21 results match your criteria projectiles penetrated

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Study on the Penetration Performance of a 5.8 mm Ceramic Composite Projectile.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Feb 4;14(4). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

National Defense Key Laboratory of Underground Damage Technology, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051, China.

The penetration ability of a 5.8 mm standard projectile can be improved by inserting a ZrO ceramic ball with high hardness, high temperature, and pressure resistance at its head. Thereby, a ceramic composite projectile can be formed. Read More

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February 2021

Civilian gunshot wounds to the head: a case report, clinical management, and literature review.

Chin Neurosurg J 2021 Feb 3;7(1):12. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

The Affiliated Hospital of Qinghai University, No. 29 Tongren Road, Xining, 810000, Qinghai Province, China.

Background: Civilian gunshot wounds to the head refer to brain injury caused by projectiles such as gun projectiles and various fragments generated by explosives in a power launch or explosion. Gunshot wounds to the head are the deadliest of all gun injuries. According to literature statistics, the survival rate of patients with gunshot wounds to the head is only 9%. Read More

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February 2021

Strain Behavior of Concrete Panels Subjected to Different Nose Shapes of Projectile Impact.

Materials (Basel) 2018 Mar 9;11(3). Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of Architectural Engineering, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34134, Korea.

This study evaluates the fracture properties and rear-face strain distribution of nonreinforced and hooked steel fiber-reinforced concrete panels penetrated by projectiles of three different nose shapes: sharp, hemispherical, and flat. The sharp projectile nose resulted in a deeper penetration because of the concentration of the impact force. Conversely, the flat projectile nose resulted in shallower penetrations. Read More

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The collision of a hypervelocity massive projectile with free-standing graphene: Investigation of secondary ion emission and projectile fragmentation.

J Chem Phys 2017 Feb;146(5):054305

Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3144, USA.

We present here the study of the individual hypervelocity massive projectiles (440-540 keV, 33-36 km/s Au cluster) impact on 1-layer free-standing graphene. The secondary ions were detected and recorded separately from each individual impact in the transmission direction using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. We observed C ions emitted from graphene, the projectiles which penetrated the graphene, and the Au fragment ions in mass spectra. Read More

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February 2017

Local and distant trauma after hypervelocity ballistic impact to the pig hind limb.

Springerplus 2016 7;5(1):1497. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

6th Department of Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400042 China ; State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The development of high-energy weapons could increase the velocity of projectiles to well over 1000 m/s. The nature of the injuries caused by the ballistic impact of projectiles at velocities much faster than 1000 m/s is unclear. This study characterizes the mechanical and biochemical alterations caused by high-speed ballistic impact generated by spherical steel ball to the hind limbs of the pig. Read More

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September 2016

Mass-Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Reveals Organ-Specific Expression Patterns To Be Used as Forensic Evidence.

J Proteome Res 2016 Jan 8;15(1):182-92. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

Quantitative Biology Center, Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen , Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany.

Standard forensic procedures to examine bullets after an exchange of fire include a mechanical or ballistic reconstruction of the event. While this is routine to identify which projectile hit a subject by DNA analysis of biological material on the surface of the projectile, it is rather difficult to determine which projectile caused the lethal injury--often the crucial point with regard to legal proceedings. With respect to fundamental law it is the duty of the public authority to make every endeavor to solve every homicide case. Read More

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January 2016

Special Purpose Short Stop-Type Ammunitions (Hornet, Wasp, Mosquito)-Gelatin Model Investigation.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2015 Sep;36(3):134-7

From the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Łódź, Łódź, Poland.

Short Stop-type .38 Mesko Special revolver ammunitions have been designed for incapacitation of humans without causing serious bodily injuries. Three types of those ammunitions differing in increasing amounts of gunpowder in the shell chamber and, consequently, increasing kinetic energy of the projectiles can be distinguished: Komar (Mosquito), Osa (Wasp), and Szerszeń (Hornet), respectively. Read More

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September 2015

The interaction between clothing and air weapon pellets.

Forensic Sci Int 2015 Jan 3;246:6-16. Epub 2014 Nov 3.

School of Science Engineering and Technology, Abertay University, Bell Street, Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland, United Kingdom.

Comparatively few studies have been carried out on air weapon injuries yet there are significant number of injuries and fatalities caused by these low power weapons because of their availability and the public perception that because they need no licence they are assumed to be safe. In this study ballistic gel was tested by Bloom and rupture tests to check on consistency of production. Two series of tests were carried out firing into unclothed gel blocks and blocks loosely covered by different items of clothing to simulate attire (tee shirt, jeans, fleece, and jacket). Read More

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January 2015

[Gunshot wounds caused by non-lethal ammunition on the porcine model post-mortem].

Soud Lek 2013 Oct;58(4):50-4

In this article we focus on the effects of so called non-lethal ammunition. We studied possible mechanism of firearm injury formation as a consequence of using firearm on the body, to present a more comprehensive material in wound ballistics. We pointed out possible actions of a projectile causes on human, respectively other animal organisms, as well as to a manner in which an injury is caused by rifles or shotguns using non-lethal ammunition with rubber projectiles. Read More

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October 2013

Designing the ideal model for assessment of wound contamination after gunshot injuries: a comparative experimental study.

BMC Surg 2012 Apr 10;12. Epub 2012 Apr 10.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Modern high-velocity projectiles produce temporary cavities and can thus cause extensive tissue destruction along the bullet path. It is still unclear whether gelatin blocks, which are used as a well-accepted tissue simulant, allow the effects of projectiles to be adequately investigated and how these effects are influenced by caliber size.

Method: Barium titanate particles were distributed throughout a test chamber for an assessment of wound contamination. Read More

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Wound ballistic evaluation of the Taser® XREP ammunition.

Int J Legal Med 2013 Jan 9;127(1):119-26. Epub 2011 Oct 9.

Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich, Germany.

The Taser® eXtended Range Electronic Projectile (XREP®) is a wireless conducted electrical weapon (CEW) designed to incapacitate a person from a larger distance. The aim of this study was to analyze the ballistic injury potential of the XREP. Twenty rounds were fired from the Taser®X12 TM shotgun into ballistic soap covered with artificial skin and clothing at different shooting distances (1-25 m). Read More

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January 2013

[Experimental effect of a shot caused by 4.5 mm cartridges fired from a Norica Dragon air-rifle and a Walther PPK/S air-pistol].

Arch Med Sadowej Kryminol 2010 Apr-Sep;60(2-3):77-82

Zakładu Medycyny Sadowej, Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi.

In Poland, according to the Weapons and Ammunition Act" an air weapon which has kinetic energy of fired projectiles below 17 J does not require registration and can be bought even on the Internet. Sport and recreational shooting with this weapon does not have to be performed in a special shooting-range, but can be carried on in an open terrain providing "particular caution" is exercised. In this study we presented experimental effects of shooting pneumatic weapons (Norica Dragon air-rifle and Walther PPK/S air-pistol) which had kinetic energy of fired projectiles below 17 J. Read More

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[Prognostic factors of penetrating neck trauma].

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2011 Jan-Feb;77(1):121-4

Hospital Municipal Dr. Fernando Mauro Pires da Rocha Campo Limpo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Unlabelled: The neck is vulnerable to trauma because of vital structures and possible major injuries with high morbidity and mortality rates.

Aim: To evaluate the outcome in patients with penetrating cervical wounds.

Methods: The medical registries of 39 patients were analyzed retrospectively from 2001 to 2009. Read More

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September 2011

Death following rubber bullet wounds to the chest: case report.

East Afr Med J 2005 Jul;82(7):382-4

Department of Pathology, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 19676, Nairobi, Kenya.

The rubber bullet has been portrayed as a non-lethal weapon and has gained preference in riot-control over live ammunition. Despite the fact that it was designed to be safer than live ammunition, several cases of fatalities have been reported from its use. Most of these fatalities were because of abuse of the weapon in terms of range of fire and anatomical area of the body targeted. Read More

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Impact resistance of common spectacle and safety lenses to airgun and rimfire projectiles.

J AAPOS 2003 Aug;7(4):268-73

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Kentucky 40202, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the penetration resistance of common spectacle and safety lenses to high-velocity projectiles and to examine the current recommendations regarding the use of such lenses.

Methods: The penetration threshold of glass, high-index, and polycarbonate spectacle and safety lenses was determined by firing BBs, pellets, and 0.22-caliber projectiles. Read More

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Gunshot wounds to the lower extremity. A comprehensive review.

Clin Podiatr Med Surg 1999 Oct;16(4):597-615

Broadlawns Medical Center, Des Moines, Iowa, USA.

A thorough knowledge of the mechanisms by which penetrating projectiles disrupt tissue can assist the physician in evaluating and treating the wound in a rational manner. Projectile mass, velocity, shape, construction, and the characteristics and anatomic constraints of the tissue penetrated determine the amount, type, and location of tissue disruption. The possibility of additional injuries caused by secondary missiles and cavitation must be understood to distinguish between conservative versus surgical care of the patient. Read More

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October 1999

Traces of ricocheted action safety bullets.

C Schyma P Placidi

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997 Mar;18(1):15-20

Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Universität Bonn, Germany.

Experimental gunshots were made with Action-1 and -3 ammunition (9 mm Luger) using a part dummy made of textile, pig skin, and gelatine as the target. After ricocheting off a concrete floor tile with impact angles of 15 degrees or 20 degrees, the deformed projectiles penetrated the gelatine block to a depth of between 21 and 37 cm. The ricochet angles varied between 5 degrees and 11 degrees. Read More

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The remains of Dr. Carl Austin Weiss: anthropological analysis.

D H Ubelaker

J Forensic Sci 1996 Jan;41(1):60-79

Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA.

Anthropological analysis of the remains of Dr. Carl Austin Weiss revealed biological information consistent with his known characteristics. Postmortem changes included decomposition of amalgam dental restorations, likely releasing mercury that stained the anterior dentition, deposition of sulphur compounds on much of the skeleton, and the formation of numerous small bone fractures. Read More

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January 1996

The use of a shotgun for euthanasia of stranded cetaceans.

N Z Vet J 1995 Aug;43(4):158-9

Department of Veterinary Pathology and Public Health, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

A 12-gauge shotgun, loaded with either a solid 28 g lead slug or buckshot consisting of nine individual lead pellets with a total mass of 28 g, was used to shoot the heads of one dead common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and five dead long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melaena) varying in length from 2.5 m to 5 m. The dolphin and the smallest pilot whale were shot with both projectiles from the dorsal surface of the head. Read More

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Arterial bullet embolism.

J Ky Med Assoc 1989 Jan;87(1):17-8

We report a case of an arterial bullet embolus and compare it with other cases found in the literature. A 27-year-old white male sustained a .22 caliber gunshot wound that penetrated the abdominal aorta and traveled within the arterial system to occlude the left superficial femoral artery. Read More

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January 1989

Absorption of missile energy in soft tissue.

B Rybeck B Janzon

Acta Chir Scand 1976 ;142(3):201-7

Soft tissue wounds caused by spherical steel projectiles at various impact velocities have been studied. Energy absorption by the penetrated tissues and the size, form and location of the maximum of the temporary cavity are discussed on the basis of theoretical calculations. Morphological and angiographic findings support the assumption that steel spheres hitting at high velocity cause most damage near the beginning of the wound channel. Read More

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September 1976
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