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Three-dimensional bioactive hydrogel-based scaffolds for bone regeneration in implant dentistry.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 24;124:112055. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Centre for Craniofacial and Regenerative Biology, Guy's Hospital, King's College London, SE1 9RT, UK. Electronic address:

Bone tissue requires a range of complex mechanisms to allow the restoration of its structure and function. Bone healing is a signaling cascade process, involving cells secreting cytokines, growth factors, and pro-inflammatory factors in the defect site that will, subsequently, recruit surrounding stem cells to migrate, proliferate, and differentiate into bone-forming cells. Bioactive functional scaffolds could be applied to improve the bone healing processes where the organism is not able to fully regenerate the lost tissue. Read More

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Secondary Nucleation and the Conservation of Structural Characteristics of Amyloid Fibril Strains.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 16;8:669994. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Technical University of Denmark, Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Lyngby, Denmark.

Amyloid fibrils are ordered protein aggregates and a hallmark of many severe neurodegenerative diseases. Amyloid fibrils form through primary nucleation from monomeric protein, grow through monomer addition and proliferate through fragmentation or through the nucleation of new fibrils on the surface of existing fibrils (secondary nucleation). It is currently still unclear how amyloid fibrils initially form in the brain of affected individuals and how they are amplified. Read More

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The Role of Wild-Type RAS in Oncogenic RAS Transformation.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.

The family of oncogenes (, , and ) are among the most frequently mutated protein families in cancers. -mutated tumors were originally thought to proliferate independently of upstream signaling inputs, but we now know that non-mutated wild-type (WT) RAS proteins play an important role in modulating downstream effector signaling and driving therapeutic resistance in -mutated cancers. This modulation is complex as different WT RAS family members have opposing functions. Read More

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Physiology of Methylotrophs Living in the Phyllosphere.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 12;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Methanol is abundant in the phyllosphere, the surface of the above-ground parts of plants, and its concentration oscillates diurnally. The phyllosphere is one of the major habitats for a group of microorganisms, the so-called methylotrophs, that utilize one-carbon (C1) compounds, such as methanol and methane, as their sole source of carbon and energy. Among phyllospheric microorganisms, methanol-utilizing methylotrophic bacteria, known as pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs (PPFMs), are the dominant colonizers of the phyllosphere, and some of them have recently been shown to have the ability to promote plant growth and increase crop yield. Read More

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The Mechanism of Facultative Intracellular Parasitism of .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 1;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Southwest University, Chongqing 402460, China.

Brucellosis is a highly prevalent zoonotic disease characterized by abortion and reproductive dysfunction in pregnant animals. Although the mortality rate of Brucellosis is low, it is harmful to human health, and also seriously affects the development of animal husbandry, tourism and international trade. Brucellosis is caused by , which is a facultative intracellular parasitic bacteria. Read More

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Many roles for oligodendrocyte precursor cells in physiology and pathology.

Neuropathology 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, USA.

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are a fourth resident glial cell population in the mammalian central nervous system. They are evenly distributed throughout the gray and white matter and continue to proliferate and generate new oligodendrocytes (OLs) throughout life. They were understudied until a few decades ago when immunolabeling for NG2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha revealed cells that are distinct from mature OLs, astrocytes, neurons, and microglia. Read More

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CD4 Memory T-Cell Formation during Type 1 Immune Responses.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Center for Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

Naive CD4 T cells become memory cells after proliferating in response to their cognate major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII)-bound peptide and passing through an effector cell stage. The process by which CD4 memory T cells emerge from the effector cell pool, however, is less well understood than in the case of CD8 T cells. During certain acute infections, naive CD4 T cells proliferate and differentiate into various forms of type 1 (Th1) and follicular helper (Tfh) effector cells. Read More

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The retinal pigment epithelium: Development, injury responses, and regenerative potential in mammalian and non-mammalian systems.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2021 Apr 23:100969. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Ophthalmology, Louis J. Fox Center for Vision Restoration, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA; Department of Developmental Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA. Electronic address:

Diseases that result in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), are among the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Atrophic (dry) AMD is the most prevalent form of AMD and there are currently no effective therapies to prevent RPE cell death or restore RPE cells lost from AMD. An intriguing approach to treat AMD and other RPE degenerative diseases is to develop therapies focused on stimulating endogenous RPE regeneration. Read More

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Therapeutic Potential of GABAergic Signaling in Myelin Plasticity and Repair.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 6;9:662191. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Instituto de Neurobiología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Campus Juriquilla, Juriquilla, Mexico.

Oligodendrocytes (OLs) produce myelin to insulate axons. This accelerates action potential propagation, allowing nerve impulse information to synchronize within complex neuronal ensembles and promoting brain connectivity. Brain plasticity includes myelination, a process that starts early after birth and continues throughout life. Read More

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Establishing and maintaining fertility: the importance of cell cycle arrest.

Genes Dev 2021 May 22;35(9-10):619-634. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, School of Biomedical Science and Pharmacy, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia.

Development of the ovary or testis is required to establish reproductive competence. Gonad development relies on key cell fate decisions that occur early in embryonic development and are actively maintained. During gonad development, both germ cells and somatic cells proliferate extensively, a process facilitated by cell cycle regulation. Read More

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Natural killer cells play an important role in virus infection control: Antiviral mechanism, subset expansion and clinical application.

Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 20;227:108727. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Institute of Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Disease, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

With the global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the important role of natural killer (NK) cells in the control of various viral infections attracted more interest, via non-specific activation, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and activating receptors, as well as specific activation, such as memory-like NK generation. In response to different viral infections, NK cells fight viruses in different ways, and different NK subsets proliferate. For instance, cytomegalovirus (CMV) induces NKG2C + CD57 + KIR+ NK cells to expand 3-6 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces KIR3DS1+/KIR3DL1 NK cells to expand in the acute phase of infection. Read More

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Breast cancer as an example of tumour heterogeneity and tumour cell plasticity during malignant progression.

Br J Cancer 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Heterogeneity within a tumour increases its ability to adapt to constantly changing constraints, but adversely affects a patient's prognosis, therapy response and clinical outcome. Intratumoural heterogeneity results from a combination of extrinsic factors from the tumour microenvironment and intrinsic parameters from the cancer cells themselves, including their genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomic traits, their ability to proliferate, migrate and invade, and their stemness and plasticity attributes. Cell plasticity constitutes the ability of cancer cells to rapidly reprogramme their gene expression repertoire, to change their behaviour and identities, and to adapt to microenvironmental cues. Read More

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All Roads Lead to Rome (the Heart): Cell Retention and Outcomes From Various Delivery Routes of Cell Therapy Products to the Heart.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 6;10(8):e020402. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences North Carolina State University Raleigh NC.

In the past decades, numerous preclinical studies and several clinical trials have evidenced the feasibility of cell transplantation in treating heart diseases. Over the years, different delivery routes of cell therapy have emerged and broadened the width of the field. However, a common hurdle is shared by all current delivery routes: low cell retention. Read More

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Network patterning, morphogenesis and growth in lymphatic vascular development.

Curr Top Dev Biol 2021 19;143:151-204. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Organogenesis and Cancer Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience and Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

The lymphatic vasculature is a vital component of the vertebrate vascular system that mediates tissue fluid homeostasis, lipid uptake and immune surveillance. The development of the lymphatic vasculature starts in the early vertebrate embryo, when a subset of blood vascular endothelial cells of the cardinal veins acquires lymphatic endothelial cell fate. These cells sprout from the veins, migrate, proliferate and organize to give rise to a highly structured and unique vascular network. Read More

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November 2020

Fundamentals of T Cell Metabolism and Strategies to Enhance Cancer Immunotherapy.

Front Immunol 2021 18;12:645242. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Emerging reports show that metabolic pathways can be targeted to enhance T cell-mediated immunity to tumors. Yet, tumors consume key metabolites in the host to survive, thus robbing T cells of these nutrients to function and thrive. T cells are often deprived of basic building blocks for energy in the tumor, including glucose and amino acids needed to proliferate or produce cytotoxic molecules against tumors. Read More

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Mechanisms of Immune Evasion in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Immunology, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-097 Warsaw, Poland.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) results from a clonal expansion of abnormal lymphoid progenitors of B cell (BCP-ALL) or T cell (T-ALL) origin that invade bone marrow, peripheral blood, and extramedullary sites. Leukemic cells, apart from their oncogene-driven ability to proliferate and avoid differentiation, also change the phenotype and function of innate and adaptive immune cells, leading to escape from the immune surveillance. In this review, we provide an overview of the genetic heterogeneity and treatment of BCP- and T-ALL. Read More

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Androgen Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms Mediating Drug Resistance in Prostate Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;13(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Human Genetics, Jena University Hospital, Am Klinikum 1, 07740 Jena, Germany.

Androgen receptor (AR) is a main driver of prostate cancer (PCa) growth and progression as well as the key drug target. Appropriate PCa treatments differ depending on the stage of cancer at diagnosis. Although androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) of PCa is initially effective, eventually tumors develop resistance to the drug within 2-3 years of treatment onset leading to castration resistant PCa (CRPC). Read More

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Aspergillosis in Wild Birds.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Mar 23;7(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, Dynamic Research Group UPEC, EnvA, USC Anses, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France.

The ubiquitous fungi belonging to the genus are able to proliferate in a large number of environments on organic substrates. The spores of these opportunistic pathogens, when inhaled, can cause serious and often fatal infections in a wide variety of captive and free-roaming wild birds. The relative importance of innate immunity and the level of exposure in the development of the disease can vary considerably between avian species and epidemiological situations. Read More

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Recent Progress on Biodegradable Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Prepared by Thermally-Induced Phase Separation (TIPS).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 28;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Departament d'Enginyeria Química, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Escola d'Enginyeria de Barcelona Est-EEBE, 08019 Barcelona, Spain.

Porous biodegradable scaffolds provide a physical substrate for cells allowing them to attach, proliferate and guide the formation of new tissues. A variety of techniques have been developed to fabricate tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds, among them the most relevant is the thermally-induced phase separation (TIPS). This technique has been widely used in recent years to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) TE scaffolds. Read More

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Role of exosomes in the immune microenvironment of ovarian cancer.

Oncol Lett 2021 May 15;21(5):377. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Gynecology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, P.R. China.

Exosomes are excretory vesicles that can deliver a variety of bioactive cargo molecules to the extracellular environment. Accumulating evidence demonstrates exosome participation in intercellular communication, immune response, inflammatory response and they even play an essential role in affecting the tumor immune microenvironment. The role of exosomes in the immune microenvironment of ovarian cancer is mainly divided into suppression and stimulation. Read More

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Polyploid giant cancer cell characterization: New frontiers in predicting response to chemotherapy in breast cancer.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Although polyploid cells were first described nearly two centuries ago, their ability to proliferate has only recently been demonstrated. It also becomes increasingly evident that a subset of tumor cells, polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs), play a critical role in the pathophysiology of breast cancer (BC), among other cancer types. In BC, PGCCs can arise in response to therapy-induced stress. Read More

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Neurospheres: a potential in vitro model for the study of central nervous system disorders.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Brain Institute of Rio Grande do Sul (BraIns), Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Av. Ipiranga, 6690, Porto Alegre, RS, 90610000, Brazil.

Neurogenesis was believed to end after the period of embryonic development. However, the possibility of obtaining an expressive number of cells with functional neuronal characteristics implied a great advance in experimental research. New techniques have emerged to demonstrate that the birth of new neurons continues to occur in the adult brain. Read More

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Mechanistic Drivers of Müllerian Duct Development and Differentiation Into the Oviduct.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 8;9:605301. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

MRC Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

The conduits of life; the animal oviducts and human fallopian tubes are of paramount importance for reproduction in amniotes. They connect the ovary with the uterus and are essential for fertility. They provide the appropriate environment for gamete maintenance, fertilization and preimplantation embryonic development. Read More

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Assessing Microglial Dynamics by Live Imaging.

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:617564. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Laboratory of Chemical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Microglia are highly dynamic in the brain in terms of their ability to migrate, proliferate, and phagocytose over the course of an individual's life. Real-time imaging is a useful tool to examine how microglial behavior is regulated and how it affects the surrounding environment. However, microglia are sensitive to environmental stimuli, so they possibly change their state during live imaging , mainly due to surgical damage, and due to various effects associated with culture conditions. Read More

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Streptococcal bacterial components in cancer therapy.

Cancer Gene Ther 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The incidence rate of cancer is steadily increasing all around the world, and there is an urgent need to develop novel and more effective treatment strategies. Recently, bacterial therapy has been investigated as a new approach to target cancer, and is becoming a serious option. Streptococcus strains are among the most common and well-studied virulent bacteria that cause a variety of human infections. Read More

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Caspase-2 as a Master Regulator of Genomic Stability.

Trends Cell Biol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Faculty of Medicine, MV Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Russia; Division of Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Genomic instability underlies genesis and the development of various types of cancer. During tumorigenesis, cancer initiating cells assume a set of features, which allow them to survive and proliferate. Different mutations and chromosomal alterations promote a selection of the most aggressive cancer clones that worsen the prognosis of the disease. Read More

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Thyroid hormone regulation of adult neural stem cell fate: A comparative analysis between rodents and primates.

Vitam Horm 2021 11;116:133-192. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

UMR 7221 Phyma, CNRS/Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling, a highly conserved pathway across vertebrates, is crucial for brain development and function throughout life. In the adult mammalian brain, including that of humans, multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferate and generate neuronal and glial progenitors. The role of TH has been intensively investigated in the two main neurogenic niches of the adult mouse brain, the subventricular and the subgranular zone. Read More

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Life-long oligodendrocyte development and plasticity.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK. Electronic address:

Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) originate in localized germinal zones in the embryonic neural tube, then migrate and proliferate to populate the entire central nervous system, both white and gray matter. They divide and generate myelinating oligodendrocytes (OLs) throughout postnatal and adult life. OPCs express NG2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha subunit (PDGFRα), two functionally important cell surface proteins, which are also widely used as markers for OPCs. Read More

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Use of  Bacteria in Cancer Therapy: Direct, Drug Delivery and Combination Approaches.

Front Oncol 2021 2;11:624759. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Over the years, conventional cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy with only a limited specificity for tumors, have undergone significant improvement. Moreover, newer therapies such as immunotherapy have undergone a revolution to stimulate the innate as well as adaptive immune responses against the tumor. However, it has been found that tumors can be selectively colonized by certain bacteria, where they can proliferate, and exert direct oncolytic effects as well as stimulating the immune system. Read More

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Microcarrier-based stem cell bioprocessing: GMP-grade culture challenges and future trends for regenerative medicine.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 Mar 17:1-15. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, Escuela de Medicina y Ciencias de la Salud, Monterrey, Mexico.

Recently, stem cell-based therapies have been proposed as an alternative for the treatment of many diseases. Stem cells (SCs) are well known for their capacity to preserve themselves, proliferate, and differentiate into multiple lineages. These characteristics allow stem cells to be a viable option for the treatment of diverse diseases. Read More

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