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Dual role of miR-1 in the development and function of sinoatrial cells.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 May 6;157:104-112. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Cell Physiology MiLAb; Department of Biosciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

miR-1, the most abundant miRNA in the heart, modulates expression of several transcription factors and ion channels. Conditions affecting the heart rate, such as endurance training and cardiac diseases, show a concomitant miR-1 up- or down-regulation. Here, we investigated the role of miR-1 overexpression in the development and function of sinoatrial (SAN) cells using murine embryonic stem cells (mESC). Read More

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Heat and mass transfer on MHD squeezing flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in horizontal channel through permeable medium.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0250402. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia.

The heat and mass transfer on time dependent hydrodynamic squeeze flow of Jeffrey nanofluid across two plates over permeable medium in the slip condition with heat generation/absorption, thermal radiation and chemical reaction are investigated. The impacts of Brownian motion and thermophoresis is examined in the Buongiorno's nanofluid model. Conversion of the governing partial differential equations to the ordinary differential equations is conducted via similarity transformation. Read More

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Regulation of Cardiac Conduction and Arrhythmias by Ankyrin/Spectrin-Based Macromolecular Complexes.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2021 Apr 29;8(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

The Frick Center for Heart Failure and Arrhythmia, The Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

The cardiac conduction system is an extended network of excitable tissue tasked with generation and propagation of electrical impulses to signal coordinated contraction of the heart. The fidelity of this system depends on the proper spatio-temporal regulation of ion channels in myocytes throughout the conduction system. Importantly, inherited or acquired defects in a wide class of ion channels has been linked to dysfunction at various stages of the conduction system resulting in life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia. Read More

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Spontaneous electron emission vs dissociation in internally hot silver dimer anions.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(16):164301

Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdańsk University of Technology, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland.

Referring to a recent experiment, we theoretically study the process of a two-channel decay of the diatomic silver anion (Ag), namely, the spontaneous electron ejection giving Ag + e and the dissociation leading to Ag + Ag. The ground state potential energy curves of the silver molecules of diatomic neutral and negative ions were calculated using proper pseudo-potentials and atomic basis sets. We also estimated the non-adiabatic electronic coupling between the ground state of Ag and the ground state of Ag + e, which, in turn, allowed us to estimate the minimal and mean values of the electron autodetachment lifetimes. Read More

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Flagellar energetics from high-resolution imaging of beating patterns in tethered mouse sperm.

Elife 2021 Apr 30;10. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.

We demonstrate a technique for investigating the energetics of flagella or cilia. We record the planar beating of tethered mouse sperm at high-resolution. Beating waveforms are reconstructed using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of the centerline tangent-angle profiles. Read More

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Dispensing of Non-Prescribed Antibiotics from Community Pharmacies of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Pharmacy Staff's Opinion.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Community pharmacies are the main channel of antibiotics distribution. We aimed to analyze the dispensing of non-prescribed antibiotics and knowledge of pharmacy staff. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Punjab, Pakistan between December 2017 and March 2018. Read More

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Patch-Clamp Recordings of Action Potentials From Human Atrial Myocytes: Optimization Through Dynamic Clamp.

Front Pharmacol 2021 12;12:649414. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medical Biology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Consequently, novel therapies are being developed. Ultimately, the impact of compounds on the action potential (AP) needs to be tested in freshly isolated human atrial myocytes. Read More

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Evaluation of anxiety in patients undergoing complete denture treatment.

J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2021 Jan-Mar;21(1):66-73

Department of Prosthodontics, MGM Dental College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Aim: To evaluate anxiety in patients undergoing complete denture treatment.

Settings And Design: The most overlooked factor during complete denture treatment is the patient's anxiety regarding the treatment. The awareness amongst dentists regarding such anxiety and its effects on the complete denture treatment is important to form a proper communication channel through which measures to ease this anxiety can be formulated and implemented. Read More

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January 2022

Immediate Implant in Maxillary Central Incisors and Prosthetic Screw Channel: A CBCT Feasibility Study.

Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2021 Mar-Apr;41(2):245-251

This study aimed to assess how frequently the maxilla anatomy allows for lingualized immediate implants in the central incisor region with a screw channel that has an ideal distance of 1.5 mm from the incisal margin. The effect of abutments with angle correction on case selection will also be verified. Read More

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Deletion of renal Nedd4-2 abolishes the effect of high sodium intake (HS) on Kir4.1, ENaC, and NCC and causes hypokalemia during high HS.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 May 5;320(5):F883-F896. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York.

Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 4-2 (Nedd4-2) regulates the expression of Kir4.1, thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC), and epithelial Na channel (ENaC) in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN), and Nedd4-2 deletion causes salt-sensitive hypertension. We now examined whether Nedd4-2 deletion compromises the effect of high-salt (HS) diet on Kir4. Read More

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Multiple Layered Control of the Conjugation Process of the Plasmid pLS20.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 18;8:648468. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Centre for Bacterial Cell Biology, Biosciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Bacterial conjugation is the main horizontal gene transfer route responsible for the spread of antibiotic resistance, virulence and toxin genes. During conjugation, DNA is transferred from a donor to a recipient cell via a sophisticated channel connecting the two cells. Conjugation not only affects many different aspects of the plasmid and the host, ranging from the properties of the membrane and the cell surface of the donor, to other developmental processes such as competence, it probably also poses a burden on the donor cell due to the expression of the large number of genes involved in the conjugation process. Read More

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Defects in KCNJ16 Cause a Novel Tubulopathy with Hypokalemia, Salt Wasting, Disturbed Acid-Base Homeostasis, and Sensorineural Deafness.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: The transepithelial transport of electrolytes, solutes, and water in the kidney is a well-orchestrated process involving numerous membrane transport systems. Basolateral potassium channels in tubular cells not only mediate potassium recycling for proper Na,K-ATPase function but are also involved in potassium and pH sensing. Genetic defects in cause EAST/SeSAME syndrome, characterized by renal salt wasting with hypokalemic alkalosis associated with epilepsy, ataxia, and sensorineural deafness. Read More

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Structure and Function of Ion Channels Regulating Sperm Motility-An Overview.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 23;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Animal Physiology and Development, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, 61-614 Poznan, Poland.

Sperm motility is linked to the activation of signaling pathways that trigger movement. These pathways are mainly dependent on Ca, which acts as a secondary messenger. The maintenance of adequate Ca concentrations is possible thanks to proper concentrations of other ions, such as K and Na, among others, that modulate plasma membrane potential and the intracellular pH. Read More

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D2D Mobile Relaying Meets NOMA-Part II: A Reinforcement Learning Perspective.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 4;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

School of Computer Science, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Ben Guerir 43150, Morocco.

Structureless communications such as Device-to-Device (D2D) relaying are undeniably of paramount importance to improving the performance of today's mobile networks. Such a communication paradigm requires a certain level of intelligence at the device level, thereby allowing it to interact with the environment and make proper decisions. However, decentralizing decision-making may induce paradoxical outcomes, resulting in a drop in performance, which sustains the design of self-organizing yet efficient systems. Read More

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Molecular Mobility in Oriented and Unoriented Membranes Based on Poly[2-(Aziridin-1-yl)ethanol].

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Mar 28;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Institute of Technology of Materials (ITM), Universitat Politècnica de València (UPV), Camí de Vera s/n, 46022 València, Spain.

Unoriented and oriented membranes based on dendronized polymers and copolymers obtained by chemical modification of poly[2-(aziridin-1-yl) ethanol] (PAZE) with the dendron 3,4,5-tris[4-(-dodecan-1-yloxy)benzyloxy]benzoate were considered. DSC, XRD, CP-MAS NMR and DETA, contribute to characterize the tendency to crystallize, the molecular mobility of the benzyloxy substituent, the dendritic liquid crystalline group and the clearing transition. The orientation of the mesogenic chain somewhat hindered this molecular motion, especially in the full substituted PAZE. Read More

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The sodium leak channel NALCN regulates cell excitability of pituitary endocrine cells.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21400

IGF, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, INSERM, Montpellier, France.

Anterior pituitary endocrine cells that release hormones such as growth hormone and prolactin are excitable and fire action potentials. In these cells, several studies previously showed that extracellular sodium (Na ) removal resulted in a negative shift of the resting membrane potential (RMP) and a subsequent inhibition of the spontaneous firing of action potentials, suggesting the contribution of a Na background conductance. Here, we show that the Na leak channel NALCN conducts a Ca - Gd -sensitive and TTX-resistant Na background conductance in the GH cell line, a cell model of pituitary endocrine cells. Read More

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Signal transduction through Cys-loop receptors is mediated by the nonspecific bumping of closely apposed domains.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(14)

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801;

One of the most fundamental questions in the field of Cys-loop receptors (pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, pLGICs) is how the affinity for neurotransmitters and the conductive/nonconductive state of the transmembrane pore are correlated despite the ∼60-Å distance between the corresponding domains. Proposed mechanisms differ, but they all converge into the idea that interactions between wild-type side chains across the extracellular-transmembrane-domain (ECD-TMD) interface are crucial for this phenomenon. Indeed, the successful design of fully functional chimeras that combine intact ECD and TMD modules from different wild-type pLGICs has commonly been ascribed to the residual conservation of sequence that exists at the level of the interfacial loops even between evolutionarily distant parent channels. Read More

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Structural determinants of voltage-gating properties in calcium channels.

Elife 2021 Mar 30;10. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Voltage-gated calcium channels control key functions of excitable cells, like synaptic transmission in neurons and the contraction of heart and skeletal muscles. To accomplish such diverse functions, different calcium channels activate at different voltages and with distinct kinetics. To identify the molecular mechanisms governing specific voltage sensing properties, we combined structure modeling, mutagenesis, and electrophysiology to analyze the structures, free energy, and transition kinetics of the activated and resting states of two functionally distinct voltage sensing domains (VSDs) of the eukaryotic calcium channel Ca1. Read More

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Correlation of anorectal malformation complexity and associated urologic abnormalities.

J Pediatr Surg 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Center for Colorectal and Pelvic Reconstruction, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, United States.

Background: Patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) commonly have associated urologic anomalies. Few large studies exist to accurately characterize the incidence or associations between severity of malformation and urologic diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of urologic diagnoses in a large cohort of children with ARM and evaluate for any correlation between severity of ARM and the incidence and number of associated urologic diagnoses. Read More

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February 2021

Two-Dimensional Master Equation Modeling of Some Multichannel Unimolecular Reactions.

Authors:
Akira Matsugi

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 22;125(12):2532-2545. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569, Japan.

Multichannel thermal decomposition reactions of -propyl radicals, 1-pentyl radicals, and toluene are investigated by solving a two-dimensional master equation formulated as a function of total energy () and angular momentum (). The primary aim of this study is to elucidate the role of angular momentum in the kinetics of multichannel unimolecular reactions. The collisional transition processes of the reactants colliding with argon are characterized based on the classical trajectory calculations and implemented in the master equation. Read More

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Aquaporin-4 is a potential drug target for traumatic brain injury via aggravating the severity of brain edema.

Burns Trauma 2021 Jan 15;9:tkaa050. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing 400042, China.

Background: Traumatic brain edema (TBE) is caused by a specific water channel mediated by membrane aquaporins. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) plays an especially important role in this process, but the relationship between AQP4 and TBE remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore expression of AQP4 in the hippocampus after traumatic brain injury (TBI), as well as the effect of brain edema on skeletal protein and its function in hippocampal neurons. Read More

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January 2021

Source separation from single-channel abdominal phonocardiographic signals based on independent component analysis.

Authors:
Sepideh Jabbari

Biomed Eng Lett 2021 Feb 2;11(1):55-67. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Electrical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.

: Continuous monitoring of fetal heart rate (FHR) is essential to diagnose heart abnormalities. Therefore, FHR measurement is considered as the most important parameter to evaluate heart function. One method of FHR extraction is done by using fetal phonocardiogram (fPCG) signal, which is obtained directly from the mother abdominal surface with a medical stethoscope. Read More

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February 2021

Word and Mystery: The Acoustics of Cultural Transmission During the Protestant Reformation.

Authors:
Braxton Boren

Front Psychol 2021 2;12:564542. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Audio Technology Program, Department of Performing Arts, American University, Washington, DC, United States.

To a first-order approximation we can place most worship services on a continuum between clarity and mystery, depending on the setting and content of the service. This liturgical space can be thought of as a combination of the physical acoustics of the worship space and the qualities of the sound created during the worship service. A very clear acoustic channel emphasizes semantic content, especially speech intelligibility. Read More

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Electrophysiological characterization of photoreceptor-like cells in human inducible pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal organoids during in vitro maturation.

Stem Cells 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Eye Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of USTC, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, People's Republic of China.

Retinal organoids (ROs) derived from human inducible pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) exhibit considerable therapeutic potential. However, current quality control of ROs during in vitro differentiation is largely limited to the detection of molecular markers, often by immunostaining, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and sequencing, often without proper functional assessments. As such, in the current study, we systemically characterized the physiological maturation of photoreceptor-like cells in hiPSC-derived ROs. Read More

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Anoctamin 2-chloride channels reduce simple spike activity and mediate inhibition at elevated calcium concentration in cerebellar Purkinje cells.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(3):e0247801. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Animal Physiology, Centre for Organismal Studies, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Modulation of neuronal excitability is a prominent way of shaping the activity of neuronal networks. Recent studies highlight the role of calcium-activated chloride currents in this context, as they can both increase or decrease excitability. The calcium-activated chloride channel Anoctamin 2 (ANO2 alias TMEM16B) has been described in several regions of the mouse brain, including the olivo-cerebellar system. Read More

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Role of α2δ3 in Cellular Synchronization of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Under Constant Light Conditions.

Neuroscience 2021 05 18;461:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan; Department of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

By the effort to identify candidate signaling molecules important for the formation of robust circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the mammalian circadian center, here we characterize the role of α2δ proteins, synaptic molecules initially identified as an auxiliary subunit of the voltage dependent calcium channel, in circadian rhythm formation. In situ hybridization study demonstrated that type 3 α2δ gene (α2δ3) was strongly expressed in the SCN. Mice without this isoform (Cacna2d3) did not maintain proper circadian locomotor activity rhythms under a constant light (LL) condition, whereas under a constant dark (DD) condition, these mice showed a similar period length and similar light-responsiveness as compared to wild type mice. Read More

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Multichannel Cell Detection in Microcompartments by Means of True Parallel Measurements using the Solartron S-1260.

J Electr Bioimpedance 2020 Jan 24;11(1):49-56. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Institut für Bioprozess- und Analysenmeßtechnik, Heilbad Heiligenstadt, Germany.

Designing proper frontend electronics is critical in the development of highly sophisticated electrode systems. Multielectrode arrays for measuring electrical signals or impedance require multichannel readout systems. Even more challenging is the differential or ratiometric configuration with simultaneous assessment of measurement and reference channels. Read More

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January 2020

TRPM8 channel inhibitor-encapsulated hydrogel as a tunable surface for bone tissue engineering.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 12;11(1):3730. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

School of Biological Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research (NISER)-Bhubaneswar, Jatni, Khurda, 752050, Odisha, India.

A major limitation in the bio-medical sector is the availability of materials suitable for bone tissue engineering using stem cells and methodology converting the stochastic biological events towards definitive as well as efficient bio-mineralization. We show that osteoblasts and Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Pools (BM-MSCP) express TRPM8, a Ca-ion channel critical for bone-mineralization. TRPM8 inhibition triggers up-regulation of key osteogenesis factors; and increases mineralization by osteoblasts. Read More

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February 2021

Modulation Doping for Threshold Voltage Control in Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 11;13(7):8664-8671. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Dresden Integrated Center for Applied Physics and Photonic Materials, Technische Universität Dresden, Nöthnitzer Strasse 61, Dresden 01187, Germany.

Organic electronics is the technology enabling truly flexible electronic devices. However, despite continuous improvements in the charge-carrier mobility, devices used for digital circuits based on organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have still not achieved a commercial breakthrough. A substantial hurdle to the realization of effective digital circuitry is the proper control of the threshold voltage . Read More

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February 2021

BnaA02.NIP6;1a encodes a boron transporter required for plant development under boron deficiency in Brassica napus.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 31;161:36-45. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Zhejiang Key Lab of Crop Germplasm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Hainan Institute of Zhejiang University, Building 11, Yonyou Industrial Park, Yazhou Bay Science and Technology City, Yazhou District, Sanya, Hainan Province, 572025, China. Electronic address:

Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for the plant normal growth. In Arabidopsis, NIP6;1 is a boric acid channel required for the proper distribution of boric acid, especially in the nodal regions of shoots. BnaA02. Read More

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