153,636 results match your criteria progression animal

Folate-targeted verrucarin A reduces the number of activated macrophages in a mouse model of acute peritonitis.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 May 5:128091. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN 47907 USA; Institute for Drug Discovery, Purdue University, West Lafayette IN 47907 USA. Electronic address:

Activated macrophages contribute prominently to the progression and maintenance of almost all inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Although non-specific elimination of these phagocytes has been shown to treat animal models of inflammatory disease, the same therapies have been compromised by unacceptable toxicities, because they also kill quiescent macrophages in healthy tissues. In the studies below, we exploit upregulation of folate receptor beta (FRβ) on inflammatory (but not resting) macrophages to target a cytotoxic drug selectively to the inflammatory subset of macrophages. Read More

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EphA2: A promising therapeutic target in breast cancer.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Province, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China; KIZ-CUHK Joint Laboratory of Bioresources and Molecular Research in Common Diseases, Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223, China; Affiliated Cancer Hospital & Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510095, China. Electronic address:

EphA2 (ephrin type-A receptor 2), a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in human breast cancers often linked to poor patient prognosis. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that EphA2 plays important roles in several critical processes associated with malignant breast progression, such as proliferation, survival, migration, invasion, drug resistance, metastasis, and angiogenesis. As its inhibition through multiple approaches can inhibit the growth of breast cancer and restore drug sensitivity, EphA2 has become a promising therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment. Read More

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Neither gonadotropin nor cumulus cell expansion is needed for the maturation of competent porcine oocytes in vitro.

Biol Reprod 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211.

In vitro maturation of oocytes from immature females is widely used in assisted reproductive technologies. Here we illustrate that cumulus cell (CC) expansion, once considered a key indicator of oocyte quality, is not needed for oocytes to mature to the metaphase II (MII) stage and to gain nuclear and cytoplasmic competence to produce offspring. Juvenile pig oocytes were matured in four different media: 1) Basal (-gonadotropins (GN)-FLI); 2) -GN + FLI (supplement of FGF2, LIF, and IGF1); 3) + GN-FLI; 4) + GN + FLI. Read More

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Microbiome and osteoarthritis: New insights from animal and human studies.

Int J Rheum Dis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Rheumatology & Immunology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore City, Singapore.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of disability, especially among the elderly. With an ageing and increasingly obese population, OA will become more prevalent. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are risk factors for OA and have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Read More

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Role of Exercise as a Modulating Factor in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 May 7;23(6):57. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Cardiac, Thoracic, and Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padova, Via Giustiniani, 2, 35128, Padova, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: The review addresses the role of exercise in triggering ventricular arrhythmias and promoting disease progression in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC) patients and gene-mutation carriers, the differential diagnosis between AC and athlete's heart and current recommendations on exercise activity in AC.

Recent Findings: AC is an inherited heart muscle disease caused by genetically defective cell-to-cell adhesion structures (mainly desmosomes). The pathophysiological hallmark of the disease is progressive myocyte loss and replacement by fibro-fatty tissue, which creates the substrates for ventricular arrhythmias. Read More

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The Ste20-like kinase - a Jack of all trades?

J Cell Sci 2021 May 7;134(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8L1, Canada.

Over the past 20 years, the Ste20-like kinase (SLK; also known as STK2) has emerged as a central regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Reorganization of the cytoskeleton is necessary for a plethora of biological processes including apoptosis, proliferation, migration, tissue repair and signaling. Several studies have also uncovered a role for SLK in disease progression and cancer. Read More

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Progression of behavioral deficits during periadolescent development differs in female and male DISC1 knockout rats.

Genes Brain Behav 2021 May 7:e12741. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine, USA.

Mutations in the disrupted in schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) gene are associated with an increased risk of developing psychological disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression. Assessing the impact of knocking out genes, like DISC1, in animal models provides valuable insights into the relationship between the gene and behavioral outcomes. Previous research has relied on mouse models to assess these impacts, however these may not yield as reliable or rich a behavioral analysis as can be obtained using rats. Read More

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PI3K signalling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and opportunities for therapy.

J Pathol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Chemical Injuries Research Center, Systems Biology and Poisonings Institute, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic lung disease characterised by airway inflammation and progressive obstruction of the lung airflow. Current pharmacological treatments include bronchodilators, alone or in combination with steroids or other anti-inflammatory agents, which have only partially contributed to the inhibition of disease progression and mortality. Therefore, further research unravelling the underlying mechanisms is necessary to develop new anti-COPD drugs with both lower toxicity and higher efficacy. Read More

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The comprehensive landscape of miR-34a in cancer research.

Cancer Metastasis Rev 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

New Drug Screening Center, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

MicroRNA-34 (miR-34) plays central roles in human diseases, especially cancers. Inactivation of miR-34 is detected in cancer cell lines and tumor tissues versus normal controls, implying its potential tumor-suppressive effect. Clinically, miR-34 has been identified as promising prognostic indicators for various cancers. Read More

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Intravital Metabolic Autofluorescence Imaging Captures Macrophage Heterogeneity Across Normal and Cancerous Tissue.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 20;9:644648. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States.

Macrophages are dynamic immune cells that govern both normal tissue function and disease progression. However, standard methods to measure heterogeneity in macrophage function within tissues require tissue excision and fixation, which limits our understanding of diverse macrophage function . Two-photon microscopy of the endogenous metabolic co-enzymes NAD(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (metabolic autofluorescence imaging) enables dynamic imaging of mouse models . Read More

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Emerging Cell-Based Therapies in Chronic Lung Diseases: What About Asthma?

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:648506. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Asthma is a widespread disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation. It causes substantial disability, impaired quality of life, and avoidable deaths around the world. The main treatment for asthmatic patients is the administration of corticosteroids, which improves the quality of life; however, prolonged use of corticosteroids interferes with extracellular matrix elements. Read More

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Xanthohumol ameliorates Diet-Induced Liver Dysfunction via Farnesoid X Receptor-Dependent and Independent Signaling.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:643857. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States.

The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid and bile acid (BA) homeostasis. Hepatic FXR loss results in lipid and BA accumulation, and progression from hepatic steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of xanthohumol (XN), a hop-derived compound mitigating metabolic syndrome, on liver damage induced by diet and FXR deficiency in mice. Read More

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Changing Paradigms and Unmet Needs in Multiple Sclerosis: The Role of Clinical Neurophysiology.

Mark B Skeen

J Clin Neurophysiol 2021 May;38(3):162-165

Department of Neurology, Division of Multiple Sclerosis and Neuroimmunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, U.S.A.

Summary: Our increasing understanding of the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis has led to the development of many disease-modifying therapies that have revolutionized the care of patients with relapsing forms of the disease. Our understanding of the pathophysiologic basis of progressive forms of the disease is much more limited but has dramatically changed over the past several decades. We are now on the verge of developing therapies that promote remyelination, reduce axonal loss, and restore axonal function. Read More

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Longitudinal Predictive Modeling of Tau Progression Along the Structural Connectome.

Neuroimage 2021 May 3:118126. Epub 2021 May 3.

University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts; Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Tau neurofibrillary tangles, a pathophysiological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), exhibit a stereotypical spatiotemporal trajectory that is strongly correlated with disease progression and cognitive decline. Personalized prediction of tau progression is, therefore, vital for the early diagnosis and prognosis of AD. Evidence from both animal and human studies is suggestive of tau transmission along the brains preexisting neural connectivity conduits. Read More

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Ultrasensitive detection and quantification of viral nucleic acids with raindance droplet digital PCR (ddPCR).

Methods 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

AIDS and Cancer Virus Program, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Frederick, MD, 21702, United States.

Sensitive detection of viral nucleic acids is critically important for diagnosis and monitoring of the progression of infectious diseases such as those caused by SARS-CoV2, HIV-1, and other viruses. In HIV-1 infection cases, assessing the efficacy of treatment interventions that are superimposed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has benefited tremendously from the development of sensitive HIV-1 DNA and RNA quantitation assays. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of Rhesus macaques is similar in many key aspects to human HIV-1 infection and consequently this non-human primate (NHP) model has and continues to prove instrumental in evaluating HIV prevention, treatment and eradication approaches. Read More

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Therapeutic efficacy of novel memantine nitrate MN-08 in animal models of Alzheimer's disease.

Aging Cell 2021 May 6:e13371. Epub 2021 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia in elderly individuals and therapeutic options for AD are very limited. Over-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation, a decrease in cerebral blood flow (CBF), and downstream pathological events play important roles in the disease progression of AD. In the present study, MN-08, a novel memantine nitrate, was found to inhibit Aβ accumulation, prevent neuronal and dendritic spine loss, and consequently attenuate cognitive deficits in 2-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice (for a 6-month preventative course) and in the 8-month-old triple-transgenic (3×Tg-AD) mice (for a 4-month therapeutic course). Read More

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Endothelial Cell-Derived SO Controls Endothelial Cell Inflammation, Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation, and Collagen Synthesis to Inhibit Hypoxic Pulmonary Vascular Remodelling.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 17;2021:5577634. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China.

Hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodelling (PVR) is the major pathological basis of aging-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) inflammation, and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation, hypertrophy and collagen remodelling are the important pathophysiological components of PVR. Endogenous sulfur dioxide (SO) was found to be a novel gasotransmitter in the cardiovascular system with its unique biological properties. Read More

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Mouse models of sarcopenia: classification and evaluation.

J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Sarcopenia is a progressive and widespread skeletal muscle disease that is related to an increased possibility of adverse consequences such as falls, fractures, physical disabilities and death, and its risk increases with age. With the deepening of the understanding of sarcopenia, the disease has become a major clinical disease of the elderly and a key challenge of healthy ageing. However, the exact molecular mechanism of this disease is still unclear, and the selection of treatment strategies and the evaluation of its effect are not the same. Read More

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microRNA-454-mediated NEDD4-2/TrkA/cAMP axis in heart failure: Mechanisms and cardioprotective implications.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Cardiology, Chongqing Cardiac Arrhythmias Therapeutic Service Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The current study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which miR-454 influences the progression of heart failure (HF) in relation to the neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-2 (NEDD4-2)/tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA)/cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) axis. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish a HF animal model via ligation of the left anterior descending branch of the coronary artery. The cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells were treated with H O to stimulate oxidative stress injury in vitro. Read More

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Low miR-16 expression induces regulatory CD4NKG2D T cells involved in colorectal cancer progression.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1540-1556. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Yangzhou University Yangzhou 225001, Jiangsu Province, P. R. China.

MiR-15a/16 is a member of the miRNA cluster that exhibits tumor suppression and immune modulation via targeting multiple genes. Decreased miR-15a/16 expression is involved in many cancer cells. Here, miR-16 had decreased expression in NK1. Read More

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Costunolide suppresses melanoma growth via the AKT/mTOR pathway and .

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1410-1427. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University Sangju-si, Gyeongsang buk-do 37224, Republic of Korea.

Melanoma is the most common type of skin cancer and its incidence is rapidly increasing. AKT, and its related signaling pathways, are highly activated in many cancers including lung, colon, and esophageal cancers. Costunolide (CTD) is a sesquiterpene lactone that has been reported to possess neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties. Read More

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BLM interaction with EZH2 regulates MDM2 expression and is a poor prognostic biomarker for prostate cancer.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1347-1368. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction in The Plateau Mountainous Region, Ministry of Education Guiyang, Guizhou, China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the major causes of cancer death among males worldwide. Our previous studies indicated that the proliferation of prostate cancer cells was reduced after BLM knockdown, however, the mechanism is still not clear. In this study, we identified a direct interaction between BLM and EZH2, which had extremely significantly positive correlations (<0. Read More

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I seed implantation brachytherapy for glottic carcinoma: an experimental and clinical study.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(4):1321-1334. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University Zhengzhou, China.

I seed implantation brachytherapy (ISIB) is the preferred treatment for prostate cancer. Is ISIB technically suitable for glottic carcinoma (GC)? This question has not been answered in the literature; thus, the present study was carried out to evaluate the feasibility and effect of ISIB on GC in animal and clinical studies. An animal model of Tu-212 cell laryngeal carcinoma xenografts (n = 20 animals) underwent ISIB treatments [experimental group (EG) using 0. Read More

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Plasma Metabolomics to Evaluate Progression of Necrotising Enterocolitis in Preterm Pigs.

Metabolites 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a microbiome-dependent gut disease in preterm infants in early life. Antibiotic treatment is a common intervention for NEC. How NEC lesions, with or without antibiotics, affect plasma metabolome was explored in this study. Read More

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Insights on the Functional Role of Beta-Glucans in Fungal Immunity Using Receptor-Deficient Mouse Models.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 30;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.

Understanding the host anti-fungal immunity induced by beta-glucan has been one of the most challenging conundrums in the field of biomedical research. During the last couple of decades, insights on the role of beta-glucan in fungal disease progression, susceptibility, and resistance have been greatly augmented through the utility of various beta-glucan cognate receptor-deficient mouse models. Analysis of dectin-1 knockout mice has clarified the downstream signaling pathways and adaptive effector responses triggered by beta-glucan in anti-fungal immunity. Read More

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Organotypic-liver slide culture systems to explore the role of extracellular vesicles in pancreatic cancer metastatic behavior and guide new therapeutic approaches.

Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Recent studies suggested that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a role both in the metastatic niche formation and in the progression of several tumors, including pancreatic cancer. In particular, the effects of EVs on metastasis should be studied in model systems that take into account both the tumor cells and the metastatic site/tumor microenvironment. Studies with labeled EVs or EV-secreting cells in models will reflect the physiological and pathological functions of EVs. Read More

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Inhibition of KIF20A by transcription factor IRF6 affects the progression of renal clear cell carcinoma.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 3;21(1):246. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Radiology, Suzhou Science and Technology Town Hospital, The Affiliated Suzhou Science and Technology Town Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, No.1 Lijiang Road, high Tech Zone, Suzhou, 215153, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Renal clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors, whose incidence is increasing year by year. IRF6 plays an important role in the occurrence of tumors, although there is yet no report on its expression in ccRCC.

Methods: The expression of IRF6 and KIF20A in ccRCC was predicted by GEPIA and HAP databases. Read More

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TGF-β signaling in Liver, Pancreas, and Gastrointestinal Diseases and Cancer.

Gastroenterology 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Translational Medicine, Department of Surgery, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037, USA. Electronic address:

Genetic alterations affecting transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling are exceptionally common in diseases and cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) system. As a regulator of tissue renewal, TGF-β signaling and the downstream SMAD-dependent transcriptional events play complex roles in the transition from a noncancerous disease state to cancer in the GI tract, liver, and pancreas. Furthermore, this pathway also regulates the stromal cells and the immune system, which may contribute to evasion of the tumors from immune-mediated elimination. Read More

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Effects of High-Fat Diet on Carcinogen-Induced Pancreatic Cancer and Intestinal Microbiota in C57BL/6 Wild-Type Mice.

Pancreas 2021 Apr;50(4):564-570

Departments ofBiotechnology.

Objectives: High-fat diet has been considered a risk factor for the development of pancreatic cancer. It is also shown to significantly impact composition and dysbiosis of gut microbiota in both humans and animals. However, there is little information on the effect of high-fat diet on the development of pancreatic cancer or upon the gut microbiota of patients with pancreatic cancer in humans or animal models. Read More

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Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension - What Have We Learned From Large Animal Models.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 16;8:574360. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Cardiology, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) develops in a subset of patients after acute pulmonary embolism. In CTEPH, pulmonary vascular resistance, which is initially elevated due to the obstructions in the larger pulmonary arteries, is further increased by pulmonary microvascular remodeling. The increased afterload of the right ventricle (RV) leads to RV dilation and hypertrophy. Read More

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