35,871 results match your criteria profound effects

The effect of aggression II: Acclimation to a high ambient temperature reduces territorial aggression in male striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis).

Horm Behav 2021 May 12;132:104993. Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Life and Environmental Science, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, China. Electronic address:

Thyroid hormones have a profound influence on development, cellular differentiation and metabolism, and are also suspected of playing a role in aggression. We measured territorial aggression, body temperature (T) and serum thyroid hormones levels of male striped hamsters (Cricetulus barabensis) acclimated to either cold (5 °C), cool (21 °C) or hot (34 °C) ambient temperatures. The effects of methimazole on territorial aggression, food intake, metabolic rate and serum thyroid hormone levels, were also examined. Read More

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The Pleistocene species pump past its prime: evidence from European butterfly sister species.

Mol Ecol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FL, UK.

The Pleistocene glacial cycles had a profound impact on the ranges and genetic make-up of organisms. Whilst it is clear that the contact zones that have been described for many sister taxa are secondary and have formed during the last interglacial, it is unclear when the taxa involved began to diverge. Previous estimates based on small numbers of loci are unreliable given the stochasticity of genetic drift and the contrasting effects of incomplete lineage sorting and gene flow on gene divergence. Read More

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Enhanced tyrosine hydroxylase activity induces oxidative stress, causes accumulation of autotoxic catecholamine metabolites, and augments amphetamine effects in vivo.

J Neurochem 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5S 1A8.

In Parkinson's disease, dopamine-containing nigrostriatal neurons undergo profound degeneration. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis. TH increases in vitro formation of reactive oxygen species, and previous animal studies have reported links between cytosolic dopamine buildup and oxidative stress. Read More

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NMDAR-dependent long-term depression is associated with increased short term plasticity through autophagy mediated loss of PSD-95.

Nat Commun 2021 May 14;12(1):2849. Epub 2021 May 14.

Interdisciplinary Institute for Neuroscience, CNRS, Univ. Bordeaux, IINS, UMR 5297, Bordeaux, France.

Long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic strength can take multiple forms and contribute to circuit remodeling, memory encoding or erasure. The generic term LTD encompasses various induction pathways, including activation of NMDA, mGlu or P2X receptors. However, the associated specific molecular mechanisms and effects on synaptic physiology are still unclear. Read More

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Widespread Positive Direct and Indirect Effects of Regular Physical Activity on the Developing Functional Connectome in Early Adolescence.

Cereb Cortex 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Boston Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Adolescence is a period of profound but incompletely understood changes in the brain's neural circuitry (the connectome), which is vulnerable to risk factors such as unhealthy weight, but may be protected by positive factors such as regular physical activity. In 5955 children (median age = 120 months; 50.86% females) from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) cohort, we investigated direct and indirect (through impact on body mass index [BMI]) effects of physical activity on resting-state networks, the backbone of the functional connectome that ubiquitously affects cognitive function. Read More

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Rapid Cortical Adaptation and the Role of Thalamic Synchrony During Wakefulness.

J Neurosci 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Wallace H Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Rapid sensory adaptation is observed across all sensory systems, and strongly shapes sensory percepts in complex sensory environments. Yet despite its ubiquity and likely necessity for survival, the mechanistic basis is poorly understood. A wide range of primarily in-vitro and anesthetized studies have demonstrated the emergence of adaptation at the level of primary sensory cortex, with only modest signatures in earlier stages of processing. Read More

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Calcium channelopathies and intellectual disability: a systematic review.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 May 13;16(1):219. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, Hunan, China.

Background: Calcium ions are involved in several human cellular processes including corticogenesis, transcription, and synaptogenesis. Nevertheless, the relationship between calcium channelopathies (CCs) and intellectual disability (ID)/global developmental delay (GDD) has been poorly investigated. We hypothesised that CCs play a major role in the development of ID/GDD and that both gain- and loss-of-function variants of calcium channel genes can induce ID/GDD. Read More

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Effects of nutrient-rich submarine groundwater discharge on marine aquaculture: A case in Lianjiang, East China Sea.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 28;786:147388. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China. Electronic address:

Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and associated nutrient have long been received insufficient attention in the aquaculture areas of Lianjiang, East China Sea. In this study, we used Ra mass balance model to evaluate the importance of SGD in the aquaculture areas of Lianjiang in different seasons. The results showed that SGD fluxes were 0. Read More

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[Current situation of nitrogen application and its effects on yield and quality of Chinese materia medica].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(8):1883-1892

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

Nitrogen fertilizer has been the long-lasting crucial component in cultivation of Chinese materia medica(CMM) and crops for its profound effects on enhancing the productivity. In consideration of its role in better production, intensive and excessive application of N fertilizer is often found in CMM cultivation. Therefore, firstly, this review summarized various concentrations of N application with regards to different CMM and districts from the literatures published in the last two decades. Read More

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Topological Reorganizations in the Rat Brain-Isolated Mitochondria after 72 Hours of Paradoxical Sleep Deprivation Revealed by Electron Cryo-Tomography.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Mitochondrial Biology and Medicine, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, Shaanxi, Chinagrid.43169.39.

Sleep deprivation has profound influence on several aspects of health and disease. Mitochondria dysfunction has been implicated to play an essential role in the neuronal cellular damage induced by sleep deprivation, but little is known about how neuronal mitochondrial ultrastructure is affected under sleep deprivation. In this report, we utilized electron cryo-tomography to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) mitochondrial structure and extracted morphometric parameters to quantitatively characterize its reorganizations. Read More

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Big eyes can't see microplastics: Feeding selectivity and eco-morphological adaptations in oral cavity affect microplastic uptake in mud-dwelling amphibious mudskipper fish.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147445. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Zoology and Fisheries, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food, and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Microplastic contamination is a widespread global problem. Plastic pollution in the oceans has received a lot of news coverage, but there is a significant gap in our knowledge about its effect in estuarine areas and a profound regional bias in available information. Here, we estimated the degree of microplastic pollution, its impact on a selected fish, and its function as a vector for heavy metals in the Ulhas River estuary, which is one of the most fragile, polluted, and anthropogenically impacted estuaries in India. Read More

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Postweaning isolation alters the responses of auditory neurons to serotonergic modulation.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biology, Indiana University.

Juvenile social experience, such as social isolation, has profound effects on communicative behavior, including signal production and reception. In the current study, we explored responsiveness to the neuromodulator serotonin as a potential mechanistic link between early life social isolation and auditory processing. The serotonergic system is sensitive to social isolation in many brain regions including the inferior colliculus (IC), an auditory midbrain nucleus. Read More

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Differential effects of the novel neurosteroid hypnotic (3β,5β,17β)-3-hydroxyandrostane-17-carbonitrile on electroencephalogram activity in male and female rats.

Br J Anaesth 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA; Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: We recently showed that a neurosteroid analogue, (3β,5β,17β)-3-hydroxyandrostane-17-carbonitrile (3β-OH), induced hypnosis in rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hypnotic and anaesthetic potential of 3β-OH further using electroencephalography.

Methods: We used behavioural assessment and cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power analysis to examine hypnotic and anaesthetic effects of 3β-OH (30 and 60 mg kg) administered intraperitoneally or intravenously to young adult male and female rats. Read More

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What we have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic: Time to think outside the box, maybe far outside.

Clin Dermatol 2021 Jan-Feb;39(1):107-117. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Dermatology, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA; Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA.

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has had a profound effect on our lives and careers; this presentation explores some of the lessons we have learned from it and others that it may yet teach us. Socioeconomic effects have been profound, not all of them favorable. Travel and meeting activities, as well as many other activities, have been severely restricted. Read More

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December 2020

Dietary protein source contributes to the risk of developing maternal syndrome in the Dahl salt-sensitive rat.

Pregnancy Hypertens 2021 May 5;24:126-134. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Physiology, Augusta University, United States.

Preeclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy, which is categorized by hypertension and proteinuria or signs of end-organ damage. Though PE is the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, the mechanisms leading to PE remain unclear. The present study examined the contribution of dietary protein source (casein versus wheat gluten) to the risk of developing maternal syndrome utilizing two colonies of Dahl salt-sensitive (SS/JrHsdMcwi) rats. Read More

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Maternal high fructose diet induced early onset retinopathy via the suppression of synaptic plasticity mediated by the mitochondrial dysfunction.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 83301, Taiwan, Republic of Chinagrid.413804.a.

Retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness, and there is currently no cure. Earlier identification of the progression of retinopathy could provide a better chance for intervention. Diet has profound effects on retinal function. Read More

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The End of the Partnership With a Guide Dog: Emotional Responses, Effects on Quality of Life and Relationships With Subsequent Dogs.

Front Vet Sci 2021 22;8:543463. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Guide dogs are mobility aids that facilitate independent travel of people who are blind or visually impaired. Additional benefits imparted to the guide dog handler include companionship, and increased: social-function, self-esteem and confidence. Some evidence shows that the end of the guide dog partnership can result in reduced mobility, and may have profound psychosocial effects on the handler due to feelings of bereavement and loss of self-esteem. Read More

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Control of Neuronal Excitability by Cell Surface Receptor Density and Phosphoinositide Metabolism.

Front Pharmacol 2021 21;12:663840. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Program in Neuroscience, Bates College, Lewiston, ME, United States.

Phosphoinositides are members of a family of minor phospholipids that make up about 1% of all lipids in most cell types. Despite their low abundance they have been found to be essential regulators of neuronal activities such as action potential firing, release and re-uptake of neurotransmitters, and interaction of cytoskeletal proteins with the plasma membrane. Activation of several different neurotransmitter receptors can deplete phosphoinositide levels by more than 90% in seconds, thereby profoundly altering neuronal behavior; however, despite the physiological importance of this mechanism we still lack a profound quantitative understanding of the connection between phosphoinositide metabolism and neuronal activity. Read More

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A review of Environmental risks and vulnerability factors of indigenous populations from Latin America and the Caribbean in the face of the COVID-19.

Glob Public Health 2021 May 8:1-25. Epub 2021 May 8.

Centro de Investigación Aplicada en Ambiente y Salud (CIAAS), San Luis Potosí, México.

Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) was declared a new epicentre of the coronavirus pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 22 May 2020. As of 13 January 2021, the numbers of deaths and cases caused by COVID-19 in LAC reported are 552,000 and 17'485,000 respectively. LAC concentrates the largest percentage of indigenous populations throughout the world. Read More

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Body image, self-esteem, and sense of masculinity in patients with prostate cancer: a qualitative meta-synthesis.

J Cancer Surviv 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

MRC Centre for Transplantation, Guy's Hospital Campus, King's College London, King's Health Partners, London, UK.

Purpose: Body image, self-esteem, and masculinity are three interconnected constructs in men with prostate cancer, with profound effects on quality of life. This meta-synthesis aimed to evaluate all known qualitative studies published studying the effect of prostate cancer on these constructs.

Methods: A systematic review utilising PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases up to May 2020 was conducted in line with PRISMA and ENTREQ guidelines. Read More

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Determinants of trophic cascade strength in freshwater ecosystems: a global analysis.

Ecology 2021 May 7:e03370. Epub 2021 May 7.

Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Top-down cascade effects are among the most important mechanisms underlying community structure and abundance dynamics in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. A current challenge is understanding the factors controlling trophic cascade strength under global environmental changes. Here, we synthesized 161 global sites to analyze how multiple factors influence consumer-resource interactions with fish in freshwater ecosystems. Read More

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Emulating causal dose-response relations between air pollutants and mortality in the Medicare population.

Environ Health 2021 May 6;20(1):53. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Landmark Center 4th West, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Background: Fine particulate matter (PM), ozone (O), and nitrogen dioxide (NO) are major air pollutants that pose considerable threats to human health. However, what has been mostly missing in air pollution epidemiology is causal dose-response (D-R) relations between those exposures and mortality. Such causal D-R relations can provide profound implications in predicting health impact at a target level of air pollution concentration. Read More

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Sex differences in economic decision-making: Exogenous estradiol has opposing effects on fairness framing in women and men.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 May 3;50:46-54. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Medical Psychology, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Bonn, Venusberg-Campus 1, 53127 Bonn, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine & Health Sciences, University of Oldenburg, Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 7, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Burgeoning evidence indicates that women are more sensitive to the context of an offer and show a stronger propensity to adjust their behavior with changing fairness frames. We evaluated whether the sex hormone estradiol and associated stereotypical beliefs contribute to fairness framings by administering topical estradiol (2 mg) to 108 healthy women and 104 heathy men in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subject study design. Participants played the role of the responder in a modified version of the Ultimatum Game (UG), in which identical offers for the division of a given amount of money were framed as either fair or unfair. Read More

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Novel strategy of natural antioxidant nutrition quality evaluation in food: Oxidation resistance mechanism and synergistic effects investigation.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 24;359:129768. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Center for Advanced Analytical Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering c/o School of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, c/o Engineering Laboratory for Modern Analytical Techniques, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Changchun 130022, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, PR China.

Effective evaluation methods for assessing the nutritional quality of foods that eliminate free radicals (i.e., foods that are classified as antioxidants) have long attracted the attention of scientists and the populace. Read More

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The combination of vitamin D3 and erythropoietin alleviates acute kidney injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion via inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2021 Feb;24(2):167-174

Department of Nephrology, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital & NHC Key Laboratory of Pulmonary Immunological Disease (Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital), Guiyang, Guizhou, 550002, P.R. China.

Objectives: Acute renal ischemia may cause acute renal dysfunction due to lack of blood supply; the manifestations are renal tubular cell apoptosis, infiltration of macrophages, and microvascular destruction. Many studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) and vitamin D3 (VD3) can be used to prevent or treat renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, and VD3 may interact with EPO. In the present study, the effects of the combination of VD3 and EPO in I/R acute kidney injury were studied. Read More

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February 2021

Detoxification and Excretion of Trichothecenes in Transgenic Expressing Trichothecene 3--acetyltransferase.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 29;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA.

, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), produces trichothecenes including deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and 3,7,15-trihydroxy-12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene (NX-3). These toxins contaminate grains and cause profound health problems in humans and animals. To explore exploiting a fungal self-protection mechanism in plants, we examined the ability of trichothecene 3--acetyltransferase () to detoxify several key trichothecenes produced by : DON, 15-ADON, NX-3, and NIV. Read More

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Overcoming challenges of HERG potassium channel liability through rational design: Eag1 inhibitors for cancer treatment.

Med Res Rev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

AG Oncophysiology, Max-Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine, Göttingen, Germany.

Two decades of research have proven the relevance of ion channel expression for tumor progression in virtually every indication, and it has become clear that inhibition of specific ion channels will eventually become part of the oncology therapeutic arsenal. However, ion channels play relevant roles in all aspects of physiology, and specificity for the tumor tissue remains a challenge to avoid undesired effects. Eag1 (K 10. Read More

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Effect of COVID-19 pandemic decisions on tertiary-level surgical services in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

S Afr Med J 2020 12 14;111(2):120-123. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Discipline of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of restrictive policies on theatre procedures, with profound impacts on service delivery and theatre output.

Objectives: To quantify these effects at a tertiary hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa.

Methods: A retrospective review of morbidity and mortality data was conducted. Read More

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December 2020

Effect of Pretreatment Dysphagia on Postchemoradiation Swallowing Function in Head and Neck Cancer.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021 May 4:1945998211009853. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California-Davis, Sacramento, California, USA.

Objectives: Chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for head and neck cancer can have profound effects on swallowing function. Identification of risk factors for development of swallowing dysfunction after CRT may improve allocation of preventive strategies. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between pre-CRT dysphagia and post-CRT swallowing dysfunction. Read More

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How adding a single methylene to dihydrofolate reductase can change its conformational dynamics.

J Chem Phys 2021 Apr;154(16):165103

Department of Chemistry, Georgetown University, Washington, District of Columbia 20057, USA.

Studies of the effects of pressure on proteins from piezophilic (pressure-loving) microbes compared with homologous proteins from mesophilic microbes have been relatively rare. Interestingly, such studies of dihydrofolate reductase show that a single-site mutation from an aspartic acid to a glutamic acid can reverse the pressure-dependent monotonic decrease in activity to that in a monotonic pressure-dependent activation. This residue is near the active site but is not thought to directly participate in the catalytic mechanism. Read More

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