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Testing the effect of an integrated-intervention to promote access to sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights among women with disabilities in Ghana: a quasi-experimental study protocol.

Reprod Health 2021 Oct 15;18(1):206. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.

Background: There is evidence that women with disabilities (WWDs) experience the most difficulty accessing and using sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHRs) services and information worldwide. However, there are currently no workable interventions to reach WWDs with essential SRHR services. This study aims to test the effect of an integrated health facility and individual-level intervention on access to SRHRs information and services among sexually active WWDs aged 15-49 years in Ghana. Read More

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October 2021

Pattern stabilization in swarms of programmable active matter: A probe for turbulence at large length scales.

Phys Rev E 2021 Sep;104(3):L032601

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences, 36/P Gopanapally, Hyderabad 500046, India.

We propose an algorithm for creating stable, ordered, swarms of active robotic agents arranged in any given pattern. The strategy involves suppressing a class of fluctuations known as "nonaffine" displacements, viz., those involving nonlinear deformations of a reference pattern, while all (or most) affine deformations are allowed. Read More

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September 2021

Sonic Hedgehog Induces Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype and Chondrocyte Apoptosis in Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 27;9:716610. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Orthopedics, Rhode Island Hospital, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, United States.

Hedgehog (HH) signaling plays a critical role in osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis, but the molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. We show here that Sonic Hedgehog () gene expression is initiated in human normal cartilage stromal cells (NCSC) and increased in OA cartilage mesenchymal stromal cells (OA-MSCs) during aging. Manifesting a reciprocal cellular distribution pattern, the SHH receptors and and transcription factors and are expressed by chondrocytes (OAC) in OA cartilage. Read More

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September 2021

MDMA-Assisted Therapy as a Means to Alter Affective, Cognitive, Behavioral, and Neurological Systems Underlying Social Dysfunction in Social Anxiety Disorder.

Front Psychiatry 2021 27;12:733893. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Portland Psychotherapy Clinic, Research, and Training Center, Portland, OR, United States.

Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and often debilitating psychiatric disorder that can assume a chronic course even when treated. Despite the identification of evidence-based pharmacological and behavioral treatments for SAD, much room for improved outcomes exists and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been proposed as a promising adjunctive treatment to psychological interventions for disorders characterized by social dysfunction. A small randomized, placebo-controlled trial of MDMA-assisted therapy (MDMA-AT) for social anxiety in autistic adults offered encouraging results, but more research is sorely needed to explore the potential for MDMA-AT in treating SAD. Read More

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September 2021

Helical Nanostructures of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals as Fast Phase Retarders for Spectral Information Extraction Devices: A Comparison with the Nematic Liquid Crystal Phase Retarders.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 24;14(19). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Electrooptic and Photonics Engineering, Ilse Katz Institute of Nanoscale Science and Technology, ECE-School, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105, Israel.

Extraction of spectral information using liquid crystal (LC) retarders has recently become a topic of great interest because of its importance for creating hyper- and multispectral images in a compact and inexpensive way. However, this method of hyperspectral imaging requires thick LC-layer retarders (50 µm-100 µm and above) to obtain spectral modulation signals for reliable signal reconstruction. This makes the device extremely slow in the case of nematic LCs (NLCs), since the response time of NLCs increases proportionally to the square of the LC-layer thickness, which excludes fast dynamic processes monitoring. Read More

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September 2021

Revising "Nutritional Reference Values for Feeding at Evacuation Shelters" According to Nutrition Assistance by Public Health Dietitians Based on Past Major Natural Disasters in Japan: A Qualitative Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 24;18(19). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

School of Network and Information, Senshu University, Kawasaki 214-8580, Japan.

It is important to provide nutritionally adequate food in shelters to maintain the health of evacuees. Since the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011, Japan's Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has released the "Nutritional Reference Values for Evacuation Shelters" (Reference Values) after every major natural disaster. There is clear evidence, however, that the Reference Values have only been used infrequently. Read More

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September 2021

O-JMeSH: creating a bilingual English-Japanese controlled vocabulary of MeSH UIDs through machine translation and mutual information.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e26. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Graduate School of Integrative Science and Engineering, Tokyo City University, Tokyo 158-8557, Japan.

Previous approaches to create a controlled vocabulary for Japanese have resorted to existing bilingual dictionary and transformation rules to allow such mappings. However, given the possible new terms introduced due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the emphasis on respiratory and infection-related terms, coverage might not be guaranteed. We propose creating a Japanese bilingual controlled vocabulary based on MeSH terms assigned to COVID-19 related publications in this work. Read More

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September 2021

Connecting Artificial Proteolytic and Electrochemical Signaling Systems with Caged Messenger Peptides.

ACS Sens 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Potsdam, New York 13699, United States.

Enzymatic polypeptide proteolysis is a widespread and powerful biological control mechanism. Over the last few years, substantial progress has been made in creating artificial proteolytic systems where an input of choice modulates the protease activity and thereby the activity of its substrates. However, all proteolytic systems developed so far have relied on the direct proteolytic cleavage of their effectors. Read More

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October 2021

The Future of Flash Graphene for the Sustainable Management of Solid Waste.

ACS Nano 2021 Oct 11. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Environmental Science and Engineering Department (ESED), Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076, India.

Graphene research has steadily increased, and its commercialization in many applications is becoming a reality because of its superior physicochemical properties and advances in synthesis techniques. However, bulk-scale production of graphene still requires large amounts of solvents, electrochemical treatment, or sonication. Recently, a method was discovered to convert bulk quantities of carbonaceous materials to graphene using flash Joule heating (FJH) and, so named, flash graphene (FG). Read More

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October 2021

The impact of sociocultural contexts on mental health following sexual violence: A conceptual model.

Psychol Violence 2021 Sep;11(5):476-487

Saint Louis University.

Objective: Sexual violence has substantial mental health effects on survivors around the globe. Although there has been increasing attention to the ways that sociocultural environments can affect survivors' recovery, there has been no review to our knowledge of the specific factors within sociocultural environments that offer risk or protection, or the mechanisms by which these factors affect recovery.

Method: To address this gap, we present a conceptual model supported by a theoretical and empirical review that prioritizes research conducted with ethnic minority and global samples. Read More

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September 2021

Semi-batch and continuous production of Pickering emulsion direct contact steam condensation.

Soft Matter 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Polymer Engineering and Colloid Science Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, IIT Madras, India.

We propose a versatile strategy for the production of highly stable water in oil Pickering emulsion by direct contact condensation of steam. In contrast to conventional methods that use mechanical energy for creating drops, the condensation of steam brought in contact with a non-aqueous colloidal dispersion is exploited to produce Pickering emulsions in two modes of operation, namely, semi-batch and continuous. As steam that comes in contact with oil condenses into water drops, the particles adsorb to the interface and thus arrest drop-drop coalescence. Read More

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October 2021

Explainable machine learning model to predict refeeding hypophosphatemia.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2021 10 10;45:213-219. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Surgery National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Refeeding syndrome (RFS) is a disease that occurs when feeding is restarted and metabolism changes from catabolic to anabolic status. RFS can manifest variously, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal, therefore it may easily be overlooked. RFS prediction using explainable machine learning can improve diagnosis and treatment. Read More

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October 2021

Straightness metric for measurement of turbulence-induced distortion in long-range imaging.

Appl Opt 2021 Aug;60(22):F99-F108

Algorithms used for mitigation of the effects of atmospheric turbulence on video sequences often rely on a process for creating a reference image to register all of the frames. Because such a pristine image is generally not available, no-reference image quality metrics can be used to identify frames in a sequence that have minimum distortion. Here, we propose a metric that quantifies image warping by measuring image straightness based on line detection. Read More

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Psychological science for a responsible sharing economy.

Curr Opin Psychol 2021 Sep 9;44:100-105. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

The sharing economy is fueled by trust, which allows strangers to cooperate. To share responsibly, one needs to be aware of the various consequences sharing has on interacting and third parties. When transparency about such consequences is lacking, mutual trust among interacting parties may encourage people to cooperate and share, in turn, creating unintended negative impacts. Read More

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September 2021

[Some Key Steps for App Design].

Sante Ment Que 2021 ;46(1):119-134

Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire en santé mentale de Montréal ; Département de psychologie, Université de Montréal.

Objective To propose some key steps to facilitate the process of creating mental health smartphone applications (apps). Methods Brief presentation of the potential interest of apps and proposition of key steps for the creation of apps. The paper is based on a narrative review, a testimonial experience and some expert works. Read More

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January 2021

Infusing 21st Century Skill Development into the Undergraduate Curriculum: The Formation of the iBEARS Network.

J Microbiol Biol Educ 2021 31;22(2). Epub 2021 Aug 31.

STEM Education Center, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.

The demonstrated gap between skills needed and skills learned within a college education places both undergraduates seeking gainful employment and the employers seeking highly skilled workers at a disadvantage. Recent and up-and-coming college graduates should possess 21st century skills (i.e. Read More

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Pneumatic Soft Actuators With Kirigami Skins.

Front Robot AI 2021 13;8:749051. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Dynamic Matter Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, United States.

Soft pneumatic actuators have become indispensable for many robotic applications due to their reliability, safety, and design flexibility. However, the currently available actuator designs can be challenging to fabricate, requiring labor-intensive and time-consuming processes like reinforcing fiber wrapping and elastomer curing. To address this issue, we propose to use simple-to-fabricate kirigami skins-plastic sleeves with carefully arranged slit cuts-to construct pneumatic actuators with pre-programmable motion capabilities. Read More

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September 2021

Artist's Statement: Heart Attack.

Authors:
Halley Bergen

Acad Med 2021 10;96(10):1382

H. Bergen is a third-year student, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. At the time of creating/writing, she was a student, Oak Park and River Forest High School, Oak Park, Illinois;

The world's health care providers have realized that being agile in their thinking and growth in times of rapid change is paramount and that continuing education can be a key facet of the future of health care. As the world recovers from the COVID-19 pandemic, educators at academic health centers are faced with a crucial question: How can continuing professional development (CPD) within teams and health systems be improved so that health care providers will be ready for the next disruption? How can new information about the next disruption be collected and disseminated so that interprofessional teams will be able to effectively and efficiently manage a new disease, new information, or new procedures and keep themselves safe? Unlike undergraduate and graduate/postgraduate education, CPD does not always have an identified educational home and has had uneven and limited innovation during the pandemic. In this commentary, the authors explore the barriers to change in this sector and propose 4 principles that may serve to guide a way forward: identifying a home for interprofessional continuing education at academic health centers, improving workplace-based learning, enhancing assessment for individuals within health care teams, and creating a culture of continuous learning that promotes population health. Read More

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October 2021

SP EULER: Semantics-preserving Euler Diagrams.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Sep 29;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Creating comprehensible visualizations of highly overlapping set-typed data is a challenging task due to its complexity. To facilitate insights into set connectivity and to leverage semantic relations between intersections, we propose a fast two-step layout technique for Euler diagrams that are both well-matched and well-formed. Our method conforms to established form guidelines for Euler diagrams regarding semantics, aesthetics, and readability. Read More

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September 2021

An Automated Approach to Reasoning About Task-Oriented Insights in Responsive Visualization.

IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph 2021 Sep 29;PP. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Authors often transform a large screen visualization for smaller displays through rescaling, aggregation and other techniques when creating visualizations for both desktop and mobile devices (i.e., responsive visualization). Read More

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September 2021

Preprint Highlight: Pressure and curvature control of contact inhibition in epithelia growing under spherical confinement.

Authors:
Alexandre Bisson

Mol Biol Cell 2021 Oct;32(20):1109

Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02453.

All living systems evolved molecular mechanisms to respond to their physical surroundings, such as by tuning cell cycle progression as well as transport of different cargo across intracellular compartments. However, it is difficult to determine if such responses are genetically programmed or purely resultant of physical forces. This study deploys a new confinement device that modulates chamber stiffness, curvature, and compression over epithelial tissue. Read More

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October 2021

In Situ Formation of Surface-Induced Oxygen Vacancies in CoS/CoO/NC as a Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Improved Oxygen and Hydrogen Evolution Reactions.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Aug 30;11(9). Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic/Electrophotonic Conversion Materials, Key Laboratory of Cluster Science, Ministry of Education of China, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

Creating oxygen vacancies and introducing heterostructures are two widely used strategies in Co-based oxides for their efficient electrocatalytic performance, yet both strategies have rarely been used together to design a bifunctional electrocatalyst for an efficient overall water splitting. Herein, we propose a facile strategy to synthesize oxygen-defect-rich CoS/CoO hetero-nanoparticles with a nitrogen-doped carbon shell (ODR-CoS/CoO/NC) through the in situ conversion of heterojunction along with surface-induced oxygen vacancies, simply via annealing the precursor CoS/Co(OH)/ZIF-67. The as-prepared ODR-CoS/CoO/NC shows excellent bifunctional catalytic activities, featuring a low overpotential of 217 mV at 10 mA cm in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and 160 mV at 10 mA cm in the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Read More

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Interplay of Trypanosome Lytic Factor and innate immune cells in the resolution of cutaneous Leishmania infection.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Sep 24;17(9):e1008768. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Biology, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York, New York, United States of America.

Trypanosome Lytic Factor (TLF) is a primate-specific high-density lipoprotein (HDL) complex that, through the cation channel-forming protein apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1), provides innate immunity to select kinetoplastid parasites. The immunoprotective effects of TLF have been extensively investigated in the context of its interaction with the extracellular protozoan Trypanosoma brucei brucei, to which it confers sterile immunity. We previously showed that TLF could act against an intracellular pathogen Leishmania, and here we dissected the role of TLF and its synergy with host-immune cells. Read More

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September 2021

Precision Public Health Campaign: Delivering Persuasive Messages to Relevant Segments Through Targeted Advertisements on Social Media.

JMIR Form Res 2021 09 24;5(9):e22313. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Qatar Computing Research Institute, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Doha, Qatar.

Although established marketing techniques have been applied to design more effective health campaigns, more often than not, the same message is broadcasted to large populations, irrespective of unique characteristics. As individual digital device use has increased, so have individual digital footprints, creating potential opportunities for targeted digital health interventions. We propose a novel precision public health campaign framework to structure and standardize the process of designing and delivering tailored health messages to target particular population segments using social media-targeted advertising tools. Read More

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September 2021

A longitudinal surgical systems strengthening research program for medical students: the exploration of a model for global health education.

Glob Health Res Policy 2021 Sep 23;6(1):34. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Surgery, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 125 Paterson Street - Suite 6300, New Brunswick, NJ, 08901, USA.

Background: In response to the staggering global burden of conditions requiring emergency and essential surgery, the development of international surgical system strengthening (SSS) is fundamental to achieving universal, timely, quality, and affordable surgical care. Opportunity exists in identifying optimal collaborative processes that both promote global surgery research and SSS, and include medical students. This study explores an education model to engage students in academic global surgery and SSS via institutional support for longitudinal research. Read More

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September 2021

A novel 3D culture model recapitulates primary FL B cell features and promotes their survival.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

INSERM U1053, Bordeaux, France.

Non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas (B-NHL) mainly develop within lymph nodes (LN) as densely packed aggregates of tumor cells and their surrounding microenvironment, creating a tumor niche specific to each lymphoma subtypes. In vitro preclinical models mimicking biomechanical forces, cellular microenvironment, and 3D organization of B-cell lymphomas remain scarce, while all these parameters constitute key determinants of lymphomagenesis and drug resistance. Using a microfluidic method based on cell encapsulation inside permeable, elastic, and hollow alginate microspheres, we developed a new tunable 3D-model incorporating lymphoma B cells, extracellular matrix (ECM), and/or tonsil stromal cells (TSC). Read More

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September 2021

Advancing Social Mission Research: A Call to Action.

Acad Med 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

C. Erikson is deputy director, Health Workforce Research Center on Health Equity in Health Professions Education and Training, Fitzhugh Mullan Institute for Health Workforce Equity, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC. ORCID: http://orcid.org/:0000-0003-1531-9535. M. Ziemann is senior research associate, Fitzhugh Mullan Institute for Health Workforce Equity, Department of Health Policy and Management, Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.

Social mission efforts in health professions education are designed to advance health equity and address the health disparities of the society in which they exist. While there is growing evidence that social mission-related interventions are associated with intended outcomes such as practice in underserved communities, student diversity, and students graduating with skills and knowledge that prepare them to address societal needs, critical evidence gaps remain that limit the possibility of generalizing findings and using social mission strategically to advance health equity. At a time when COVID-19 has been laying bare health disparities related to systemic racism and maldistribution of resources, understanding how health professions training can produce the workforce needed to advance health equity becomes even more imperative. Read More

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September 2021

PERSPECTIVE: The Digital Health App Policy Landscape: Regulatory Gaps and Choices Through the Lens of Mental Health.

J Ment Health Policy Econ 2021 Sep;24(3):101-108

330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA,

Background: Interest in and use of mental health apps have grown over the past decade, and now further with the COVID-19 pandemic. Digital mental health offers potential to increase access to care, but tangible risks around safety and poor efficacy remain common.

Methods: We conduct a select analysis of U. Read More

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September 2021

Dual effect of the coordination field and sulphuric acid on the properties of a single-atom catalyst in the electrosynthesis of HO.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 29;23(37):21338-21349. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Institute of Industrial Catalysis, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green-Chemical Synthesis Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, P. R. China.

Electrocatalytic synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (HO) the two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (2e ORR) is the ideal solution for on-site HO production. Herein, we propose a new strategy for creating new 2e ORR catalysts by introducing electron-deficient B atoms and electron-rich N atoms to regulate the coordination field of metal ions on a graphene substrate. Through the first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, NiNB-h was screened out as it had a low overpotential (0. Read More

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September 2021

Using informative features in machine learning based method for COVID-19 drug repurposing.

J Cheminform 2021 Sep 20;13(1):70. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel virus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This virus induced a large number of deaths and millions of confirmed cases worldwide, creating a serious danger to public health. However, there are no specific therapies or drugs available for COVID-19 treatment. Read More

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September 2021