15,917 results match your criteria profound tissue

Advanced imaging of dentin microstructure.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Restorative Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Alnaeem, Jeddah, 21418, SAUDI ARABIA.

This study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for locating the sectioning site of a specimen before characterizing the ultrastructural features of dentin surfaces as well as the inner wall of the dentinal tubules (DT) using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Eight sound human molar teeth were extracted, examined via cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT), embedded, and hemisectioned using a low-speed diamond sawing machine. Next, each sectioned surface was further trimmed, polished, and examined under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to locate the target area on the superficial dentin. Read More

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Ultrathin 2D Inorganic Ancient Pigment Decorated 3D-Printing Scaffold Enables Photonic Hyperthermia of Osteosarcoma in NIR-II Biowindow and Concurrently Augments Bone Regeneration.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Aug 2:e2101739. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implants, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Clinical and Translational Research Center for 3D Printing Technology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200011, China.

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the primary malignant bone tumor. Despite therapeutic strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy have been introduced into the war of fighting OS, the 5-year survival rate for patients still remains unchangeable for decades. Besides, the critical bone defects after surgery, drug-resistance and side effects also attenuate the therapeutic effects and predict poor prognosis. Read More

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NR1D1 suppressed the growth of ovarian cancer by abrogating the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway.

Huailin Wang Yan Fu

BMC Cancer 2021 Jul 30;21(1):871. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Gynecology, the First Hospital of Jilin University, 71 Xinmin Avenue, Changchun, 130021, China.

Background: Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1 (NR1D1), a nuclear receptor associated with a variety of physiological processes, has a low level in ovarian cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. However, its role in ovarian cancer remains unclear.

Methods: The level of NR1D1 in ovarian cancer cells was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Read More

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Structural heterogeneity of cellular K5/K14 filaments as revealed by cryo-electron microscopy.

Elife 2021 Jul 29;10. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Keratin intermediate filaments are an essential and major component of the cytoskeleton in epithelial cells. They form a stable yet dynamic filamentous network extending from the nucleus to the cell periphery, which provides resistance to mechanical stresses. Mutations in keratin genes are related to a variety of epithelial tissue diseases. Read More

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Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate-Dependent Rac Exchanger 2 Protein Facilitates Glioma Progression via Akt and Stat3 Signaling.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Xinhua West Road, Cangzhou, 061000, Hebei, China.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the recognized as the most aggressive brain tumor with poor prognosis and low 1-year and 5-year survival rate. The treatment methods for GBM are limited and inefficient, and novel strategies for GBM treatment are urgently warranted. MiR-338-3p is described as a tumor suppressor in a variety of malignancies, including GBM. Read More

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Establishment, maintenance, and recall of inflammatory memory.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Robin Chemers Neustein Laboratory of Mammalian Cell Biology and Development, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Known for nearly a century but through mechanisms that remain elusive, cells retain a memory of inflammation that equips them to react quickly and broadly to diverse secondary stimuli. Using murine epidermal stem cells as a model, we elucidate how cells establish, maintain, and recall inflammatory memory. Specifically, we landscape and functionally interrogate temporal, dynamic changes to chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, and transcription factor binding that occur during inflammation, post-resolution, and in memory recall following injury. Read More

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Bio-engineering a prevascularized human tri-layered skin substitute containing a hypodermis.

Acta Biomater 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Tissue Biology Research Unit, Department of Surgery, University Children's Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Severe injuries to skin including hypodermis require full-thickness skin replacement. Here, we bio-engineered a tri-layered human skin substitute (TLSS) containing the epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis. The hypodermal layer was generated by differentiation of human adipose stem cells (ASC) in a collagen type I hydrogel and combined with a prevascularized dermis consisting of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts, which arranged into a dense vascular network. Read More

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O-GlcNAcylation: Implications in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

Exp Hematol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Stem Cell and Immune Regulation, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Posttranslational protein modification through addition of the O-linked β-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety to serine or threonine residues, termed O-GlcNAcylation, is a highly dynamic process conserved throughout eukaryotes. O-GlcNAcylation is reversibly catalyzed by a single pair of enzymes, O-GlcNAc transferase and O-GlcNAcase, and it acts as a fundamental regulator for a wide variety of biological processes including gene expression, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, stress response, cellular signaling, epigenetics, and proteostasis. O-GlcNAcylation is regulated by various intracellular or extracellular cues such as metabolic status, nutrient availability, and stress. Read More

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Endothelial reprograming stimulated by oncostatin M promotes inflammation and tumorigenesis in VHL-deficient kidney tissue.

Cancer Res 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, National Central University

Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most prevalent subtype of RCC, and its progression has been linked to chronic inflammation. About 70% of the ccRCC cases are associated with inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. However, it is still not clear how mutations in VHL, encoding the substrate-recognition subunit of an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets the alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-α), can coordinate tissue inflammation and tumorigenesis. Read More

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Small Rab GTPases in Intracellular Vesicle Trafficking: The Case of Rab3A/Raphillin-3A Complex in the Kidney.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 18;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Cardiometabolic and Renal Risk Research Group, INCLIVA Biomedical Research Institute, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

Small Rab GTPases, the largest group of small monomeric GTPases, regulate vesicle trafficking in cells, which are integral to many cellular processes. Their role in neurological diseases, such as cancer and inflammation have been extensively studied, but their implication in kidney disease has not been researched in depth. Rab3a and its effector Rabphillin-3A (Rph3A) expression have been demonstrated to be present in the podocytes of normal kidneys of mice rats and humans, around vesicles contained in the foot processes, and they are overexpressed in diseases with proteinuria. Read More

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Dual actions of osteoclastic-inhibition and osteogenic-stimulation through strontium-releasing bioactive nanoscale cement imply biomaterial-enabled osteoporosis therapy.

Biomaterials 2021 Jul 15;276:121025. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, Republic of Korea; Department of Nanobiomedical Science and BK21 NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, Republic of Korea; Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, Republic of Korea; Department of Regenerative Dental Medicine, School of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, Republic of Korea; Cell & Matter Institute, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, Republic of Korea; Mechanobiology Dental Medicine Research Center, Cheonan, 31116, Republic of Korea; UCL Eastman-Korea Dental Medicine Innovation Centre, Dankook University, Cheonan, 31116, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Repair of defective hard-tissues in osteoporotic patients faces significantly challenges with limited therapeutic options. Although biomedical cements are considered promising materials for healthy bone repair, their uses for healing osteoporotic fracture are clinically limited. Herein, strontium-releasing-nanoscale cement was introduced to provide dual therapeutic-actions (pro-osteogenesis and anti-osteoclastogenesis), eventually for the regeneration of osteoporotic bone defect. Read More

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Gross and histological morphology of the cervical gill slit gland of the pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps).

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Biology and Marine Biology, University of North Carolina Wilmington, Wilmington, North Carolina.

Odontocete cetaceans have undergone profound modifications to their integument and sensory systems and are generally thought to lack specialized exocrine glands that in terrestrial mammals function to produce chemical signals (Thewissen & Nummela, 2008). Keenan-Bateman et al. (2016, 2018), though, introduced an enigmatic exocrine gland, associated with the false gill slit pigmentation pattern in Kogia breviceps. Read More

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ASIC1a promotes the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts via the ERK/MAPK pathway.

Lab Invest 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases of Anhui Province, Anhui Institute of Innovative Drugs, School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China.

Synovial hyperplasia, a profound alteration in the structure of synovial tissue, is the basis for cumulative joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is generally accepted that controlling synovial hyperplasia can delay the progression of RA. As one of the most intensively studied isoforms of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), ASIC1a contributes to various physiopathologic conditions, including RA, due to its unique property of being permeable to Ca. Read More

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AID and APOBECs as Multifaceted Intrinsic Virus-Restricting Factors: Emerging Concepts in the Light of COVID-19.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:690416. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center of Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase)/APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit) family with its multifaceted mode of action emerges as potent intrinsic host antiviral system that acts against a variety of DNA and RNA viruses including coronaviruses. All family members are cytosine-to-uracil deaminases that either have a profound role in driving a strong and specific humoral immune response (AID) or restricting the virus itself by a plethora of mechanisms (APOBECs). In this article, we highlight some of the key aspects apparently linking the AID/APOBECs and SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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LncRNA MEG3 inhibits the proliferation of neural stem cells after ischemic stroke via the miR-493-5P/MIF axis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 14;568:186-192. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, #1 Yixueyuan Road, Chongqing, 400016, China. Electronic address:

Objective: The proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs), or lack thereof, can have profound effects on brain tissue remodeling for ischemic stroke (IS). In this study, we aimed to reveal the influence of the lncRNA MEG3/miR-493-5p/MIF axis on NSC proliferation after IS.

Methods: We established an oxygen glucose-deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in vitro model of IS in NSCs. Read More

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Lipid Profiling of 20 Mammalian Cells by Capillary Microsampling Combined with High-Resolution Spectral Stitching Nanoelectrospray Ionization Direct-Infusion Mass Spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2021 Jul 16;93(29):10031-10038. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

CAS Key Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China.

Studies of cellular metabolism can provide profound insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms and metabolic function. To date, the majority of cellular metabolism studies based on chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) require population cells to obtain informative metabolome. These methods are not only time-consuming but also not suitable for amount-limited cell samples such as circulating tumor cells, stem cells, and neurons. Read More

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Defining the Immune Responses for SARS-CoV-2-Human Macrophage Interactions.

bioRxiv 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Host innate immune response follows severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and it is the driver of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) amongst other inflammatory end-organ morbidities. Such life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is heralded by virus-induced activation of mononuclear phagocytes (MPs; monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells). MPs play substantial roles in aberrant immune secretory activities affecting profound systemic inflammation and end organ malfunctions. Read More

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The Combination of Stromal Vascular Fraction Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma Reduces Malondialdehyde and Nitric Oxide Levels in Deep Dermal Burn Injury.

J Inflamm Res 2021 8;14:3049-3061. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Introduction: Thermal burns release reactive oxygen species, which cause profound systemic and local changes. Stromal vascular fraction cells (SVFs) combined with platelet-rich plasma accelerate burn wound healing. This study investigated the effect of a combination of locally injected SVFs and PRP on malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) serum and tissue levels in a deep dermal burn model in Wistar rats. Read More

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Juvenile hormone regulation of microRNAs is mediated by E75 in the Dengue vector mosquito .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(29)

Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521;

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play critical roles in controlling posttranscriptional gene regulation and have a profound effect on mosquito reproduction and metabolism. Juvenile hormone (JH) is critical for achieving reproductive competence in the main vector of human arboviral diseases, We report a JH-mediated mechanism governing miRNA expression. Using a transcription factor screen with multiple primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) promoters, we identified that the Ecdysone-induced protein E75 (E75) isoform (E75-RD) induced miRNA gene promoter activity. Read More

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The DME demethylase regulates sporophyte gene expression, cell proliferation, differentiation, and meristem resurrection.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(29)

Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea;

The flowering plant life cycle consists of alternating haploid (gametophyte) and diploid (sporophyte) generations, where the sporophytic generation begins with fertilization of haploid gametes. In , genome-wide DNA demethylation is required for normal development, catalyzed by the DEMETER (DME) DNA demethylase in the gamete companion cells of male and female gametophytes. In the sporophyte, postembryonic growth and development are largely dependent on the activity of numerous stem cell niches, or meristems. Read More

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Exceptional ancient DNA preservation and fibre remains of a Sasanian saltmine sheep mummy in Chehrābād, Iran.

Biol Lett 2021 07 14;17(7):20210222. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, D02 VF25, Ireland.

Mummified remains have long attracted interest as a potential source of ancient DNA. However, mummification is a rare process that requires an anhydrous environment to rapidly dehydrate and preserve tissue before complete decomposition occurs. We present the whole-genome sequences (3. Read More

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Integrative analysis of key candidate genes and signaling pathways in ovarian cancer by bioinformatics.

J Ovarian Res 2021 Jul 12;14(1):92. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Clinical Lab, The Children's Hospital of Tianjin (Children's Hospital of Tianjin University), No. 238, Longyan Road, Beichen District, Tianjin, 300000, PR China.

Background: Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynecological tumors, and among gynecological tumors, its incidence and mortality rates are fairly high. However, the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is not clear. The present study aimed to investigate the differentially expressed genes and signaling pathways associated with ovarian cancer by bioinformatics analysis. Read More

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Recent trends in stem cell-based therapies and applications of artificial intelligence in regenerative medicine.

World J Stem Cells 2021 Jun;13(6):521-541

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow 226028, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can self-renew and differentiate into diverse types of mature and functional cells while maintaining their original identity. This profound potential of stem cells has been thoroughly investigated for its significance in regenerative medicine and has laid the foundation for cell-based therapies. Regenerative medicine is rapidly progressing in healthcare with the prospect of repair and restoration of specific organs or tissue injuries or chronic disease conditions where the body's regenerative process is not sufficient to heal. Read More

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The sequenced genomes of non-flowering land plants reveal the innovative evolutionary history of peptide signaling.

Plant Cell 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Section for Evolutionary Biology and Genetics, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Norway.

An understanding of land plant evolution is a prerequisite for in-depth knowledge of plant biology. Here we extract and explore information hidden in the increasing number of sequenced plant genomes, from bryophytes to angiosperms, to elucidate a specific biological question - how peptide signaling evolved. To conquer land and cope with changing environmental conditions, plants have gone through transformations that must have required innovations in cell-to-cell communication. Read More

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A model of the aged lung epithelium in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 07 8;13(13):16922-16937. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an age-related disorder that carries a universally poor prognosis and is thought to arise from repetitive micro injuries to the alveolar epithelium. To date, a major factor limiting our understanding of IPF is a deficiency of disease models, particularly models that can recapitulate the full complement of molecular attributes in the human condition. In this study, we aimed to develop a model that more closely resembles the aberrant IPF lung epithelium. Read More

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3D printing of Cu-doped bioactive glass composite scaffolds promotes bone regeneration through activating the HIF-1α and TNF-α pathway of hUVECs.

Biomater Sci 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, P. R. China. and National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction (NERC-TRR), Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China.

The increasing insight into the molecular and cellular processes within the angiogenic cascade assists in enhancing the survival and integration of engineered bone constructs. Copper-doped bioactive glass (Cu-BG) is now a potential structural component of the novel scaffolds and implants used in orthopedic and dental repairs. However, it is difficult for BG, especially micro-nano particles, to be printed into scaffolds and still retain its biological activity and ability to biodegrade. Read More

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Omental Free Flap Coverage for Extracavitary Vascular Bypass Graft Salvage.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Jun 29;9(6):e3646. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery, Atrium Health-Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, N.C.

Background: Prosthetic vascular graft infection is a serious complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality often requiring graft excision and numerous additional operations. Pedicled flaps are often used for the coverage of exposed deep tissue or hardware for graft salvage. In the absence of pedicled options, the properties of omentum make it an excellent choice for free flap tissue coverage, particularly in cases involving implanted prostheses. Read More

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Compensatory hepatic adaptation accompanies permanent absence of intrahepatic biliary network due to YAP1 loss in liver progenitors.

Cell Rep 2021 Jul;36(1):109310

Division of Experimental Pathology, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Pittsburgh Liver Research Center, University of Pittsburgh and UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) regulates cell plasticity during liver injury, regeneration, and cancer, but its role in liver development is unknown. We detect YAP1 activity in biliary cells and in cells at the hepatobiliary bifurcation in single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of developing livers. Deletion of Yap1 in hepatoblasts does not impair Notch-driven SOX9+ ductal plate formation but does prevent the formation of the abutting second layer of SOX9+ ductal cells, blocking the formation of a patent intrahepatic biliary tree. Read More

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The genomic architectures of tumour-adjacent tissues, plasma and saliva reveal evolutionary underpinnings of relapse in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterised by a dismal prognosis; nonetheless, limited studies have unveiled the mechanisms underlying HNSCC relapse.

Methods: Next-generation sequencing was performed to identify the somatic mutations in 188 matched samples, including primary tumours, tumour-adjacent tissues (TATs), pre- and post-operative plasma, saliva and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from 27 patients. The evolutionary relationship between TATs and tumours were analysed. Read More

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An organ-on-a-chip model for pre-clinical drug evaluation in progressive non-genetic cardiomyopathy.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 Jun 30;160:97-110. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9, Canada; Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5, Canada; Toronto General Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada. Electronic address:

Angiotensin II (Ang II) presents a critical mediator in various pathological conditions such as non-genetic cardiomyopathy. Osmotic pump infusion in rodents is a commonly used approach to model cardiomyopathy associated with Ang II. However, profound differences in electrophysiology and pharmacokinetics between rodent and human cardiomyocytes may limit predictability of animal-based experiments. Read More

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