS on associative memory: A prospective, randomized, controlled cross-over study.

Brain Stimul 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; The State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Electronic address:

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Rectal douching and anal human papillomavirus among young men who have sex with men in China.

Sex Transm Dis 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

1School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China. 2School of Public Health, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, China. 3School of Public Health (Shenzhen), Sun Yat-sen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 510006, China. 4Department of AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chongqing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chongqing 400042, China. 5Department of AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Tianjin Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Tianjin 300011, China. 6Nanshan Center for Chronic Disease Control, Shenzhen 518000, China. 7Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are particularly at increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related malignancies. Rectal douching, commonly practiced among MSM, has been associated in HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea and viral hepatitis in cross-sectional studies. We conducted this study to understand the association between self-reported rectal douching and anal HPV among YMSM in China. Read More

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Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Associations Between Tinnitus and Mental Health in a Population-Based Sample of Middle-aged and Elderly Persons.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Tinnitus is a common disorder, but its impact on daily life varies widely in population-based samples. It is unclear whether this interference in daily life is associated with mental health problems that are commonly detected in clinical populations.

Objective: To investigate the association of tinnitus and its interference in daily life with symptoms of depression and anxiety and poor sleep quality in a population-based sample of middle-aged and elderly persons in a cross-sectional analysis and during a 4-year follow-up. Read More

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Is Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Superior to Computed Tomography for Differential Diagnosis of Gallbladder Polyps? A Cross-Sectional Study.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:657223. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To compare the clinical value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) versus computed tomography (CT) for distinguishing neoplastic and non-neoplastic gallbladder polyps. Given whether laparoscopic cholecystectomy is needed, differential diagnosis of neoplastic and non-neoplastic gallbladder polyps is more important than benign and malignant polyps.

Methods: A total of 89 consecutive patients with polypoid lesions of the gallbladder > 10 mm in size without local invasion or distant metastasis during primary screening were enrolled in this prospective and comparative study. Read More

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Associations between hedonic hunger and BMI during a two-year behavioural weight loss trial.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0252110. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Objective: Prospective studies on relationships between hedonic hunger and BMI (Body Mass Index) during weight management are lacking. This study examined if hedonic hunger reduced during a behavioural weight management programme, and if hedonic hunger predicted future BMI.

Methods: Participants were 594 community-dwelling, UK-based adults(396 female; age 56. Read More

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Overuse of antidepressants in older outpatients with Alzheimer's disease and associated disorders: an observational study.

Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

OMEDIT Ile-de-France, Paris, France, Centre de pharmacoépidémiologie (Cephepi), CIC-1421, Département biostatistique santé publique et information médicale, Hôpital Pitié Salpêtrière, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Forty per cent of French subjects over 65 years old with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD) are chronically exposed to antidepressants, suggesting an overuse of these drugs. The main objective of our study was to estimate the prevalence of the overuse of antidepressants in this population and the factors associated with this.

Methodology: a single-centre, prospective, cross-sectional study carried out at the Bretonneau outpatient department between 1 December 2014 and 31 May 2015. Read More

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Reference values for intake of 6 types of soluble and insoluble fibre in healthy UK inhabitants based on the UK Biobank data.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Jun 9:1-41. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Atlas Biomed Group Limited, Tintagel House, 92 Albert Embankment, Lambeth, London, SE1 7TY, United Kingdom.

Objective: To obtain a set of reference values for the intake of different types of dietary fibre in a healthy UK population.

Design: This descriptive cross-sectional study used the UK Biobank data to estimate the dietary patterns of healthy individuals. Data on fibre content in different foods were used to calculate the reference values which were then calibrated using real-world data on total fibre intake. Read More

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Visceral adiposity and inflammatory bowel disease.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, Beaumont Hospital, Beaumont Rd, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Rates of obesity are increasing worldwide, as is the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Obesity is now considered an inflammatory state. Visceral adiposity in particular may be associated with a more severe inflammatory phenotype in IBD. Read More

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Academic procrastination precedes problematic mobile phone use in Chinese adolescents: A longitudinal mediation model of distraction cognitions.

Addict Behav 2021 May 23;121:106993. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Experimental and Applied Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1081 BT, The Netherlands.

Cross-sectional studies have documented a positive association between academic procrastination and problematic mobile phone use (PMPU). However, the specific predictive direction has remained controversial and the potential mechanisms underlying the association have not been rigorously evaluated. According to Davis's cognitive-behavioral model, Brand et al. Read More

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Asymptomatic infections in a longitudinal cohort of young African infants and their mothers.

Elife 2021 Jun 7;10. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

University of Georgia, Odum School of Ecology, Athens, Georgia.

Recent pertussis resurgence in numerous countries may be driven by asymptomatic infections. Most pertussis surveillance studies are cross-sectional and cannot distinguish asymptomatic from pre-symptomatic infections. Longitudinal surveillance could overcome this barrier, providing more information about the true burden of pertussis at the population level. Read More

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Electronic Longitudinal Alcohol Study in Communities (ELAStiC) Wales - protocol for platform development.

Int J Popul Data Sci 2019 May 20;4(1):581. Epub 2019 May 20.

Crime and Security Research Institute and School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF14 4XY.

Introduction: Excessive alcohol consumption has adverse effects on health and there is a recognised need for the longitudinal analysis of population data to improve our understanding of the patterns of alcohol use, harms to consumers and those in their immediate environment. The UK has a number of linkable, longitudinal databases that if assembled properly could support valuable research on this topic.

Aims And Objectives: This paper describes the development of a broad set of cross-linked cohorts, e-cohorts, surveys and linked electronic healthcare records (EHRs) to construct an alcohol-specific analytical platform in the United Kingdom using datasets on the population of Wales. Read More

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Bronchodilator response and lung function decline: Associations with exhaled nitric oxide with regard to sex and smoking status.

World Allergy Organ J 2021 May 18;14(5):100544. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Medical Sciences: Clinical Physiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a marker of type-2 inflammation used both to support diagnosis of asthma and follow up asthma patients. The associations of FeNO with lung function decline and bronchodilator (BD) response have been studied only scarcely in large populations.

Objectives: To study the association between FeNO and a) retrospective lung function decline over 20 years, and b) lung function response to BD among asthmatic subjects compared with non-asthmatic subjects and with regards to current smoking and sex. Read More

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Physical Activity as a Predictor of Cognitive Decline in an Elderly Essential Tremor Cohort: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study.

Front Neurol 2021 20;12:658527. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurology, University of Texas (UT) Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States.

Essential tremor (ET), one of the most common neurological diseases, is associated with cognitive impairment. Surprisingly, predictors of cognitive decline in ET remain largely unidentified, as longitudinal studies are rare. In the general population, however, lower physical activity has been linked to cognitive decline. Read More

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The transition from restrictive anorexia nervosa to binging and purging: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Human Neurosciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale dell'Università, 30, 00185, Rome, RM, Italy.

Numerous studies addressed the topic of behavioral and symptomatic changes in eating disorders. Rates of transition vary widely across studies, ranging from 0 to 70.8%, depending on the diagnoses taken into account and the study design. Read More

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Views of patients with advanced disease and their relatives on participation in palliative care research.

BMC Palliat Care 2021 Jun 5;20(1):80. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Center, for Palliative Care, Dykova 15, Prague, 110 00, Czech Republic.

Background: Patients with advanced disease may not be invited to participate in research based on the assumption that participation would be too burdensome for them. The aim of this study was to explore how patients with advanced disease and their relatives evaluate their experience with research participation.

Method: This study used data from two parts of a larger project. Read More

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Pediatric Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: clinical spectrum and predictors of poor outcome.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Perth Children's Hospital, Nedlands.

Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacteremia, yet the epidemiology, and predictors of poor outcome remain inadequately defined in childhood.

Methods: ISAIAH is a prospective, cross-sectional study of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), in children hospitalized in Australia and New Zealand, over 24-months (2017-2018). Read More

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Assessing Changes in Adolescents' Sleep Characteristics and Dietary Quality in the START Study, a Natural Experiment on Delayed School Start Time Policies.

J Nutr 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Sleep duration, quality, and timing may influence dietary quality. In adults, poor dietary quality is a risk factor for numerous chronic diseases. It is unclear how these various sleep domains influence adolescents' diets because prior population-based studies have not effectively manipulated sleep, did not include objective sleep measures, and had short follow-up times. Read More

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Normative Data for Nonstrabismic Binocular Vision Parameters in African Schoolchildren.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana

Significance: With reported population differences in parameters of nonstrabismic binocular vision, the present study investigated and reports normative data among a sample of African children.

Purpose: This study aimed to determine expected binocular visual function data among schoolchildren in the Central Region of Ghana.

Methods: The study used a prospective cross-sectional design and used a multistage cluster sampling approach. Read More

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COVID-19 impacts on drinking and mental health in emerging adults: Longitudinal changes and moderation by economic disruption and sex.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Peter Boris Centre for Addictions Research, St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: There are significant concerns that the COVID-19 pandemic may have negative effects on substance use and mental health, but most studies to date are cross-sectional. In a sample of emerging adults, over a two-week period during the pandemic, the current study examined: (1) changes in drinking-related outcomes, depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder and (2) differences in changes by sex and income loss. The intra-pandemic measures were compared to pre-pandemic measures. Read More

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The Gait Outcomes Assessment List for Children With Lower Limb Difference (GOAL-LD): Assessment of Reliability and Validity.

J Pediatr Orthop 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Departments of Physiotherapy Orthopaedics, The Royal Children's Hospital The Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne School of Allied Health, Australian Catholic University, Ballarat, Australia Department of Orthopedics, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH Division of Orthopedics, The Hospital for Sick Children & Department of Surgery, University of Toronto Child Health Evaluative Sciences, Research Institute, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

Background: The Gait Outcomes Assessment List for children with Lower Limb Difference (GOAL-LD) is a patient and parent-reported outcome measure that incorporates the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. This prospective multicenter cohort study evaluates the validity and reliability of the GOAL-LD and the differences between parent and adolescent report.

Method: One hundred thirty-seven pediatric patients aged over 5 years attending limb reconstruction clinics at the participating sites were assessed at baseline, and a self-selected cohort also completed an assessment 2 to 6 weeks later. Read More

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Association of Hematologic biomarkers and their combinations with disease severity and mortality in COVID-19- an Indian perspective.

Am J Blood Res 2021 15;11(2):180-190. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pathology, ESIC Medical College & Hospital Faridabad, India.

Background: COVID-19 is a systemic viral infection with a significant impact on the hematopoietic system, hemostasis as well as immune system. It would be of utmost importance to explore if the most routinely used tests could serve as an aid in determining patient's clinical status or predicting severity of the disease.

Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 506 Covid-19 positive patients and 200 controls over a period of two months (June and July 2020). Read More

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Risk Factor Management in Non-Metropolitan Patients with Coronary and Peripheral Artery Disease - A Protocol of a Prospective, Multi-Center, Quality Improvement Strategy.

Vasc Health Risk Manag 2021 27;17:267-272. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Angiology, Medical University Brandenburg, Brandenburg, Germany.

Introduction: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) account for significant morbidity and mortality in Germany and are more prevalent in rural, non-metropolitan areas. The goal of this study is to screen patients for their current atherosclerotic status, initiate treatment according to the latest scientific findings using a standardised multimodal approach and track their atherosclerotic status over one year.

Methods And Analysis: This manuscript describes the study protocol of a prospective, multicentre registry of 500 sequential patients with CAD and/or PAD in rural, non-metropolitan regions of Germany. Read More

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CSF TNF-α Levels Were Associated with Longitudinal Change in Brain Glucose Metabolism Among Non-Demented Older People.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 26;17:1659-1666. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Neurology, Taizhou First People's Hospital, Taizhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Emerging studies have suggested that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and that cerebral glucose hypometabolism is a key feature of AD. However, the association of CSF TNF-α levels with changes in cerebral glucose metabolism has not been studied among non-demented older people.

Patients And Methods: At baseline, there were a total of 214 non-demented older people from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study. Read More

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The Pattern and Spectrum of Severe Maternal Morbidities in Nigerian tertiary Hospitals.

Afr J Reprod Health 2020 Jun;24(2):115-122

Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

Maternal morbidities are precursors to maternal mortality as well as potential causes of life time disability and poor quality of life. This study aimed to determine the pattern and spectrum of life-threatening maternal morbidities seen in tertiary reproductive health facilities in Nigeria. All cases of severe maternal outcome (SMO), maternal near-misses (MNM), or maternal death (MD), attending 42 tertiary hospitals across all geopolitical zones of Nigeria were prospectively identified using the WHO criteria over a period of 14 months. Read More

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Physical and functional well-being and symptoms of ovarian cancer in women undergoing first-line of chemotherapy: a one-year follow-up.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Campinas, 200 Cândido Portinari, Campinas, SP, 13083-871, Brazil.

Purpose: Clinicopathological features and chemotherapy can influence the quality of life (QOL), women with ovarian cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the physical and functional well-being, and ovarian cancer-specific effects scores reported from QOL questionnaire among women with ovarian cancer at the time of in their initial diagnosis and access the scores trajectory of women receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy.

Methods: This prospective study used cross-sectional analysis at baseline and longitudinal analysis from baseline to 12-month post-chemotherapy. Read More

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Diagnostic performance of digital and video cholangioscopes in patients with suspected malignant biliary strictures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Surg Endosc 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Rama 4 Road, Patumwan, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Background: Per-oral cholangioscopy (POC) has evolved over the past decade from fiberoptic to digital and video imaging systems. Nowadays, only direct per-oral cholangioscopy (DPOC) and digital single-operator cholangioscopy (DS) are performed in daily practice. With better image resolution, POC is increasingly used as diagnostic tools in patients with suspected malignant biliary stricture (MBS). Read More

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Caregiver Status and Diet Quality in Community-Dwelling Adults.

Nutrients 2021 May 26;13(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA.

Objective: We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of diet quality with middle-aged caregiver status.

Methods: Caregiving in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study (57.7% women, 62% African American (AA)) was measured at waves 3 (2009-2013) and 4 (2013-2017) (mean follow-up time 4. Read More

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Relation of Serum Copper Status to Survival in COVID-19.

Nutrients 2021 May 31;13(6). Epub 2021 May 31.

Institute for Experimental Endocrinology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, D-10115 Berlin, Germany.

The trace element copper (Cu) is part of our nutrition and essentially needed for several cuproenzymes that control redox status and support the immune system. In blood, the ferroxidase ceruloplasmin (CP) accounts for the majority of circulating Cu and serves as transport protein. Both Cu and CP behave as positive, whereas serum selenium (Se) and its transporter selenoprotein P (SELENOP) behave as negative acute phase reactants. Read More

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