55,289 results match your criteria produced functional


A solid-phase approach for the synthesis of muramyl dipeptide conjugates for detection of NOD2.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Sep 15;116:105360. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Departments of Early Discovery Biochemistry, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

Proper recognition of invading pathogens and prompt initiation of host defense mechanisms are instrumental for the maintenance of organismal homeostasis. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) serve as pathogen-recognition receptors that specifically recognize bacterial peptidoglycans. NOD2 detects muramyl dipeptide (MDP) through its carboxy-terminal leucine rich repeats (LRRs), which enables the activation of downstream inflammatory signaling. Read More

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September 2021

The arbitrium system controls prophage induction.

Curr Biol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK; MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK. Electronic address:

Some Bacillus-infecting bacteriophages use a peptide-based communication system, termed arbitrium, to coordinate the lysis-lysogeny decision. In this system, the phage produces AimP peptide during the lytic cycle. Once internalized by the host cell, AimP binds to the transcription factor AimR, reducing aimX expression and promoting lysogeny. Read More

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September 2021

Daylight LED promotes photochemical ring contraction of 2-amine-4H-pyran-3-carbonitriles with consequent loss of their antifungal activity.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av PH Rolfs sn, Viçosa, MG, 36.570-900, Brazil.

The initial objective of our work was to synthesize a series of 2-amino-4H-pyran-3-carbonitriles to be tested for their antifungal activities against economically relevant phytopathogenic fungi. Fourteen compounds were prepared in up to 94% yield and shown percentages of Botrytis cinerea inhibition above 70%. Despite the promising biological results, we observed that stock solutions prepared for biological tests showed color changing when kept for a few days on the laboratory bench, under room conditions, illuminated by common LED daylight tubes (4500-6000 k). Read More

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September 2021

Coupling Glucose-Assisted Cu(I)/Cu(II) Redox with Electrochemical Hydrogen Production.

Adv Mater 2021 Sep 24:e2104791. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Bio-Sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082, P. R. China.

Water electrolysis is a sustainable technology for hydrogen production since this process can utilize the intermittent electricity generated by renewable energy such as solar, wind, and hydro. However, the large-scale application of this process is restricted by the high electricity consumption due to the large potential gap (>1.23 V) between the anodic oxygen evolution reaction and the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Read More

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September 2021

Functional network connectivity during Jazz improvisation.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 24;11(1):19036. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Tri-Institutional Center for Translational Research in Neuroimaging and Data Science (TReNDS), Georgia State University, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Emory University, 55 Park Place, Atlanta, GA, 30303, USA.

One of the most complex forms of creativity is musical improvisation where new music is produced in real time. Brain behavior during music production has several dimensions depending on the conditions of the performance. The expression of creativity is suspected to be different whether novel ideas must be externalized using a musical instrument or can be imagined internally. Read More

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September 2021

A novel method to produce synthetic murine CXCL10 for efficient screening of functional variants.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Sep 20;116:105376. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Early Discovery Biochemistry, Genentech Inc., 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

Antitumor immune responses depend on the infiltration of solid tumors by effector T cells, a process guided by chemokines. In particular, the chemokine CXCL10 has been shown to play a critical role in mediating recruitment of CXCR3 + cytolytic T and NK cells in tumors, though its use as a therapeutic agent has not been widely explored. One of the limitations is due to the rapid inactivation of CXCL10 by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), a broadly expressed enzyme that is active in plasma and other bodily fluids. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of surfactants on phosphorus release and acidogenic fermentation of waste activated sludge containing different aluminium phosphate forms.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 10;287(Pt 3):132213. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092, PR China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai, 200092, PR China. Electronic address:

The effects of different surfactants (rhamnolipid, trehalolipid and citrate) on phosphorus (P) release and acidogenic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) containing different aluminium phosphate forms (AlPO, Al(PO)) were investigated. Results showed that rhamnolipid was the most effective surfactant to release P from aluminum phosphates (AlPs)-rich sludge. Al(PO) was easier to release P than AlPO in WAS due to their different crystal structures. Read More

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September 2021

Structural and functional characterization of a novel biosurfactant from Bacillus sp. IITD106.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Sep 15;423(Pt B):127201. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016, India. Electronic address:

Plant saponins are attractive biosurfactants and have been used to enhance phytoremediation. There are only limited reports on saponins produced by bacteria. Here, we report structural and functional characterization of a novel saponin produced by Bacillus sp. Read More

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September 2021

A ROS-responsive fluorescent probe detecting experimental colitis by functional polymeric nanoparticles.

Int J Pharm 2021 Sep 21:121125. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China; Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

Current evidence shows that oxidative stress plays an essential role in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). TotalROX (λabs/λem = 425/525 nm) is a ratiometric probe with high detection sensitivity and a superior capacity to monitor total cellular oxidative capacity. Herein, we investigated the potential of combining totalROX with an oral nanoparticle delivery system to detect the degree of colitis. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation by MALDI-TOF MS and PCA of the diversity of biosurfactants and their producing bacteria, as adaption to weathered oil components.

Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2021 Sep 28;31:e00660. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, PO. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar.

Indigenous Qatari bacterial strains were isolated from highly weathered oil-contaminated sites, identified, and differentiated based on their protein profiles using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Their diversity was demonstrated by the principal component analysis (PCA) analysis and establishment of a proteodendogram. Both were based on the protein profile of each strain. Read More

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September 2021

Formation and characterization of starch-based spherulite: Effect of molecular weight of potato amylose starch.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 6;371:131060. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China. Electronic address:

Potato starch spherulites (PSS) with different molecular weights were obtained by controlled enzymatic hydrolysis of potato amylose starch, followed by super-heated quenching treatment. The impact of enzymatic hydrolysis on mean particle diameter and molecular weight was observed, ranging from 355 to 57 nm. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of produced spherulites were determined using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and rheological measurements. Read More

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September 2021

Addiction and the cerebellum with a focus on actions of opioid receptors.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Neuroscience Research Center, Neuropharmacology Institute, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence suggests that the cerebellum could play a role in the higher cognitive processes involved in addiction as the cerebellum contains anatomical and functional pathways to circuitry controlling motivation and saliency. In addition, the cerebellum exhibits a widespread presence of receptors, including opioid receptors which are known to play a prominent role in synaptic and circuit mechanisms of plasticity associated with drug use and development of addiction to opioids and other drugs of abuse. Further, the presence of perineural nets (PNNs) in the cerebellum which contain proteins known to alter synaptic plasticity could contribute to addiction. Read More

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September 2021

Functional Expression and Characterization of the Highly Promiscuous Lanthipeptide Synthetase SyncM, Enabling the Production of Lanthipeptides with a Broad Range of Ring Topologies.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Groningen, Groningen 9747AG, The Netherlands.

Lanthipeptides are ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides characterized by the presence of lanthionine rings that provide stability and functionality. Genome mining techniques have shown their huge diversity and potential for the discovery of novel active molecules. However, in many cases, they are not easily produced under laboratory conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Gut epithelial IL-27 confers intestinal immunity through the induction of intraepithelial lymphocytes.

J Exp Med 2021 Nov 23;218(11). Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

IL-27 controls a diverse range of immune responses in many disease settings. Here, we identify intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) as one of the major IL-27 cellular sources in the gut-associated tissue. Unlike IL-27 secreted by innate immune cells, gut epithelial IL-27 is dispensable for T-bet+ regulatory T cell (T reg cell) differentiation or IL-10 induction. Read More

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November 2021

Effect of cranberry juice deacidification on its antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens and its anti-inflammatory properties in an oral epithelial cell model.

Food Funct 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Oral Ecology Research Group, Faculty of Dentistry, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada G1V 0A6.

Cranberries are widely recognized as a functional food that can promote oral health. However, the high concentration of organic acids in cranberry juice can cause tooth enamel erosion. Electrodialysis with bipolar membrane (EDBM) is a process used for the deacidification of cranberry juice. Read More

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September 2021

Feasibility of pulse oximetry after water immersion.

Resusc Plus 2021 Sep 29;7:100147. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Lifesaving Victoria, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia.

Objective: This study aimed to determine if pulse oximetry could reliably be used after immersion in water, and if so, which of the finger, earlobe or nose most reliably produced a functional waveform.

Method: Pulse oximetry data was recorded from the ear, nose and finger before and after 30 min of immersion in water. The primary outcome was the ability to measure pulse oximetry at any of the sites. Read More

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September 2021

Identification of a Novel Prognostic Gene Signature From the Immune Cell Infiltration Landscape of Osteosarcoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 6;9:718624. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) mainly comprises tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells mixed with stromal components. Latestresearch hasdisplayed that tumor immune cell infiltration (ICI) is associated with the clinical outcome of patients with osteosarcoma (OS). This work aimed to build a gene signature according to ICI in OS for predicting patient outcomes. Read More

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September 2021

interactions between the ectomycorrhizal and the saprotroph fungi: morphological aspects and volatile production.

Mycology 2021 27;12(3):216-229. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

BioSystems & Integrative Sciences Institute (Bioisi), Plant Functional Biology Centre, University of Minho, Campus De Gualtar, Braga, Portugal.

Ectomycorrhizal fungi are crucial for forests sustainability. For , ectomycorrhizal fungus is an important mutualist partner. Saprotrophic fungi , although used for biocontrol of root disease, it negatively affected the interaction between the and plant host roots, by compromise the formation of mycorrhizae. Read More

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February 2021

Physicochemical and Functional Characterization of Female Reproductive Fluids: A Report of the First Two Infants Born Following Addition of Their Mother's Fluids to the Embryo Culture Media.

Front Physiol 2021 1;12:710887. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

Culture media supplemented with reproductive fluids (RF) have been used in livestock species, improving the efficiency and quality of produced embryos. However, usefulness in humans is still unknown. In this study, we collected human reproductive fluids (HRFs) (from 25 patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy plus bilateral salpingectomy) and (from 31 oocyte donors). Read More

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September 2021

Generation of Direct-, Retrograde-, and Source-Wave Gaits in Multi-Legged Locomotion in a Decentralized Manner via Embodied Sensorimotor Interaction.

Front Neural Circuits 2021 6;15:706064. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Multi-legged animals show several types of ipsilateral interlimb coordination. Millipedes use a direct-wave gait, in which the swing leg movements propagate from posterior to anterior. In contrast, centipedes use a retrograde-wave gait, in which the swing leg movements propagate from anterior to posterior. Read More

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September 2021

Codon Optimization of Insect Odorant Receptor Genes May Increase Their Stable Expression for Functional Characterization in HEK293 Cells.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 6;15:744401. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Insect odorant receptor (OR) genes are routinely expressed in Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) 293 cells for functional characterization ("de-orphanization") using transient or stable expression. However, progress in this research field has been hampered because some insect ORs are not functional in this system, which may be due to insufficient protein levels. We investigated whether codon optimization of insect OR sequences for expression in human cells could facilitate their functional characterization in HEK293 cells with stable and inducible expression. Read More

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September 2021

Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in microbiome investigations.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Collaborative Mass Spectrometry Innovation Center, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.

Microbiotas are a malleable part of ecosystems, including the human ecosystem. Microorganisms affect not only the chemistry of their specific niche, such as the human gut, but also the chemistry of distant environments, such as other parts of the body. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics is one of the key technologies to detect and identify the small molecules produced by the human microbiota, and to understand the functional role of these microbial metabolites. Read More

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September 2021

Humpback whale song recordings suggest common feeding ground occupation by multiple populations.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 22;11(1):18806. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany.

Humpback whale males are known to sing on their low-latitude breeding grounds, but it is well established that songs are also commonly produced 'off-season' on the feeding grounds or during migration. This opens exciting opportunities to investigate migratory aggregations, study humpback whale behavioral plasticity and potentially even assign individual singers to specific breeding grounds. In this study, we analyzed passive acoustic data from 13 recording positions and multiple years (2011-2018) within the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean (ASSO). Read More

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September 2021

Engineering outer membrane could facilitate better bacterial performance and effectively enhance poly-3-hydroxybutyrate accumulation.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Sep 22:AEM0138921. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China.

Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an environmentally friendly polymer and can be produced in cells after overexpressing the heterologous gene cluster . The biosynthesis of outer membrane (OM) consumes lots of nutrients and influences cell morphology. Here we engineered OM by disrupting all gene clusters relevant to polysaccharide portion of LPS, colanic acid (CA), flagella or/and fimbria in W3110. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of different transcranial magnetic stimulation current directions on the corticomotor control of lumbar erector spinae muscles during a static task.

J Neurophysiol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Cirris Research Centre, grid.23856.3aUniversité Laval, Québec City, Canada.

Different directions of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can activate different neuronal circuits. While posteroanterior current (PA-TMS) depolarizes mainly interneurons in primary motor cortex (M1), an anteroposterior current (AP-TMS) has been suggested to activate different M1 circuits and perhaps axons from the premotor regions. Although M1 is also involved in the control of axial muscles, no study has explored if different current directions activate different M1 circuits that may have distinct functional role. Read More

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September 2021

Asymmetric structures and conformational plasticity of the uncleaved full-length human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein trimer.

J Virol 2021 Sep 22:JVI0052921. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

The functional human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer [(gp120/gp41)] is produced by cleavage of a conformationally flexible gp160 precursor. Gp160 cleavage or the binding of BMS-806, an entry inhibitor, stabilizes the pre-triggered, "closed" (State-1) conformation recognized by rarely elicited broadly neutralizing antibodies. Poorly neutralizing antibodies (pNAbs) elicited at high titers during natural infection recognize more "open" Env conformations (States 2 and 3) induced by binding the receptor, CD4. Read More

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September 2021

[Modulatory effect of 2-arachidonoylglycerol on voltage-gated sodium currents in rat caudate nucleus neurons with kainic acid-induced injury].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Aug;41(8):1150-1157

Department of Functional Sciences, College of Medical Science, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, China.

Objective: To investigate the modulatory effect of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) on voltage-gated sodium currents(VGSCs) in rat caudate nucleus (CN) neurons with kainic acid (KA)-induced injury and explore the molecular mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of 2-AG.

Methods: Primary cultures of CN neurons isolated from neonatal SD rats were treated with KA, 2-AG+KA, RIM (a CB1 receptor antagonist) +2-AG+KA, or vehicle only (as control).After 7 days in primary culture, the neurons were treated with corresponding agents for 12 h (RIM and 2-AG were added at the same time; KA was added 30 min later) before recording of current density changes, current-voltage characteristics, activation and inactivation kinetics of VGSCs () using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Read More

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[Impact of Nurse Practitioners and Nursing Education on COVID-19 Pandemics: Innovative Strategies of Authentic Technology-Integrated Clinical Simulation].

Authors:
Chih-Ling Huang

Hu Li Za Zhi 2021 Oct;68(5):4-6

PhD, RN, Distinguished Professor, School of Nursing, Fooyin University, Taiwan, ROC.

Taiwan Nurses Association and the International Council of Nurses recognize nurse practitioners (NPs) as advanced-practice nurses. A total of 11,266 registered nurses held NP certificates in April 2021 in Taiwan (Tsay, 2021). While international organizations recognize NPs with graduate degrees, over 85% of NPs in Taiwan hold a bachelor degree only. Read More

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October 2021

Synthesis of Two-Dimensional C-C Bonded Truxene-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks by Irreversible Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Aldol Cyclotrimerization.

Research (Wash D C) 2021 3;2021:9790705. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

The synthesis of new C-C bonded two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks (COFs) is highly desirable. Here, a simple but effective synthetic strategy has been developed using an irreversible Brønsted acid-catalyzed aldol cyclotrimerization reaction by virtue of truxene as a linkage. Nonolefin C-C bonded 2D truxene-based covalent organic frameworks (Tru-COFs) were constructed by polymerization of 1,3,5-triindanonebenzene (TDB). Read More

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September 2021

Assembly and organization of the N-terminal region of mucin MUC5AC: Indications for structural and functional distinction from MUC5B.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 09;118(39)

Marsico Lung Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27517-7248;

Elevated levels of MUC5AC, one of the major gel-forming mucins in the lungs, are closely associated with chronic obstructive lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis and asthma. It is not known, however, how the structure and/or gel-making properties of MUC5AC contribute to innate lung defense in health and drive the formation of stagnant mucus in disease. To understand this, here we studied the biophysical properties and macromolecular assembly of MUC5AC compared to MUC5B. Read More

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September 2021