11,025 results match your criteria production homologous

Cell Metabolism and DNA Repair Pathways: Implications for Cancer Therapy.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 23;9:633305. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Cancer and Ageing Research Program, Centre for Genomics and Personalised Health, Translational Research Institute (TRI), Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

DNA repair and metabolic pathways are vital to maintain cellular homeostasis in normal human cells. Both of these pathways, however, undergo extensive changes during tumorigenesis, including modifications that promote rapid growth, genetic heterogeneity, and survival. While these two areas of research have remained relatively distinct, there is growing evidence that the pathways are interdependent and intrinsically linked. Read More

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Rational engineering of xylanase hyper-producing system in Trichoderma reesei for efficient biomass degradation.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Apr 8;14(1):90. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, People's Republic of China.

Background: Filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei has been widely used as a workhorse for cellulase and xylanase productions. Xylanase has been reported as the crucial accessory enzyme in the degradation of lignocellulose for higher accessibility of cellulase. In addition, the efficient hydrolysis of xylan needs the co-work of multiple xylanolytic enzymes, which rise an increasing demand for the high yield of xylanase for efficient biomass degradation. Read More

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Integrating PARP Inhibitors Into Advanced Prostate Cancer Therapeutics.

Oncology (Williston Park) 2021 Mar;35(3):119-125

Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Cancer, Los Angeles, CA.

DNA-damage repair (DDR) pathway mutations can sensitize cancer cells to a class of cancer therapeutics known as PARP inhibitors. Given that DDR alterations can be found in up to one-third of advanced prostate cancers, PARP inhibitors have recently been established in treatment-refractory settings. We provide an updated review of the clinical data supporting the 4 PARP inhibitors that have undergone the most investigation thus far in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Read More

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Molecular Epidemiology of Novirhabdoviruses Emerging in Iranian Trout Farms.

Viruses 2021 Mar 10;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Medical School Brandenburg Theodor Fontane, 01968 Senftenberg, Germany.

Novirhabdoviruses cause large epizootics and economic losses of farmed trout. In this study, we surveyed Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus and Infectious hematopoietic and necrosis virus (VHSV and IHNV) through both monitoring and investigation of clinical outbreaks reported by farmers in the regions with major rainbow trout production in Iran from 2015 to 2019. RT-PCR assays of the kidney samples and cell culture (EPC/FHM cells) samples confirmed the presence of the viruses, with 9 VHSV and 4 IHNV isolates, in both endemic and new areas of Iran. Read More

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Sea Anemone Kunitz-Type Peptides Demonstrate Neuroprotective Activity in the 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Neurotoxicity Model.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 10;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 Pr. 100 let Vladivostoku, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia.

Kunitz-type peptides from venomous animals have been known to inhibit different proteinases and also to modulate ion channels and receptors, demonstrating analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-histamine and many other biological activities. At present, there is evidence of their neuroprotective effects. We have studied eight Kunitz-type peptides of the sea anemone to find molecules with cytoprotective activity in the 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity model on neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells. Read More

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Genes related to redox and cell curvature facilitate interactions between Caulobacter strains and Arabidopsis.

PLoS One 2021 1;16(4):e0249227. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United State of America.

Bacteria play an integral role in shaping plant growth and development. However, the genetic factors that facilitate plant-bacteria interactions remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrated the importance of two bacterial genetic factors that facilitate the interactions between plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria in the genus Caulobacter and the host plant Arabidopsis. Read More

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Increasing Long-Chain Dicarboxylic Acid Production in Candida tropicalis by Engineering Fatty Transporters.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Zhucheng Dongxiao Biotechnology Co., Ltd, Xinxing Town, Zhucheng, Shandong, 262200, People's Republic of China.

Candida tropicalis can metabolize alkanes or fatty acids to produce long-chain dicarboxylic acids (DCAs). Fatty acid transporters located on the cell or peroxisome membrane may play an important role in this process. Using amino acid sequence homologous alignment, two putative proteins, CtFat1p and CtPxa1p, located on the cell and peroxisome membrane were found, respectively. Read More

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Characterization of a broadly specific cadaverine N-hydroxylase involved in desferrioxamine B biosynthesis in Streptomyces sviceus.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(3):e0248385. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Center for Structural Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD, United States of America.

N-hydroxylating flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs) are involved in the biosynthesis of hydroxamate siderophores, playing a key role in microbial virulence. Herein, we report the first structural and kinetic characterization of a novel alkyl diamine N-hydroxylase DesB from Streptomyces sviceus (SsDesB). This enzyme catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of desferrioxamine B, a clinical drug used to treat iron overload disorders. Read More

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Germline mutations in apoptosis pathway genes in ovarian cancer; the functional role of a TP53I3 (PIG3) variant in ROS production and DNA repair.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Mar 29;7(1):62. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA.

Approximately 25% of all cases of ovarian cancer (OVCA) cases are associated with inherited risk. However, accurate risk assessment is limited by the presence of variants of unknown significance (VUS). Previously, we performed whole-exome sequencing on 48 OVCA patients with familial predisposition, yet negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations. Read More

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Overexpression of an Apocynum venetum flavonols synthetase gene confers salinity stress tolerance to transgenic tobacco plants.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Mar 21;162:667-676. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Marine Agriculture Research Center, Tobacco Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao, 266101, China. Electronic address:

Soil salinity is a major limiting factor for agricultural production, threatening food security worldwide. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying plant responses is required to effectively counter its deleterious effects on crop productivity. Total flavonoid accumulation reportedly improves salinity tolerance in many crops. Read More

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Rhubarb extract relieves constipation by stimulating mucus production in the colon and altering the intestinal flora.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Mar 25;138:111479. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Basic Medical College, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China. Electronic address:

Background: Constipation, mainly characterized by the difficulty in defecation, is a clinical symptom caused by a variety of factors. It can be manifested as normal or slow colonic transport abnormalities, which can occur alone or concurrently with defecation disorders. As there is not uniform definition and assessment standard, no clear plan could be used for the treatment of constipation. Read More

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Antioxidative effects of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor against pathological retinal angiogenesis through promotion of mitochondrial function.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a by-product of oxygen metabolism mainly originating from mitochondria, participate in many pathological processes related to ophthalmopathy. Excessive production of ROS leads to oxidative stress, which influences the permeability, proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human retinal microcapillary endothelial cells (HRMECs). The molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of ROS are not clear. Read More

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Distinct functions of ethylene and ACC in the basal land plant marchantia polymorpha.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, Okayama, 700-8530, Japan.

Ethylene is a gaseous phytohormone involved in various physiological processes including fruit ripening, senescence, root hair development, and stress responses. Recent genomics have suggested that most homologous genes of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling are conserved from algae to angiosperms, whereas function and biosynthesis of ethylene remain unknown in basal plants. Here, we examined physiological effects of ethylene, an ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and an inhibitor of ethylene perception, silver thiosulfate (STS), in a basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha. Read More

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The Ameliorating Effects of Bushen Huatan Granules and Kunling Wan on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced by Dehydroepiandrosterone in Rats.

Front Physiol 2021 8;12:525145. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Aim: To investigate the effects of Bushen Huatan Granules (BHG) and Kunling Wan (KW), the two Chinese medicines, on the regulation of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their underlying mechanisms.

Materials And Methods: PCOS rat model was established by subcutaneous injection of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (6 mg/100 g/day) for 20 days, followed by treatment with BHG (0.75, 1. Read More

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Fasciola hepatica hijacks host macrophage miRNA machinery to modulate early innate immune responses.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 24;11(1):6712. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, The University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW, Australia.

Fasciola hepatica, a global worm parasite of humans and their livestock, regulates host innate immune responses within hours of infection. Host macrophages, essential to the first-line defence mechanisms, are quickly restricted in their ability to initiate a classic protective pro-inflammatory immune response. We found that macrophages from infected animals are enriched with parasite-derived micro(mi)RNAs. Read More

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Recent Advances in Construction of the Efficient Producers of Riboflavin and Flavin Nucleotides (FMN, FAD) in the Yeast Candida famata.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2280:15-30

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Institute of Cell Biology, NAS of Ukraine, Lviv, Ukraine.

The approaches used by the authors to design the Candida famata strains capable to overproduce riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are described. The metabolic engineering approaches include overexpression of SEF1 gene encoding positive regulator of riboflavin biosynthesis, IMH3 (coding for IMP dehydrogenase) orthologs from another species of flavinogenic yeast Debaryomyces hansenii, and the homologous genes RIB1 and RIB7 encoding GTP cyclohydrolase II and riboflavin synthase, the first and the last enzymes of riboflavin biosynthesis pathway, respectively. Overexpression of the above mentioned genes in the genetically stable riboflavin overproducer AF-4 obtained by classical selection resulted in fourfold increase of riboflavin production in shake flask experiments. Read More

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January 2021

Stable recombinant gene expression from a live bacterial vector via chromosomal integration.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Infection and Immunity Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia

Disease control in animal production systems requires constant vigilance. Historically, the application of in-feed antibiotics to control bacteria and improve performance has been a much-used approach to maintain animal health and welfare. However, the widespread use of in-feed antibiotics is thought to increase the risk of antibiotic resistance developing. Read More

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Metabolic selection of a homologous recombination mediated gene loss protects Trypanosoma brucei from ROS production by glycosomal fumarate reductase.

J Biol Chem 2021 Mar 16:100548. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité (MFP), UMR 5234, F-33000 Bordeaux, France; Univ. Bordeaux, CNRS, Centre de Résonance Magnétique des Systèmes Biologiques (CRMSB), UMR 5536, F-33000 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

The genome of trypanosomatids rearranges by using repeated sequences as platforms for amplification or deletion of genomic segments. These stochastic recombination events have a direct impact on gene dosage and foster the selection of adaptive traits in response to environmental pressure. We provide here such an example by showing that the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene knockout (Δpepck) leads to the selection of a deletion event between two tandemly arranged fumarate reductase (FRDg and FRDm2) genes to produce a chimeric FRDg-m2 gene in the Δpepck* cell line. Read More

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Zinc Protects against Heat Stress-Induced Apoptosis via the Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in TM3 Leydig Cells.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

College of Animal Science, Anhui Science and Technology University, Fengyang, 233100, Anhui, China.

Heat stress (HS)-induced apoptosis in Leydig cells is mediated by various molecular mechanisms, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Zinc, an inorganic mineral element, exhibits several cytoprotective properties, but its potential protective action against Leydig cell apoptosis and the related molecular mechanisms has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the effects of zinc sulfate, a predominant chemical form of zinc, exerted on cell viability, apoptosis, and testosterone production in HS-treated TM3 Leydig cells and investigated the underlying signaling pathways. Read More

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Engineering Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051a for the production of recombinant catalases.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Lab of Biorefinery, Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 99 Haike Road, Pudong, Shanghai 201210, China.

Catalases are a large group of enzymes that decompose hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and hydrogen, and have been applied widely in numerous areas. Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051a is a well-known host strain for high level secretion of heterologous peptides. However, the application of 6051a was seriously hampered by insufficient transformation efficiency. Read More

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Aging modulated by the Drosophila insulin receptor through distinct structure-defined mechanisms.

Genetics 2021 Feb;217(2)

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Mutations of the Drosophila melanogaster insulin/IGF signaling system slow aging, while also affecting growth and reproduction. To understand this pleiotropy, we produced an allelic series of single codon substitutions in the Drosophila insulin receptor, InR. We generated InR substitutions using homologous recombination and related each to emerging models of receptor tyrosine kinase structure and function. Read More

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February 2021

Pathogenicity and virulence of Japanese encephalitis virus: Neuroinflammation and neuronal cell damage.

Virulence 2021 12;12(1):968-980

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, P. R. China.

Thousands of human deaths occur annually due to Japanese encephalitis (JE), caused by Japanese encephalitis virus. During the virus infection of the central nervous system, reactive gliosis, uncontrolled inflammatory response, and neuronal cell death are considered as the characteristic features of JE. To date, no specific treatment has been approved to overcome JE, indicating a need for the development of novel therapies. Read More

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December 2021

The rice LEC1-like transcription factor OsNF-YB9 interacts with SPK, an endosperm-specific sucrose synthase protein kinase, and functions in seed development.

Plant J 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology, Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics of the Ministry of Education, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China.

LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), a NUCLEAR FACTOR-Y (NF-Y) family member, plays a critical role in embryogenesis and seed development in Arabidopsis. Previous studies have shown that rice OsNF-YB9 and OsNF-YB7 are homologous to Arabidopsis LEC1. However, the functions of LEC1-like genes in rice remain unclear. Read More

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Case Report: Detection of a Novel Germline Deletion in a Young Woman With Hereditary Breast Cancer: When the Patient's Phenotype History Doesn't Lie.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:602523. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.

The partner and localizer of () is a major binding partner that participates in homologous recombination repair in response to DNA double-strand breaks. Germline alterations of the gene have recently been associated with a high risk of developing breast cancer. We investigated a 37-year-old Caucasian woman with breast cancer and family history of breast cancer using targeted next generation sequencing. Read More

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February 2021

Activation of ATF4 triggers trabecular meshwork cell dysfunction and apoptosis in POAG.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Mar 10;13(6):8628-8642. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is the leading cause of irreversible blindness. Dysfunction of the trabecular meshwork (TM), resulting in decreased outflow of aqueous humor and increased intraocular pressure (IOP), plays an important role in the pathogenesis of POAG. However, the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. Read More

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Dietary factors, gut microbiota, and serum trimethylamine-N-oxide associated with cardiovascular disease in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

Background: Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a diet-derived and gut microbiota-related metabolite, is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, major dietary determinants and specific gut bacterial taxa related to TMAO remain to be identified in humans.

Objectives: We aimed to identify dietary and gut microbial factors associated with circulating TMAO. Read More

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Advances in Genetic Engineering Technology and Its Application in the Industrial Fungus .

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:644404. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.

The filamentous fungus is an important strain in the traditional fermentation and food processing industries and is often used in the production of soy sauce, soybean paste, and liquor-making. In addition, has a strong capacity to secrete large amounts of hydrolytic enzymes; therefore, it has also been used in the enzyme industry as a cell factory for the production of numerous native and heterologous enzymes. However, the production and secretion of foreign proteins by are often limited by numerous bottlenecks that occur during transcription, translation, protein folding, translocation, degradation, transport, secretion, etc. Read More

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February 2021

Structure and biosynthesis of deoxy-polyamine in X. bovienii.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Molekulare Biotechnologie, Fachbereich Biowissenschaften, Goethe Universität Frankfurt, 60438 Frankfurt, Germany.

Polyamine moieties have been described as part of the fabclavine and zeamine family of natural products. While the corresponding biosynthetic gene clusters have been found in many different proteobacteria, a unique BGC was identified in the entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus bovienii. Mass spectrometric analysis of a X. Read More

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January 2021

Reconstruction of the origin of a neo-Y sex chromosome and its evolution in the spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, CAFS, Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, China.

Sex chromosomes are a peculiar constituent of the genome because the evolutionary forces that fix the primary sex-determining gene cause genic degeneration and accumulation of junk DNA in the heterogametic partner. One of the most spectacular phenomena in sex chromosome evolution is the occurrence of neo-Y chromosomes, which lead to X1X2Y sex-determining systems. Such neo-sex chromosomes are critical for understanding the processes of sex chromosome evolution because they rejuvenate their total gene content. Read More

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Identification of conserved slow codons that are important for protein expression and function.

RNA Biol 2021 Apr 5:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, the Bruce and Ruth Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, The Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

ABSTRASTDue to the redundancy of the genetic code most amino acids are encoded by several 'synonymous' codons. These codons are used unevenly, and each organism demonstrates its own unique codon usage bias, where the 'preferred' codons are associated with tRNAs that are found in high concentrations. Therefore, for decades, the prevailing view had been that preferred and non-preferred codons are linked to high or slow translation rates, respectively. Read More

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