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Recent Advances in Anticancer and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Phytochemicals and Organic Polymers.

Nanotechnology 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Yamagata University, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa, Yamagata, Yamagata, Yamagata, 992-8510, JAPAN.

Development of eco-friendly synthetic methods has resulted in the production of biocompatible Ag NPs for applications in medical sector. To overcome the prevailing antibiotic resistance in bacteria, Ag NPs are being extensively researched over the past few years due to their broad spectrum & robust antimicrobial properties. Silver nanoparticles are also being studied widely in advanced anticancer therapy as an alternative anticancer agent to combat cancer in an effective manner. Read More

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Fluorescent Chameleon Labels for Bioconjugation and Imaging of Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Biogenic Amines and Surface Amino Groups. A Review.

Authors:
Otto S Wolfbeis

Methods Appl Fluoresc 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Chemo- and Biosensors, University of Regensburg, Postfach, Regensburg, Bayern, 93040, GERMANY.

Chameleon labels (ChLs) possess the unique property of changing (visible) color and fluorescence on binding to amino groups of biomolecules. Some ChLs react with primary aliphatic amino groups such as those in lysine or with amino groups artificially introduced into polynucleic acids or saccharides, while others also react with secondary amino groups. Under controlled circumstances, the reactions are fairly specific. Read More

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The Future of Parallel Tumor and Germline Genetic Testing: Is There a Role for All Patients With Cancer?

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Jul 28;19(7):871-878. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

1Clinical Genetics Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Under the traditional paradigm of genetic testing in cancer, the role of germline testing was to assess for the inherited risk of cancer, whereas the role of tumor testing was to determine therapeutic selection. Parallel tumor-normal genetic testing uses simultaneous genetic testing of the tumor and normal tissue to identify mutations and allows their classification as either germline or somatic. The increasing adoption of parallel testing has revealed a greater number of germline findings in patients who otherwise would not have met clinical criteria for testing. Read More

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Aorta-cameral fistulas: Spectrum of CT findings and review.

Clin Imaging 2021 Jul 29;80:193-198. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Alpert Medical School at Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, United States of America.

Aorto-cameral fistula (ACF) is an uncommon entity, defined as an abnormal communication between the aorta and a cardiac chamber. The most common causes include ruptured sinus of Valsalva aneurysm, infective endocarditis, traumatic injury, aortic dissection, or rarely can be iatrogenic in nature. While smaller communications may initially be asymptomatic, the natural course of these connections is generally refractory heart failure as they do not spontaneously heal. Read More

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Non-structural protein 5 (NS5) as a target for antiviral development against established and emergent flaviviruses.

Curr Opin Virol 2021 Jul 30;50:30-39. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Department of NMR-based Structural Biology, Max-Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg 11, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Flaviviruses are among the most critical pathogens in tropical regions and cause a growing number of severe diseases in developing countries. The development of antiviral therapeutics is crucial for managing flavivirus outbreaks. Among the ten proteins encoded in the flavivirus RNA, non-structural protein 5, NS5, is a promising drug target. Read More

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Transfer learning artificial intelligence for automated detection of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing evaluation for suspected obstructive sleep apnoea: a feasibility study.

Sleep Med 2021 Jul 17;85:166-171. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

School of Medicine, The University of Notre Dame Australia, 21 Henry St., Fremantle, WA, 6160, Australia; Bendat Respiratory Research and Development Fund, SJOG Subiaco, WA, 6008, Australia.

Background: Individuals with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) experience a higher burden of atrial fibrillation (AF) than the general population, and many cases of AF remain undetected. We tested the feasibility of an artificial intelligence (AI) approach to opportunistic detection of AF from single-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) which are routinely recorded during in-laboratory polysomnographic sleep studies.

Methods: Using transfer learning, an existing ECG AI model was applied to 1839 single-lead ECG traces recorded during in-laboratory sleep studies without any training of the algorithm. Read More

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Proton beam therapy in rectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 27;38:101638. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Countess of Chester NHS Foundation Trust, UK; Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, 200 London Road, Liverpool, L3 9TA, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: Locally advanced rectal cancer is often treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery. Radiotherapy carries significant risk of toxicity to organs at risk (OAR). Proton beam therapy (PBT) has demonstrated to be effective in other cancers, delivering equivalent dosimetric radiation but with the benefit of improved sparing of OAR. Read More

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Antiseizure medication nonadherence and its associated factors among Epileptic patients in Ethiopia, a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Seizure 2021 Jul 26;91:462-475. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

College of Nursing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada; School of Life Sciences and Bioengineering, Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania. Electronic address:

Background: The majority of patients with epilepsy in resource-poor countries never receive proper treatment, and those who are started on anti-seizure medications quickly discontinue them. Medication noncompliance is extremely common, with estimates ranging from 26 to 79 percent. Non-adherence to antiseizure medications is associated with poor seizure control, increased morbidity, increased hospitalization time, poor quality of life, increased health care costs, and increased mortality in adults. Read More

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Design and engineering of artificial microbial consortia for biohydrogen production.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2021 Jul 30;73:74-80. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Archaea Physiology & Biotechnology Group, Department of Functional and Evolutionary Ecology, Universität Wien, Wien, Austria. Electronic address:

In natural microbial ecosystems the metabolic diversity of the organisms enables interaction among the community members and allows them to engage in syntrophic interactions. With regard to biotechnology, artificial microbial consortium engineering is used to improve productivities and yields of bioprocesses. However, to achieve supreme productivity or efficiency at industrial scale, defined ecosystems must be physiologically well-selected to meet eco-biotechnological demands. Read More

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Evaluation and management of pleural sepsis.

Respir Med 2021 Jul 28;187:106553. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

The Pulmonary Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; South Shore Hospital, South Weymouth, MA, USA.

Pleural sepsis stems from an infection within the pleural space typically from an underlying bacterial pneumonia leading to development of a parapneumonic effusion. This effusion is traditionally divided into uncomplicated, complicated, and empyema. Poor clinical outcomes and increased mortality can be associated with the development of parapneumonic effusions, reinforcing the importance of early recognition and diagnosis. Read More

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Prevalence and associated factors of post-traumatic stress disorder in Lebanon: A literature review.

Authors:
Magalie El Hajj

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 Jul 29;63:102800. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Partner 4 Health, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Lebanon has been under continuous conflict for more than four decades, putting millions of Lebanese at a high risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and creating a complex collective trauma. This paper aimed to review all studies from Lebanon reporting on PTSD in order to describe the prevalence of PTSD and its associated risk factors among Lebanese adults. A search of the MEDLINE/PubMed database was conducted in February/March 2021 to identify research articles on PTSD in Lebanese adults. Read More

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Targeting immunosuppressor cells with nanoparticles in autoimmunity: How far have we come to?

Cell Immunol 2021 Jul 27;368:104412. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Immunology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Autoimmunity is the assault of immune response towards self-antigens, resulting to inflammation and tissue injury. It is staged into three phases and caused by malfunction of immune tolerance. In our body, immune tolerance is synchronized by several immunosuppressor cells such as regulatory T cells and B cells as well as myeloid-derived suppressor cells, which are prominently dysregulated in autoimmunity. Read More

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Uncommon and peculiar soft tissue sarcomas: Multidisciplinary review and practical recommendations. Spanish Group for Sarcoma research (GEIS -GROUP). Part II.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Jul 16;99:102260. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Hospital Vall D'Hebron, Medical Oncology Department, Barcelona, Spain.

Among all Soft Tissue sarcomas there are some subtypes with low incidence and/or peculiar clinical behaviour, that need to be consider separately. Most of them are orphan diseases, whose biological characteristics imply a clearly different diagnostic and therapeutic approach from other more common sarcoma tumors. We present a brief and updated multidiciplinary review, focused on practical issues, aimed at helping clinicians in decision making. Read More

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A prospective clinical and biomechanical analysis of feet following first metatarsophalangeal joint replacement.

Gait Posture 2021 Jul 28;89:211-216. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Sport, Outdoor & Exercise Science, School of Human Sciences, University of Derby, Kedleston Road, Derby, UK.

Background: There is a lack of research providing a biomechanical outcome following 1 MTPJ replacement for hallux rigidus. Despite this, 1 MTPJ replacement continues to be an alternative surgical option to fusion for this painful debilitating condition. Several studies do consider the patient reported outcomes which are subjective. Read More

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How narratives of racial progress create barriers to diversity, equity, and inclusion in organizations.

Curr Opin Psychol 2021 Jul 8;43:108-113. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

University of Massachusetts, Amherst, United States.

Despite statements in support of racial justice, many organizations fail to make good on their commitments to diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI). In this review, we describe the role of the narrative of racial progress-which conceives of society as rapidly and automatically ascending toward racial equity-in these failures. Specifically, the narrative (1) envisions organizations as race neutral, (2) creates barriers to complex cross-race discussions about equity, (3) creates momentum for less effective policy change, and (4) reduces urgency around DEI goals. Read More

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Prosocial behavior and reputation: When does doing good lead to looking good?

Curr Opin Psychol 2021 Jul 9;43:102-107. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Marketing Department, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, 3730 Walnut St., Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

One reason people engage in prosocial behavior is to reap the reputational benefits associated with being seen as generous. Yet, there isn't a direct connection between doing good deeds and being seen as a good person. Prosocial actors are often met with suspicion and sometimes castigated as disingenuous braggarts, empty virtue-signalers, or holier-than-thou hypocrites. Read More

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Association of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide level with adverse outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis.

Heart Lung 2021 Jul 30;50(6):863-869. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Cardiology, Tongde Hospital of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province, 310012, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Studies evaluating the association of blood level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with adverse prognosis have yielded conflicting results in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This meta-analysis sought to evaluate the prognostic value of blood level of NT-proBNP in patients with AMI.

Methods: Two authors independently searched articles in PubMed and Embase databases up to June 13, 2021. Read More

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Intact circadian rhythm despite cortisol hypersecretion in Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysis.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jul 26;132:105367. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Psychology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 648 Cherry St. NW, Atlanta GA 30313, USA. Electronic address:

Hypersecretion of the glucocorticoid steroid hormone cortisol by individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been suspected for several decades, during which time dozens of examinations of this phenomenon have been conducted and published. The goals of this investigation were to summarize this sizeable body of literature, test whether participant and methodological characteristics modify the magnitude of the AD-associated basal cortisol hypersecretion, and examine whether cortisol circadian rhythmicity is maintained among individuals with AD. To this end, the present meta-analysis and systematic review examined over 300 comparisons of indices of basal HPA-axis functioning between individuals with AD and cognitively normal older adults. Read More

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Intranasal oxytocin administration but not peripheral oxytocin regulates behaviors of attachment insecurity: A meta-analysis.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jul 24;132:105369. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

College of Life Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China; Shaanxi Key Laboratory for Animal Conservation, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China; College of Medicine, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China; Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China. Electronic address:

In light of the roles of oxytocin (OT) in social bonding and interpersonal relationship, studies have examined the roles of OT in human attachment, but by and large previous findings are inconsistent. Here, we conducted - meta-analyses to estimate the associations between peripheral OT level (e.g. Read More

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A Review On digital image processing techniques for in-Vivo confocal images of the cornea.

Med Image Anal 2021 Jul 23;73:102188. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

This work reviews the scientific literature regarding digital image processing for in vivo confocal microscopy images of the cornea. We present and discuss a selection of prominent techniques designed for semi- and automatic analysis of four areas of the cornea (epithelium, sub-basal nerve plexus, stroma and endothelium). The main context is image enhancement, detection of structures of interest, and quantification of clinical information. Read More

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Protein stoichiometry, structural plasticity and regulation of bacterial microcompartments.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2021 Jul 30;63:133-141. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Systems Molecular and Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 7ZB, United Kingdom; Materials Innovation Factory and Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L7 3NY, United Kingdom.

Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are self-assembling prokaryotic organelles consisting of a polyhedral proteinaceous shell and encapsulated enzymes that are involved in CO fixation or carbon catabolism. Addressing how the hundreds of building components self-assemble to form the metabolically functional organelles and how their structures and functions are modulated in the extremely dynamic bacterial cytoplasm is of importance for basic understanding of protein organelle formation and synthetic engineering of metabolic modules for biotechnological applications. Here, we highlight recent advances in understanding the protein composition and stoichiometry of BMCs, with a particular focus on carboxysomes and propanediol utilization microcompartments. Read More

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Metabolic stringent response in intracellular stages of Leishmania.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2021 Jul 30;63:126-132. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia. Electronic address:

Leishmania are unusual in being able to survive long-term in the mature phagolysosome compartment of macrophages and other phagocytic cells in their mammalian hosts. Key to their survival in this niche, Leishmania amastigotes switch to a slow growth state and activate a stringent metabolic response. The stringent metabolic response may be triggered by multiple stresses and is associated with decreased metabolic fluxes, restricted use of sugars and fatty acids as carbon sources and increased dependence on metabolic homeostasis pathways. Read More

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A global review of seed enhancement technology use to inform improved applications in restoration.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 16;798:149096. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Biological Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia; Kings Park Science, Department of Biodiversity Conservation and Attractions, 2 Kattidj Close, Kings Park, Western Australia, 6005, Australia.

Seed-based restoration often experiences poor success due to a range of edaphic and biotic issues. Seed enhancement technologies (SETs) are a novel approach that can alleviate these pressures and improve restoration success. Broadly, SETs have been reviewed for agricultural and horticultural purposes, for specific types of SETs such as coating or priming, or for focal ecosystems. Read More

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Hormetic dose responses induced by antibiotics in bacteria: A phantom menace to be thoroughly evaluated to address the environmental risk and tackle the antibiotic resistance phenomenon.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 27;798:149255. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

The environmental contamination of antibiotics caused by their over or inappropriate use is a major issue for environmental and human health since it can adversely impact the ecosystems and promote the antimicrobial resistance. Indeed, considering that in the environmental matrices these drugs are present at low levels, the possibility that bacteria exhibit a hormetic response to increase their resilience when exposed to antibiotic subinhibitory concentrations might represent a serious threat. Information reported in this review showed that exposure to different types of antibiotics, either administered individually or in mixtures, is capable of exerting hormetic effects on bacteria at environmentally relevant concentrations. Read More

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How to convince an editor to accept your paper quickly.

Authors:
Ronald A Hites

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 22;798:149243. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, United States. Electronic address:

Let's imagine that you have just finished writing a scientific paper. The paper is well-structured and clearly written, and you are proud of it. Now is the time to submit it to a peer-reviewed journal and see what your colleagues think of it. Read More

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Internet use behavior among adolescents and young adults with chronic illnesses.

J Pediatr Nurs 2021 Jul 30;60:260-266. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The University of Texas at Austin School of Nursing, 1710 Red River Street, Austin, TX 78712, United States of America.

Purpose: Approximately 25% of adolescents and young adults (AYA) have special healthcare needs. Transitioning from a pediatric to an adult model of healthcare is an important event but most AYA with special health care needs and their families do not receive the preparation and support they need to transition to adult care. The purpose of this scoping review was to determine how AYA use the internet for health-related information. Read More

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Abnormalities of the type I interferon signaling pathway in lupus autoimmunity.

Cytokine 2021 Jul 30;146:155633. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Medical Genetics and Molecular Biochemistry, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Fels Cancer Institute for Personalized Medicine, Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Type I interferons (IFNs), mostly IFNα and IFNβ, and the type I IFN Signature are important in the pathogenesis of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune chronic condition linked to inflammation. Both IFNα and IFNβ trigger a signaling cascade that, through the activation of JAK1, TYK2, STAT1 and STAT2, initiates gene transcription of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). Noteworthy, other STAT family members and IFN Responsive Factors (IRFs) can also contribute to the activation of the IFN response. Read More

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Synthesis of Oxazino[4,3-a]indoles and biological applications.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jul 29;224:113728. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Université Paris-Saclay, CNRS, BioCIS, 92290, Châtenay-Malabry, France. Electronic address:

This review brings together the various pathways to the oxazino[4,3-a]indole motif over the last decades. Representative examples showing the scope of these processes will illustrate the synthetic pathways and the biological activity of the synthesized oxazinoindoles will be mentioned wherever possible. Read More

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Male subfertility and oxidative stress.

Redox Biol 2021 Jul 18;46:102071. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

To date 15% of couples are suffering from infertility with 45-50% of males being responsible. With an increase in paternal age as well as various environmental and lifestyle factors worsening these figures are expected to increase. As the so-called free radical theory of infertility suggests, free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an essential role in this process. Read More

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Serine ADP-ribosylation in DNA-damage response regulation.

Curr Opin Genet Dev 2021 Jul 30;71:106-113. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3RE, UK. Electronic address:

PARP1 and PARP2 govern the DNA-damage response by catalysing the reversible post-translational modification ADP-ribosylation. During the repair of DNA lesions, PARP1 and PARP2 combine with an accessory factor HPF1, which is required for the modification of target proteins on serine residues. Although the physiological role of individual ADP-ribosylation sites is still unclear, serine ADP-ribosylation at damage sites leads to the recruitment of chromatin remodellers and repair factors to ensure efficient DNA repair. Read More

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