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Major Depressive Disorder Enhances Th2 and Th17 Cytokines in Patients Suffering from Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Aug 4:1-14. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Introduction: Major depressive disorder (MDD) can impact the severity of allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma (AA). Here, we evaluated the cytokine production by T-cells from AR and AA patients with or without MDD. The effect of serotonin on the in vitro T-cell response was also evaluated. Read More

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Elevated Rates of Indeterminate Results on QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus in COVID-19 Patients.

Authors:
Kileen L Shier

J Clin Microbiol 2021 Aug 4:JCM0141421. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Quest Diagnostics Nichols Institute, Chantilly, Virginia, USÀ.

Interferon-gamma release assays are used to screen various patient populations for latent tuberculosis infection. In this issue of the Ward et al. (J Clin Microbiol 59:e00811-21, 2021, https://doi. Read More

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Is cyclooxygenase-1 involved in neuroinflammation?

J Neurosci Res 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Reactive microglia are an important hallmark of neuroinflammation. Reactive microglia release various inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, and prostaglandins, which are produced by enzymes like cyclooxygenases (COX). The inducible COX-2 subtype has been associated with inflammation, whereas the constitutively expressed COX-1 subtype is generally considered as a housekeeping enzyme. Read More

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Determination of the Effect of Co-cultivation on the Production and Root Exudation of Flavonoids in Four Legume Species Using LC-MS/MS Analysis.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej, DK-4200 Slagelse, Denmark.

Flavonoids play a key role in the regulation of plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions, and factors determining their release have been investigated in most of the common forage legumes. However, little is known about the response of flavonoid production and release to co-cultivation with other crop species. This study investigated alterations in the concentration of flavonoids in plant tissues and root exudates in four legumes [alfalfa (), black medic (), crimson clover (), and subterranean clover ()] co-cultivated with durum wheat [ subsp. Read More

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Humanized virus-suppressing factor inhibits hepatitis B virus infection by targeting viral cell entry.

Heliyon 2021 Jul 14;7(7):e07586. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.

Although nucleos(t)ide analogs and interferons suppress hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication, they must be taken continuously and have a low response rate. Therefore, therapeutics for HBV with novel modes of action are needed. Humanized virus-suppressing factor (hzVSF) is a monoclonal antibody against vimentin that exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Read More

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DL-3-n-butylphthalide protects H9c2 cardiomyoblasts from ischemia/reperfusion injury by regulating HSP70 expression via PI3K/AKT pathway activation.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Sep 15;22(3):1008. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University, Weifang, Shandong 261000, P.R. China.

DL-3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) is commonly used to treat ischemic strokes due to its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study aimed to examine the protective effects of NBP on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) by establishing a MIRI model in H9c2 cells. Cell viability assay using Cell Counting Kit-8, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) content were assessed to detect cell activity, degree of cell injury and oxidative stress reaction. Read More

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September 2021

Intensive Care Management of Severe Tetanus.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 May;25(Suppl 2):S155-S160

Department of Medicine, Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Tetanus is caused by an exotoxin, tetanospasmin, produced by , an anaerobic gram-positive bacillus.Tetanospasmin prevents the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the spinal cord, brainstem motor nuclei, and the brain, producing muscle rigidity and tonic spasms.Trismus (lockjaw), dysphagia, laryngeal spasms, rigidity of limbs and paraspinal muscles, and opisthotonic posture are common. Read More

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Novel Tl(III) complexes containing pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylate derivatives with selective anticancer activity through inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in A375 cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 3;11(1):15699. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Health Institute, School of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Three novel Tl(III) complexes (C1), (C2) and (C3) were synthesized using the one-pot reactions of pyridine dicarboxylic acid derivatives, 2-aminobenzimidazole and/or 4-aminopyridine, and also thallium(III) nitrate trihydrate metal salt. The structure of all three complexes was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction. C1 and C2 were realized to be isostructural with disordered square anti-prismatic geometry and for C3 arrangement of the distorted tricapped triangular prism was proposed. Read More

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Green synthesis of [email protected] nanocomposite and its' efficient antibacterial activity.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jul 31:102471. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Beijing Advaced Innovation Centre for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, PR China. Electronic address:

Nanotechnology, as one of the attractive field in the recent decade and is attaining great attention worldwide having an admirable applications in the field of biomedicine like drug delivery, cell labeling, and bacterial inhibition . New materials having less toxicity and excellent antibacterial activity attract several research interests. In the current study, while taking the advantages of green synthesized zinc oxide and graphene oxide we have decorated zinc oxide on the surface of grephene oxide forming [email protected] nanocomposite. Read More

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Traminines A and B, produced by Fusarium concentricum, inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Ōmura Satoshi Memorial Institute, Kitasato University, 5-9-1, shirokane Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan.

Two new tetramic acid derivatives, traminines A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a culture broth of Fusarium concentricum FKI-7550 by bioassay-guided fractionation using multidrug-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae 12geneΔ0HSR-iERG6. The chemical structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by NMR studies. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the growth of the multidrug-sensitive yeast strain on non-fermentable medium containing glycerol, but not on fermentable medium containing glucose. Read More

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SNP-based assessment of genetic purity and diversity in maize hybrid breeding.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(8):e0249505. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

School of Agriculture, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Assessment of genetic purity of parental inbred lines and their resultant F1 hybrids is an essential quality control check in maize hybrid breeding, variety release and seed production. In this study, genetic purity, parent-offspring relationship and diversity among the inbred lines were assessed using 92 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. A total of 188 maize genotypes, comprising of 26 inbred lines, four doubled haploid (DH) lines and 158 single-cross maize hybrids were investigated in this study using Kompetitive Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (KASP) genotyping assays. Read More

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Neutrophil extracellular traps and neutrophil-derived mediators as possible biomarkers in bronchial asthma.

Clin Exp Med 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Neutrophils (PMNs) contain and release a powerful arsenal of mediators, including several granular enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Although airway neutrophilia is associated with severity, poor response to glucocorticoids and exacerbations, the pathophysiological role of neutrophils in asthma remains poorly understood. Twenty-four patients with asthma and 22 healthy controls (HCs) were prospectively recruited. Read More

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Differences in Cancer Care Expenditures and Utilization for Surgery by Hospital Type Among Patients With Private Insurance.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Aug 2;4(8):e2119764. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Penn Center for Cancer Care Innovation, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: With rising expenditures on cancer care outpacing other sectors of the US health system, national attention has focused on insurer spending, particularly for patients with private insurance, for whom price transparency has historically been lacking. The type of hospital at which cancer care is delivered may be an important factor associated with insurer spending for patients with private insurance.

Objective: To examine differences in spending and utilization for patients with private insurance undergoing common cancer surgery at National Cancer Institute (NCI) centers vs community hospitals. Read More

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LncRNA H19 Mitigates Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Induced Pyroptosis via Caspase-1 in Raw 264.7 Cells.

Inflammation 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130021, China.

Atherosclerosis (AS) is mainly characterized by the activation of inflammatory cells and chronic inflammatory responses after cell injury. Pyroptosis is a form of programmed cell death (PCD) accompanied by the release of inflammatory factors. Many studies have shown that pyroptosis plays an important role in AS. Read More

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Obstipation in pet pigs: 24 cases.

Can Vet J 2021 Aug;62(8):843-848

University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA (Hobbs, DeNotta, Gallastegui, Elane); University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbia, Missouri, USA (Rivero, Adkins); Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada (Gomez).

Clinical features and patient outcomes for pet pigs with obstipation are poorly defined. This retrospective study reports the clinical findings from 24 pet (non-production) pigs with obstipation presented to 2 veterinary teaching hospitals. Clinical features of obstipated pet pigs included anorexia or hyporexia in 24 pigs (100%), pain on abdominal palpation in 22 (90%), lethargy in 21 (88%), tachypnea in 19 (79%), vomiting in 14 (58%), and tachycardia in 13 (54%). Read More

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Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loaded with fluorescent coumarin-5-fluorouracil conjugates as mitochondrial-targeting theranostic probes for tumor cells.

Nanotechnology 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine and Immuno-Engineering of Henan Province, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan, 475004, CHINA.

Chemotherapy is currently a principal method for treating tumors. Selective delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the subcellular organs of cancer cells is an attractive treatment strategy for cancer. Mitochondria are important organelles that play complex roles in cancer, such as providing energy and controlling various cell death mechanisms. Read More

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Improved soil-crop system management aids in NH emission mitigation in China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 26;289:117844. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Rothamsted Research, North Wyke, Devon, EX20 2SB, UK.

High ammonia (NH) emissions from fertilized soil in China have led to various concerns regarding environmental safety and public health. In response to China's blue skies protection campaign, effective NH reduction measures need to consider both mitigation efficiency and food security. In this context, we conducted a meta-analysis (including 2980 observations from 447 studies) to select effective measures based on absolute (AV) and yield-scaled (YSAV) NH volatilization reduction potential, with the aim of establishing a comprehensive NH mitigation framework covering various crop production sectors, and offering a range of potential solutions. Read More

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Leishmaniasis: A new method for confirming cure and detecting asymptomatic infection in patients receiving immunosuppressive treatment for autoimmune disease.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Aug 2;15(8):e0009662. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

WHO Collaborating Centre for Leishmaniasis, National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda (Madrid), Spain.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in patients receiving immunosuppressant drugs for autoimmune disease has been on the rise. It is important-but difficult-to know when cure has been achieved in these patients since the withdrawal of immunosuppressants during antileishmania treatment is commonly required, and there is a risk of relapse when immunosuppression is restored. The prevalence of asymptomatic infection among those immunosuppressed for autoimmune disease is also uncertain. Read More

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Poultry Professionals' Perception of Participation in Voluntary Disease Mapping and Monitoring Programs in the United States: A Cluster Analysis.

Avian Dis 2021 Mar;65(1):67-76

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210,

The development and implementation of disease mapping and monitoring programs can be useful tools for rapid communication and control of endemic and epidemic infectious diseases affecting the food animal industry. Commercial livestock producers have traditionally been reluctant to share information related to animal health, challenging the large-scale implementation of such monitoring and mapping programs. The main objective of this study was to assess the perception of poultry professionals toward disease mapping and monitoring programs and to identify groups of poultry professionals with similar perceptions and attitudes toward these projects. Read More

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Protective effect of sarsasapogenin in TNBS induced ulcerative colitis in rats associated with downregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2021 Aug 2:1-13. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, India.

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel condition considered by oxido-nitrosative stress and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that affects the mucosal lining of the colon. Sarsasapogenin (SG), as an active component, has been found in many plants, and it exhibits potential protective effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-psoriasis, anti-arthritis, anti-asthma, anti-depressant and anti-cancer. However, the effects of SG on UC remain unknown. Read More

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Angiotensin II-induced natriuresis is attenuated in knockout mice lacking the receptors for tumor necrosis factor-α.

Physiol Rep 2021 Aug;9(15):e14942

Department of Physiology, Tulane Hypertension & Renal Center of Excellence, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Intravenous infusion of relatively higher doses of angiotensin II (AngII) elicits natriuresis as opposed to its usual anti-natruretic response. As AngII can induce tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production which elicits natriuresis via its action on TNFα receptor type 1 (TNFR1), we hypothesize that the concomitant release of TNFα contributes to the natriuretic response to AngII. Responses to AngII infusion (1 ng min  g for 75 min, iv) were evaluated in anesthetized knockout (KO) mice lacking TNFR1 (n = 6) and TNFR2 (TNFα receptor type 2; n = 6) and compared these responses with those in wild type (WT; n = 6) mice. Read More

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Data analytics to evaluate the impact of infectious disease on economy: Case study of COVID-19 pandemic.

Patterns (N Y) 2021 Jul 27:100315. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Sustainability, Optimization, and Learning for InterDependent Networks Laboratory (solid lab), Knight Foundation School of Computing and Information Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is a new strain of coronavirus that is regarded as a respiratory disease and is transmittable among humans. At present, the disease has caused a pandemic, and COVID-19 cases are ballooning out of control. The impact of such turbulent situations can be controlled by tracking the patterns of infected and death cases through accurate prediction and by taking precautions accordingly. Read More

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Evaluation of the Release Mechanism of Sustained-Release Tracers and its Application in Horizontal Well Inflow Profile Monitoring.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 19;6(29):19269-19280. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Shale Gas Exploration & Development Project Department of Chuanqing Drilling Engineering CO. Ltd., CNPC, Chengdu, Sichuan 610051, PR China.

The inflow profile is an important parameter to evaluate horizontal well productivity; however, quantitative interpretation of the inflow profile of the horizontal wells both accurately and cost-effectively is a common challenge faced by horizontal well production technology. The sustained-release chemical tracer is a new low-cost, long-lasting, and simple technique for monitoring the inflow profile in horizontal wells. In this study, a new type of sustained-release tracer is developed using bisphenol A-type epoxy resin as the polymer matrix and 2,6-difluorobenzoic acid, 3,4-difluorobenzoic acid, and 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzoic acid as tracers. Read More

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Effects of General Anesthesia Versus Spinal Anesthesia on Serum Cytokine Release After Cesarean Section: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Anesth Pain Med 2021 Apr 18;11(2):e111272. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Anesthesiology Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Tissue damage caused by major surgery, such as cesarean section, may lead to a poor host immune response and excessive release of cytokines. These responses may increase the risk of infection, cause postoperative pain, and exert damaging effects on various body organs.

Objectives: Anesthesia methods may affect cytokine production after surgery. Read More

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Acute Pancreatitis-Induced Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Cureus 2021 Jun 26;13(6):e15949. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Saint Joseph's Regional Medical Center, Paterson, USA.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are a class of medications utilized for the treatment of diabetes mellitus by mechanisms promoting incretin release and insulin production. Although poorly understood, cases of acute pancreatitis have been observed in patients taking GLP-1 RAs. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2is) are another class of diabetic medications inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption which have been associated with rare cases of euglycemic ketoacidosis. Read More

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Synergistic Antioxidant Effects of Araloside A and L-Ascorbic Acid on HO-Induced HEK293 Cells: Regulation of Cellular Antioxidant Status.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 9;2021:9996040. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

College of Food Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030, China.

Araloside A is a pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin, and L-ascorbic acid is a globally recognized antioxidant. In this study, coadministered araloside A and L-ascorbic acid were found to have a strong synergistic antioxidant effect, and correlations between cellular antioxidant indexes and free radical scavenging ability were found. Individual and combined pretreatment with araloside A and L-ascorbic acid increased both cell viability and antioxidant enzyme activity and inhibited the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and HO; and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), protein carbonyls, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy guanosine (8-OHdG). Read More

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Biosynthetic Cyclization Catalysts for the Assembly of Peptide and Polyketide Natural Products.

ChemCatChem 2021 May 28;13(9):2095-2116. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Life Sciences Institute, University of Michigan, 210 Washtenaw Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2216 (USA).

Many biologically active natural products are synthesized by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), polyketide synthases (PKSs) and their hybrids. These megasynthetases contain modules possessing distinct catalytic domains that allow for substrate initiation, chain extension, processing and termination. At the end of a module, a terminal domain, usually a thioesterase (TE), is responsible for catalyzing the release of the NRPS or PKS as a linear or cyclized product. Read More

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Synthesis of Polyphosphate-Loaded Nanoparticles Using Inverse Miniemulsion Polymerization for Sustained Delivery to the Gastrointestinal Tract.

Macromol React Eng 2019 Apr 18;13(2). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL 60616, USA.

Polyphosphate salts, such as sodium hexametaphosphate (PPi), are effective in the attenuation of collagenase and biofilm production and prevention of anastomotic leak in mice models. However, systemic administration of polyphosphate solutions to the gut presents a series of difficulties such as uncontrolled delivery to target and off-site tissues. In this article a process to produce PPi-loaded poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel nanoparticles through miniemulsion polymerization is developed. Read More

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Bioengineering CXCR4-overexpressing cell membrane functionalized ROS-responsive nanotherapeutics for targeting cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Theranostics 2021 6;11(16):8043-8056. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Key Laboratory for Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, State and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Vascular Implants, Bioengineering College of Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, China.

As a potentially life-threatening disorder, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is associated with significantly high mortality, especially the irreversible brain tissue damage associated with increased reactive oxygen radical production and excessive inflammation. Currently, the insufficiency of targeted drug delivery and "on-demand" drug release remain the greatest challenges for cerebral I/R injury therapy. Bioengineered cell membrane-based nanotherapeutics mimic and enhance natural membrane functions and represent a potentially promising approach, relying on selective interactions between receptors and chemokines and increase nanomedicine delivery efficiency into the target tissues. Read More

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Epigenetic Markers Are Associated With Differences in Isocyanate Biomarker Levels in Exposed Spray-Painters.

Front Genet 2021 14;12:700636. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States.

Isocyanates are respiratory and skin sensitizers that are one of the main causes of occupational asthma globally. Genetic and epigenetic markers are associated with isocyanate-induced asthma and, before asthma develops, we have shown that genetic polymorphisms are associated with variation in plasma and urine biomarker levels in exposed workers. Inter-individual epigenetic variance may also have a significant role in the observed biomarker variability following isocyanate exposure. Read More

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