59,607 results match your criteria promoters elongation


Acceleration of ageing via disturbing mTOR-regulated proteostasis by a new ageing-associated gene PC4.

Aging Cell 2021 May 6:e13370. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Rocket Force Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Research on ageing-associated genes is important for investigating ageing and anti-ageing strategies. Here, we firstly reported that the human positive cofactor 4 (PC4), a multifunctional and highly conserved nucleoprotein, is accumulated and activated during ageing and causes global accelerated ageing process by disrupting proteostasis. Mechanistically, PC4 interacts with Sin3-HDAC complex and inhibits its deacetylated activity, leads to hyper-acetylation of the histones at the promoters of mTOR-related genes and causes mTOR signalling activation. Read More

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Radical Carboxylative Cyclizations and Carboxylations with CO.

Acc Chem Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Green Chemistry & Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, P. R. China.

ConspectusCarbon dioxide (CO) is not only a greenhouse gas and a common waste product but also an inexpensive, readily available, and renewable carbon resource. It is an important one-carbon (C1) building block in organic synthesis for the construction of valuable compounds. However, its utilization is challenging owing to its thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness. Read More

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Established tools and emerging trends for the production of recombinant proteins and metabolites in Pichia pastoris.

Essays Biochem 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Austria.

Besides bakers' yeast, the methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii (also known as Pichia pastoris) has been developed into the most popular yeast cell factory for the production of heterologous proteins. Strong promoters, stable genetic constructs and a growing collection of freely available strains, tools and protocols have boosted this development equally as thorough genetic and cell biological characterization. This review provides an overview of state-of-the-art tools and techniques for working with P. Read More

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Live imaging of microtubule organization, cell expansion, and intercellular space formation in Arabidopsis leaf spongy mesophyll cells.

Plant Cell 2021 May;33(3):623-641

Department of Biology, College of Arts and Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Leaf spongy mesophyll cells form an interconnected network of branched cells and intercellular spaces to maximize the surface area available for light capture and photosynthetic gas exchange. To investigate the morphogenetic events leading to cell separation and branching in Arabidopsis thaliana, we used mesophyll-specific promoters to facilitate imaging of mesophyll cell shape and microtubule (MT) organization over multiple spatiotemporal scales without interference from the overlying epidermal cells. We show that cells enlarge by selective expansion of cell wall regions in contact with intercellular spaces. Read More

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The endosperm-specific transcription factor TaNAC019 regulates glutenin and starch accumulation and its elite allele improves wheat grain quality.

Plant Cell 2021 May;33(3):603-622

State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology and Key Laboratory of Crop Heterosis and Utilization (MOE) and Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), breeding efforts have focused intensively on improving grain yield and quality. For quality, the content and composition of seed storage proteins (SSPs) determine the elasticity of wheat dough and flour processing quality. Read More

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Ectopic Expression of a Maize Gene Is Induced by Composite Insertions Generated Through Alternative Transposition.

Genetics 2020 Dec;216(4):1039-1049

Department of Genetics, Development, and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3260.

Transposable elements (TEs) are DNA sequences that can mobilize and proliferate throughout eukaryotic genomes. Previous studies have shown that in plant genomes, TEs can influence gene expression in various ways, such as inserting in introns or exons to alter transcript structure and content, and providing novel promoters and regulatory elements to generate new regulatory patterns. Furthermore, TEs can also regulate gene expression at the epigenetic level by modifying chromatin structure, changing DNA methylation status, and generating small RNAs. Read More

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December 2020

Yeast Nucleolin Nsr1 Impedes Replication and Elevates Genome Instability at an Actively Transcribed Guanine-Rich G4 DNA-Forming Sequence.

Genetics 2020 Dec;216(4):1023-1037

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030.

A significant increase in genome instability is associated with the conformational shift of a guanine-run-containing DNA strand into the four-stranded G-quadruplex (G4) DNA. The mechanism underlying the recombination and genome rearrangements following the formation of G4 DNA in vivo has been difficult to elucidate but has become better clarified by the identification and functional characterization of several key G4 DNA-binding proteins. Mammalian nucleolin (NCL) is a highly specific G4 DNA-binding protein with a well-defined role in the transcriptional regulation of genes with associated G4 DNA-forming sequence motifs at their promoters. Read More

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December 2020

A Role for Mediator Core in Limiting Coactivator Recruitment in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Genetics 2020 Jun;215(2):407-420

Department of Pathology, University of Utah Health Sciences Center, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112.

Mediator is an essential, multisubunit complex that functions as a transcriptional coactivator in yeast and other eukaryotic organisms. Mediator has four conserved modules, Head, Middle, Tail, and Kinase, and has been implicated in nearly all aspects of gene regulation. The Tail module has been shown to recruit the Mediator complex to the enhancer or upstream activating sequence (UAS) regions of genes via interactions with transcription factors, and the Kinase module facilitates the transition of Mediator from the UAS/enhancer to the preinitiation complex via protein phosphorylation. Read More

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Promoter-Proximal Chromatin Domain Insulator Protein BEAF Mediates Local and Long-Range Communication with a Transcription Factor and Directly Activates a Housekeeping Promoter in Drosophila.

Genetics 2020 May;215(1):89-101

Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803.

BEAF (Boundary Element-Associated Factor) was originally identified as a Drosophila melanogaster chromatin domain insulator-binding protein, suggesting a role in gene regulation through chromatin organization and dynamics. Genome-wide mapping found that BEAF usually binds near transcription start sites, often of housekeeping genes, suggesting a role in promoter function. This would be a nontraditional role for an insulator-binding protein. Read More

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Structures of flavivirus RNA promoters suggest two binding modes with NS5 polymerase.

Nat Commun 2021 05 5;12(1):2530. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, The University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Boulevard, Galveston, TX, USA.

Flaviviruses use a ~70 nucleotide stem-loop structure called stem-loop A (SLA) at the 5' end of the RNA genome as a promoter for RNA synthesis. Flaviviral polymerase NS5 specifically recognizes SLA to initiate RNA synthesis and methylate the 5' guanosine cap. We report the crystal structures of dengue (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) SLAs. Read More

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Multiple roles of H2A.Z in regulating promoter chromatin architecture in human cells.

Nat Commun 2021 05 5;12(1):2524. Epub 2021 May 5.

The John Curtin School of Medical Research, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Chromatin accessibility of a promoter is fundamental in regulating transcriptional activity. The histone variant H2A.Z has been shown to contribute to this regulation, but its role has remained poorly understood. Read More

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microRNA-125b and its downstream Smurf1/KLF2/ATF2 axis as important promoters on neurological function recovery in rats with spinal cord injury.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Spine Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of microRNA-125b (miR-125b) and its mechanism in spinal cord injury (SCI) by targeting Smurf1. After loss- and gain-function approaches were conducted in SCI rat models and neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from foetal rats, the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score was calculated, and related protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis and cell apoptosis by TUNEL staining. NSC viability was detected by CCK-8, migration abilities by Transwell assay and apoptosis by flow cytometry. Read More

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Cooperation of ATF4 and CTCF promotes adipogenesis through transcriptional regulation.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Guangdong Provincial Engineering Research Center of Molecular Imaging, the Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province, 519000, People's Republic of China.

Adipogenesis is a multi-step process orchestrated by activation of numerous TFs, whose cooperation and regulatory network remain elusive. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is critical for adipogenesis, yet its regulatory network is unclarified. Here, we mapped genome-wide ATF4 binding landscape and its regulatory network by Chip-seq and RNA-seq and found ATF4 directly modulated transcription of genes enriching in fat cell differentiation. Read More

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Fundamental gene network rewiring at the second order within and across mammalian systems.

Bioinformatics 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Computer Science, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA.

Motivation: Genetic or epigenetic events can rewire molecular networks to induce extraordinary phenotypical divergences. Among the many network rewiring approaches, no model-free statistical methods can differentiate gene-gene pattern changes not attributed to marginal changes. This may obscure fundamental rewiring from superficial changes. Read More

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The MYB family transcription factor TuODORANT1 from Triticum urartu and the homolog TaODORANT1 from Triticum aestivum inhibit seed storage protein synthesis in wheat.

Plant Biotechnol J 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, National Center for Plant Gene Research, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology/Innovative Academy of Seed Design, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Seed storage proteins (SSPs) are determinants of wheat end-product quality. SSP synthesis is mainly regulated at the transcriptional level. Few transcriptional regulators of SSP synthesis have been identified in wheat and this study aims to identify novel SSP gene regulators. Read More

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VraCP regulates cell wall metabolism and antibiotic resistance in vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strain Mu50.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) is increasingly being reported. Previous studies have shown that vraC and vraP may be involved in vancomycin resistance, although the molecular mechanism remains elusive.

Methods: The vraC (SAV0577), vraP (SAV0578) and vraCP mutants were constructed in Mu50 by allelic replacement. Read More

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Genome-wide histone acetylation analysis reveals altered transcriptional regulation in the Parkinson's disease brain.

Mol Neurodegener 2021 05 5;16(1):31. Epub 2021 May 5.

Neuro-SysMed Center of Excellence for Clinical Research in Neurological Diseases, Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex, age-related neurodegenerative disorder of largely unknown etiology. PD is strongly associated with mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction, which can lead to epigenetic dysregulation and specifically altered histone acetylation. Nevertheless, and despite the emerging role of epigenetics in age-related brain disorders, the question of whether aberrant histone acetylation is involved in PD remains unresolved. Read More

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Chronic Mild Stress and Venlafaxine Treatment Were Associated with Altered Expression Level and Methylation Status of New Candidate Inflammatory Genes in PBMCs and Brain Structures of Wistar Rats.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, 90-236 Lodz, Poland.

Preclinical studies conducted to date suggest that depression could be elicited by the elevated expression of proinflammatory molecules: these play a key role in the mediation of neurochemical, neuroendocrine and behavioral changes. Thus, this study investigates the effect of chronic mild stress (CMS) and administration of venlafaxine (SSRI) on the expression and methylation status of new target inflammatory genes: TGFA, TGFB, IRF1, PTGS2 and IKBKB, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBCs) and in selected brain structures of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to the CMS and further divided into matched subgroups to receive vehicle or venlafaxine. Read More

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Effect of Replacing in-Feed Antibiotic Growth Promoters with a Combination of Egg Immunoglobulins and Phytomolecules on the Performance, Serum Immunity, and Intestinal Health of Weaned Pigs Challenged with K88.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Sciences of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 2 Yuan Ming Yuan West Road, Beijing 100193, China.

The study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) with an egg immunoglobulin (IgY) combined with phytomolecules (PM) on the growth rate, serum immunity, and intestinal health of weaned pigs challenged with K88 ( K88). A total of 192 piglets were weaned at 28 days old with an average weight of 7.29 (± 0. Read More

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Direct and indirect electrooxidation of glycerol to value-added products.

ChemSusChem 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Technische Universität Braunschweig, Institute of Environmental and Sustainable Chemistry, Hagenring 30, 38106, Braunschweig, GERMANY.

In this work, different approaches for the direct and indirect electrooxidation of glycerol, a by-product of oleochemistry and biodiesel production, for the synthesis of value-added products and of intermediates for biofuel/electrofuel production, are investigated and compared. For the direct electrooxidation, metallic catalysts are used, whose surfaces are modified by promoters or second catalysts. Bi modified Pt electrodes (Pt x Bi y /C) serve as model systems for promoter-supported electrocatalysis, whereas IrO 2 -modified RuO 2 electrodes (DSA) are studied as catalyst combinations, which are compared under acidic conditions with the respective monometallic catalysts (Pt/C, RuO 2 /Ti, IrO 2 /Ti). Read More

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A tale of two morphs: developmental patterns and mechanisms of seed coat differentiation in the dimorphic diaspore model Aethionema arabicum (Brassicaceae).

Plant J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX, United Kingdom.

The developmental transition from a fertilised ovule to a dispersed diaspore (seed or fruit) involves complex differentiation processes of the ovule's integuments leading to the diversity in mature seed coat structures in angiosperms. In this study, comparative imaging and transcriptome analysis were combined to investigate the morph-specific developmental differences during outer seed coat differentiation and mucilage production in Aethionema arabicum, the Brassicaceae model for diaspore dimorphism. One of the intriguing adaptations of this species is the production and dispersal of morphologically distinct, mucilaginous and non-mucilaginous diaspores from the same plant (dimorphism). Read More

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The gene plays a vital role at the start of metamorphosis for subsequent adult emergence.

J Neurogenet 2021 May 4:1-13. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

The () gene has been extensively studied in many species for its functions in development, physiology, and behavior. It is common for genes that influence behavior and development to be essential genes, and has been found to be an essential gene in both fruit flies and mammals, with mutants dying before reaching the adult stage. However, the biological process underlying the lethality associated with this gene is not known. Read More

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Bacterial bioreporters for the detection of trace explosives: performance enhancement by DNA shuffling and random mutagenesis.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Plant & Environmental Sciences, Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.

Landmines and other explosive remnants of war pose a global humanitarian problem that claims numerous casualties long after the conflict has ended. As there are no acceptable methodologies for the remote discovery of such devices, current detection practices still require the risky presence of personnel in the minefield. We have recently described bacterial sensor strains capable of reporting the existence of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) vapors in the soil above 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-based landmines, by generating a bioluminescent or a fluorescent signal. Read More

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Histone modifications centric-regulation in osteogenic differentiation.

Cell Death Discov 2021 May 3;7(1):91. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, 250014, Jinan, China.

Histone modification critically contributes to the epigenetic control of gene expression by changing the configuration of chromatin and modifying the access of transcription factors to gene promoters. Recently, we observed that histone acetylation and crotonylation mediated the expression of endocytosis-related genes and tumor-related immune checkpoint genes by regulating the enrichment of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 on these gene promoters in Alzheimer's disease and tumorigenesis, suggesting that histone modification plays an important role in disease development. Furthermore, studies performed in the past decade revealed that histone modifications affect osteogenic differentiation by regulating the expression of osteogenic marker genes. Read More

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Ume6 acts as a stable platform to coordinate repression and activation of early meiosis-specific genes in .

Mol Cell Biol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biochemistry, 561 Medical Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2H7 L2A

In response to nutrient starvation the budding yeast abandons mitotic proliferation and embarks on a differentiation process leading through meiosis to the formation of haploid spores. This process is driven by cascading waves of meiosis-specific gene expression. The early meiosis-specific genes are repressed during mitotic proliferation by DNA-binding protein Ume6 in combination with repressors Rpd3 and Sin3. Read More

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Inhibition of KIF20A by transcription factor IRF6 affects the progression of renal clear cell carcinoma.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 3;21(1):246. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Radiology, Suzhou Science and Technology Town Hospital, The Affiliated Suzhou Science and Technology Town Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, No.1 Lijiang Road, high Tech Zone, Suzhou, 215153, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Renal clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, whose incidence is increasing year by year. IRF6 plays an important role in the occurrence of tumors, although there is yet no report on its expression in ccRCC.

Methods: The expression of IRF6 and KIF20A in ccRCC was predicted by GEPIA and HAP databases. Read More

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Effects of exogenous phytohormones on chlorogenic acid accumulation and pathway-associated gene expressions in sweetpotato stem tips.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 26;164:21-26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Institute of Food Crops, Provincial Key Laboratory of Agrobiology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, 210014, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) stem tips, which contain high concentrations of chlorogenic acid (CGA), are useful as a physiologically functional food to protect against some serious diseases. Read More

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GrgA overexpression inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis growth through sigma-and sigma-dependent mechanisms.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 30:104917. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA. Electronic address:

The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen with a biphasic developmental cycle comprised of an infectious elementary body (EB) and a replicative reticulate body (RB). Whereas σ, the primary sigma factor, is necessary for transcription of most chlamydial genes throughout the developmental cycle, σ is required for expression of some late genes. We previously showed that the Chlamydia-specific transcription factor GrgA physically interacts with both of these sigma factors and activates transcription from σ-and σ-dependent promoters in vitro. Read More

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One step forward, two steps back: Transcriptional advancements and fermentation phenomena in Actinobacillus succinogenes 130Z.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(5):e0245407. Epub 2021 May 3.

Complex Biosystems Program, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States of America.

Within the field of bioproduction, non-model organisms offer promise as bio-platform candidates. Non-model organisms can possess natural abilities to consume complex feedstocks, produce industrially useful chemicals, and withstand extreme environments that can be ideal for product extraction. However, non-model organisms also come with unique challenges due to lack of characterization. Read More

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Control of Multigene Expression Stoichiometry in Mammalian Cells Using Synthetic Promoters.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD, U.K.

To successfully engineer mammalian cells for a desired purpose, multiple recombinant genes are required to be coexpressed at a specific and optimal ratio. In this study, we hypothesized that synthetic promoters varying in transcriptional activity could be used to create single multigene expression vectors coexpressing recombinant genes at a predictable relative stoichiometry. A library of 27 multigene constructs was created comprising three discrete fluorescent reporter gene transcriptional units in fixed series, each under the control of either a relatively low, medium, or high transcriptional strength synthetic promoter in every possible combination. Read More

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