Oecologia 2021 Jan 19;195(1):25-35. Epub 2020 Dec 19.
Department of Animal Behaviour, Bielefeld University, Morgenbreede 45, 33615, Bielefeld, Germany.
Between-individual variation in behavior can emerge through complex interactions between state-related mechanisms, which include internal physiological constraints or feedback derived from the external environment. State-related conditions can be especially influential during early life, when parental effort and exposure to social stress may canalize consistent differences in offspring hormonal profiles and foster specific behavioral strategies. Here, we unravel how relevant state variables, including sex, somatic condition, local population density, and maternal traits, contribute to within-cohort differences in stress, sex, and thyroid hormone axes in dependent Galapagos sea lions with the primary goal of understanding downstream effects on boldness, docility, habitat use, and activity. Read More