28,971 results match your criteria promoter upstream

Analysis of Orientia tsutsugamushi promoter activity.

Pathog Dis 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia, USA.

Orientia tsutsugamushi is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes scrub typhus, a potentially fatal rickettsiosis, and for which no genetic tools exist. Critical to addressing this technical gap is to identify promoters for driving expression of antibiotic resistance and fluorescence reporter genes in O. tsutsugamushi. Read More

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September 2021

Bile acids increase intestinal marker expression via the FXR/SNAI2/miR-1 axis in the stomach.

Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 15 West Changle Road, Xi'an, 710032, Shaanxi, China.

Purpose: Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a precancerous lesion that increases the risk of subsequent gastric cancer (GC) development. Previously, miR-1 has been shown to play an essential role in the initiation of bile acid (BA)-induced IM. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism underlying miR-1 inhibition by BA in gastric cells. Read More

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September 2021

Drought induces variation in the DNA methylation status of the barley HvDME promoter.

J Plant Res 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Institute of Applied Biosciences (INAB), Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (CERTH), Thermi, 57001, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Cytosine methylation is an epigenetic modification with essential roles in diverse plant biological processes including vegetative and reproductive development and responsiveness to environmental stimuli. A dynamic process involving DNA methyltransferases and DNA demethylases establishes cytosine DNA methylation levels and distribution along the genome. A DNA demethylase gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare), DEMETER (HvDME), the homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana DME (AtDME), has been characterized previously and found to respond to drought conditions. Read More

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September 2021

A systems approach using Diversity Outbred mice distinguishes the cardiovascular effects and genetics of circulating GDF11 from those of its homolog, myostatin.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is a member of the TGF-β protein family that has been implicated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. While some studies have suggested that systemic GDF11 protects against cardiomyocyte enlargement and left ventricular wall thickening, there remains uncertainty about the true impact of GDF11 and whether its purported effects are actually attributable to its homolog myostatin. This study was conducted to resolve the statistical and genetic relationships among GDF11, myostatin, and cardiac hypertrophy in a mouse model of human genetics, the Diversity Outbred (DO) stock. Read More

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September 2021

Centromere protein A (CENPA) regulates metabolic reprogramming in the colon cancer cells by transcriptionally activating karyopherin subunit alpha 2 (KPNA2).

Am J Pathol 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004, Liaoning, China. Electronic address:

Karyopherin subunit alpha 2 (KPNA2) has been reported as an oncogene and is involved in the metabolic reprogramming in cancer. This study aimed to explore the function of KPNA2 in the growth and glycolysis in colon cancer (CC) cells. Differentially expressed genes in multiple CC types were screened in the Oncomine database. Read More

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September 2021

Enhancing Ristomycin A Production by Overexpression of ParB-Like StrR Family Regulators Controlling the Biosynthesis Genes.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 09 10;87(19):e0106621. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai-Islamabad-Belgrade Joint Innovation Center on Antibacterial Resistances, Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Development Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong Universitygrid.16821.3c, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

sp. strain TNS106 harbors a ristomycin-biosynthetic gene cluster () in its genome and produces ristomycin A. Deletion of the sole cluster-situated StrR family regulatory gene, , abolished ristomycin A production and the transcription of the genes to . Read More

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September 2021

Knockdown of ALDH1A3 reduces breast cancer stem cell marker CD44 via the miR-7-TGFBR2-Smad3-CD44 regulatory axis.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Oct 2;22(4):1093. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pathogenic Biology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009, P.R. China.

Inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family member A3 (ALDH1A3) has been revealed to lead to significant increase of microRNA (miR)-7 expression and decrease of CD44 expression in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), however the mechanism is not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulatory relationship between ALDH1A3, miR-7, and CD44 in BCSCs. The expression of ALDH1A3 was inhibited by small interfering RNA (siRNA or si), and the expression of miR-7 was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Read More

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October 2021

Targeting CA-125 Transcription by Development of a Conditionally Replicative Adenovirus for Ovarian Cancer Treatment.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Aug 24;13(17). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Medical Oncology and Therapeutics Research, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

CA-125, encoded by the gene, is highly expressed in most ovarian cancer cells and thus serves as a tumor marker for monitoring disease progression or treatment response in ovarian cancer patients. However, targeting /CA-125 for ovarian cancer treatment has not been successful to date. In the current study, we performed multiple steps of high-fidelity PCR and obtained a 5 kb DNA fragment upstream of the human gene. Read More

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BBA gene regulation mechanisms research paper analysis of the proximal promoter of the human colon-specific B4GALNT2 (Sd synthase) gene: B4GALNT2 is transcriptionally regulated by ETS1.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2021 Sep 6:194747. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 576 - UGSF - Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille, France. Electronic address:

Background: The Sd antigen and corresponding biosynthetic enzyme B4GALNT2 are primarily expressed in normal colonic mucosa and are down-regulated to a variable degree in colon cancer tissues. Although their expression profile is well studied, little is known about the underlying regulatory mechanisms.

Methods: To clarify the molecular basis of Sd expression in the human gastrointestinal tract, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of the human B4GALNT2 gene. Read More

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September 2021

FGF-2-dependent signaling activated in aged human skeletal muscle promotes intramuscular adipogenesis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(37)

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland;

Aged skeletal muscle is markedly affected by fatty muscle infiltration, and strategies to reduce the occurrence of intramuscular adipocytes are urgently needed. Here, we show that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) not only stimulates muscle growth but also promotes intramuscular adipogenesis. Using multiple screening assays upstream and downstream of microRNA (miR)-29a signaling, we located the secreted protein and adipogenic inhibitor SPARC to an FGF-2 signaling pathway that is conserved between skeletal muscle cells from mice and humans and that is activated in skeletal muscle of aged mice and humans. Read More

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September 2021

Regulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum via signals from the plasma membrane in budding yeast.

FEBS J 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa, 761-0795, Japan.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae LIP1 encodes a regulatory subunit that forms a complex with the ceramide synthase catalytic subunits, Lag1/Lac1, which is localized on the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum. To understand the underlying regulatory mechanism of sphingolipid biosynthesis, we generated strains upon replacing the chromosomal LIP1 promoter with a Tet-off promoter, which enables the expression in Dox-dependent manner. The lip1-1 strain, obtained through the promoter substitution, exhibits severe growth inhibition and remarkable decrease in sphingolipid synthesis in the presence of Dox. Read More

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September 2021

Skeletal muscle-targeted delivery of Fgf6 protects mice from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

JCI Insight 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Shanghai Diabetes Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Obesity, a major healthcare issue, is characterized by metabolic abnormalities in multiple tissues, including the skeletal muscle. Although dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence the homeostasis of systemic energy, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We found promoter hypermethylation and decreased gene expression of fibroblast growth factor 6 (FGF6) in the skeletal muscle of individuals with obesity using high-throughput sequencing. Read More

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September 2021

Surfactin attenuates particulate matter-induced COX-2-dependent PGE production in human gingival fibroblasts by inhibiting TLR2 and TLR4/MyD88/NADPH oxidase/ROS/PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway.

J Periodontal Res 2021 Sep 6. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin and underlying mechanisms against particulate matter (PM)-induced inflammatory responses in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs).

Background: PM, a major air pollutant, may associate with certain oral diseases possibly by inducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Surfactin, a potent biosurfactant, possesses various biological properties including anti-inflammatory activity. Read More

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September 2021

The essential glucose transporter GLUT1 is epigenetically upregulated by C/EBPβ and WT1 during decidualization of the endometrium.

J Biol Chem 2021 Aug 31:101150. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

From Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minamikogushi 1-1-1, Ube 755-8505, Japan.

Human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) differentiate into decidual cells by the action of progesterone, which is essential for implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. We previously reported that glucose uptake by human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) increases during decidualization and that glucose is indispensable for decidualization. Although glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) is up-regulated during decidualization, it remains unclear whether it is involved in glucose uptake. Read More

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LINC00238 inhibits hepatic carcinoma progression by activating TMEM106C‑mediated apoptosis pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 11 3;24(5). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Blood Purification Center, Qingdao No. 6 People's Hospital, Qingdao, Shandong 266033, P.R. China.

The present study aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of long intergenic non‑protein coding (LINC)00238 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LINC00238 expression in HCC tissues and cell lines was measured using reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR. LncTar was used to predict the binding sites between LINC00238 and transmembrane protein 106C (TMEM106C). Read More

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November 2021

Developing specific leaf promoters tools for genetic use in transgenic plants towards food security.

Saqer S Alotaibi

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Sep 24;28(9):5187-5192. Epub 2021 May 24.

Biotechnology Department, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. BOX 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

Significant yields enrichments are necessitated for meeting the rapid global growth population together with the expected demanding for food, particularly major crops. Photosynthesis improvement is an unexploited opportunity in research on improving crop yields. However, the lack of sufficient molecular promoters tools leads to the need to explore and analyze native leaf-specified promoters for manipulating photosynthesis activities in plants. Read More

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September 2021

Genomic organization and hypoxia inducible factor responsive regulation of teleost hsp90β gene during hypoxia stress.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Sep 30;48(9):6491-6501. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Chandrasekharpur, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 751023, India.

Background: The physiological significance of a large family of heat-shock proteins (HSPs), comprised of the cytosolic HSP90A and the endoplasmic reticulum component of HSPB, is evident in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The HSP90A is believed to play critical roles in diverse physiological functions of cell viability and chromosomal stability including stress management. Heightened abundance of hsp90β transcript was documented in Channa striatus, a freshwater fish, which is capable of surviving within an extremely hypoxic environment. Read More

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September 2021

Targeting -Regulatory Elements for Rice Grain Quality Improvement.

Front Plant Sci 2021 11;12:705834. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology, College of Agriculture, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

Rice is the most important source of food worldwide, providing energy, and nutrition for more than half of the population worldwide. Rice grain quality is a complex trait that is affected by several factors, such as the genotype and environment, and is a major target for rice breeders. -regulatory elements (CREs) are the regions of non-coding DNA, which play a critical role in gene expression regulation. Read More

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A Core35S Promoter of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Drives More Efficient Replication of Turnip Crinkle Virus.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Aug 18;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA 31793, USA.

The 35S promoter with a duplicated enhancer (frequently referred to as 2X35S) is a strong dicotyledonous plant-specific promoter commonly used in generating transgenic plants to enable high-level expression of genes of interest. It is also used to drive the initiation of RNA virus replication from viral cDNA, with the consensus understanding that high levels of viral RNA production powered by 2X35S permit a more efficient initiation of virus replication. Here, we showed that the exact opposite is true. Read More

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Zooming in: PAGE-Northern Blot Helps to Analyze Anti-Sense Transcripts Originating from Human rIGS under Transcriptional Stress.

Noncoding RNA 2021 Aug 24;7(3). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117485 Moscow, Russia.

Ribosomal intergenic spacer (rIGS), located between the 45S rRNA coding arrays in humans, is a deep, unexplored source of small and long non-coding RNA molecules transcribed in certain conditions to help a cell generate a stress response, pass through a differentiation state or fine tune the functioning of the nucleolus as a ribosome biogenesis center of the cell. Many of the non-coding transcripts originating from the rIGS are not characterized to date. Here, we confirm the transcriptional activity of the region laying a 2 kb upstream of the rRNA promoter, and demonstrate its altered expression under transcriptional stress, induced by a wide range of known transcription inhibitors. Read More

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Highly tunable TetR-dependent target gene expression in the acetic acid bacterium Gluconobacter oxydans.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Sep 27;105(18):6835-6852. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, IBG-1: Biotechnology, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, 52425, Jülich, Germany.

For the acetic acid bacterium (AAB) Gluconobacter oxydans only recently the first tight system for regulatable target gene expression became available based on the heterologous repressor-activator protein AraC from Escherichia coli and the target promoter P. In this study, we tested pure repressor-based TetR- and LacI-dependent target gene expression in G. oxydans by applying the same plasmid backbone and construction principles that we have used successfully for the araC-P system. Read More

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September 2021

Epigenetic Deregulation of the Histone Methyltransferase Contributes to Malignant Transformation in Glioblastoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 10;9:671838. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Cancer Epigenetics and Nanomedicine Laboratory, Department of Organisms and Systems Biology, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology Research Center (CINN-CSIC), Health Research Institute of Asturias (ISPA), Institute of Oncology of Asturias (IUOPA), Rare Diseases CIBER (CIBERER) of the Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor in adulthood. Epigenetic mechanisms are known to play a key role in GBM although the involvement of histone methyltransferase and its mark H4K20me2 has remained largely unexplored. The present study shows that DNA hypermethylation and loss of DNA hydroxymethylation is associated with downregulation and genome-wide reduction of H4K20me2 levels in a set of human GBM samples and cell lines as compared with non-tumoral specimens. Read More

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Transcriptional Landscape and Splicing Efficiency in Mitochondria.

Cells 2021 Aug 11;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 11.

IBAM, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Conicet, Almirante Brown 500, Chacras de Coria, Mendoza M5528AHB, Argentina.

Plant mitochondrial transcription is initiated from multiple promoters without an apparent motif, which precludes their identification in other species based on sequence comparisons. Even though coding regions take up only a small fraction of plant mitochondrial genomes, deep RNAseq studies uncovered that these genomes are fully or nearly fully transcribed with significantly different RNA read depth across the genome. Transcriptomic analysis can be a powerful tool to understand the transcription process in diverse angiosperms, including the identification of potential promoters and co-transcribed genes or to study the efficiency of intron splicing. Read More

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[USF1 Suppresses Expression of Fibrillar Type I, II, and III Collagen and pNP Adamts-3 in Osteosarcoma Cells].

Mol Biol (Mosk) 2021 Jul-Aug;55(4):634-642

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science and Literature, Balikesir University, Balikesir, Turkey.

Collagens are the main components of human tissues. Various regulatory factors and cytokines may influence expression levels for collagen-encoding genes, and, therefore, contrubite to some collagen-associated pathologies. In this study, we demonstrate regulatory effects of USF1 on expression of genes encoding fibrillar collagen types I, II, and III in osteoblastic Saos-2 and MG-63 cells. Read More

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Expression of Alternative Nitrogenases in Is Enhanced Using an Optimized Genetic Toolset for Rapid, Markerless Modifications.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Banghoek Road, Stellenbosch, 7600, South Africa.

The phototrophic bacterium is emerging as a promising biotechnological chassis organism, due to its resilience to a range of harsh conditions, a wide metabolic repertoire, and the ability to quickly regenerate ATP using light. However, realization of this promise is impeded by a lack of efficient, rapid methods for genetic modification. Here, we present optimized tools for generating chromosomal insertions and deletions employing electroporation as a means of transformation. Read More

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New evidence on tumor suppressor activity of PTEN and KLLN in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Sep 13;225:153586. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Cellular and Molecular Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No. 23, Shahid Arabi St. Yemen St. Velenjak, PO Box: 19395-4763, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

This study aimed to address the hypothesis that the expression of PTEN and KLLN tumor suppressor genes could diminish in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) compared to paired normal tissue (PNT) and multinodular goiter (MNG). PTEN and KLLN expressions were assessed at both mRNA and protein levels in 82 tissue samples, including 30 PTC, 30 PNT, and 26 MNG using SYBR-Green Real-Time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Bioinformatics studies were performed to evaluate the genomic location and the genes promoter region. Read More

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September 2021

Glucose-mediated de novo lipogenesis in photoreceptors drives early diabetic retinopathy.

J Biol Chem 2021 Aug 20;297(3):101104. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Lipid Research, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA; Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA. Electronic address:

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is an increasingly frequent cause of blindness across populations; however, the events that initiate pathophysiology of DR remain elusive. Strong preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that abnormalities in retinal lipid metabolism caused by diabetes may account for the origin of this disease. A major arm of lipid metabolism, de novo biosynthesis, is driven by elevation in available glucose, a common thread binding all forms of vision loss in diabetes. Read More

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NCTD Prevents Renal Interstitial Fibrosis via Targeting Sp1/lncRNA Gm26669 Axis.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 25;17(12):3118-3132. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China.

In our previous study, we demonstrated that norcantharidin (NCTD) is a potential therapeutic agent for renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). Recently, we found that lncRNA Gm26669 (Gm26669) contributed to the development of RIF and could be regulated by NCTD. However, the upstream mechanisms of Gm26669 and whether the anti-RIF effects of NCTD are related to its regulatory action on Gm26669 remain unclear. Read More

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Genome-wide characterization and expression profiling of the Phospholipase C (PLC) gene family in three orchids of economic importance.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 Aug 21;19(1):124. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160014, India.

Background: Phospholipases hydrolyze glycerophospholipids and generate diverse lipid-derived molecules with secondary messenger activity. Out of these, phospholipase C (PLC) specifically cleaves the phospholipids at ester linkages and yields diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphorylated head groups. PLCs are classified further as phosphatidylinositol-specific PLCs (PI-PLCs) and non-specific PLCs with biased specificity for phosphatidylcholine (NPC/PC-PLC). Read More

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Multiple G-quadruplexes in the LMNA promoter regulate LMNA variant 6 transcription and promote colon cancer cell growth.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2021 Oct 20;1864(10):194746. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan.

Lamin A/C proteins, major components of the nuclear lamina, are encoded by the LMNA gene. These proteins have multiple cellular functions, including DNA transcription and replication, chromatin organization, regulation of the cell cycle, and apoptosis. Mutations in LMNA are associated with a variety of diseases called laminopathies. Read More

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October 2021