352 results match your criteria produced denser

Evaluation of the Infill Design on the Tensile Response of 3D Printed Polylactic Acid Polymer.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, College of Engineering, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah, Riyadh 11952, Saudi Arabia.

The current study explores the effects of geometrical shapes of the infills on the 3D printed polylactic acid (PLA) plastic on the tensile properties. For this purpose, by utilizing an accessible supply desktop printer, specimens of diamond, rectangular, and hexagonal infill patterns were produced using the fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printing technique. Additionally, solid samples were printed for comparison. Read More

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A 127 kb truncating deletion of PGRMC1 is a novel cause of X-linked isolated paediatric cataract.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

Inherited paediatric cataract is a rare Mendelian disease that results in visual impairment or blindness due to a clouding of the eye's crystalline lens. Here we report an Australian family with isolated paediatric cataract, which we had previously mapped to Xq24. Linkage at Xq24-25 (LOD = 2. Read More

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Lerf-Klinowski-type models of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide are robust in analyzing non-covalent functionalization with porphyrins.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7977. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224, Warsaw, Poland.

Graphene-based nanohybrids are good candidates for various applications. However, graphene exhibits some unwanted features such as low solubility in an aqueous solution or tendency to aggregate, limiting its potential applications. On the contrary, its derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO), have excellent properties and can be easily produced in large quantities. Read More

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Extreme ultraviolet light from a tin plasma driven by a 2-µm-wavelength laser.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(3):4475-4487

An experimental study of laser-produced plasmas is performed by irradiating a planar tin target by laser pulses, of 4.8 ns duration, produced from a KTP-based 2-µm-wavelength master oscillator power amplifier. Comparative spectroscopic investigations are performed for plasmas driven by 1-µm- and 2-µm-wavelength pulsed lasers, over a wide range of laser intensities spanning 0. Read More

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February 2021

Fouling of polyelectrolyte multilayer based nanofiltration membranes during produced water treatment: The role of surfactant size and chemistry.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 9;594:9-19. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Membrane Science and Technology, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522 NB Enschede, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Large volumes of water become contaminated with hydrocarbons, surfactants, salts and other chemical agents during Oil & Gas exploration activities, resulting in a complex wastewater stream known as produced water (PW). Nanofiltration (NF) membranes are a promising alternative for the treatment of PW to facilitate its re-use. Unfortunately, membrane fouling still represents a major obstacle. Read More

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Rotavirus as an Expression Platform of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein.

bioRxiv 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

Rotavirus, a segmented double-stranded RNA virus, is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in young children. The introduction of live oral rotavirus vaccines has reduced the incidence of rotavirus disease in many countries. To explore the possibility of establishing a combined rotavirus-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, we generated recombinant (r)SA11 rotaviruses with modified segment 7 RNAs that contained coding sequences for NSP3 and FLAG-tagged portions of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. Read More

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February 2021

Behavioural variables influence contact call rate more than characteristics of the vegetation in a group-living passerine species.

Behav Processes 2021 Apr 2;185:104345. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Conservation, College of Forestry, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, China. Electronic address:

Although the contact calls of birds have been studied for their acoustic properties, limited research has investigated their repetitive nature. The rate of contact calls could be related to movement, with recruiting birds signalling their location, or it could help maintaining spacing between group mates, or give information about the environment where both signaller and receiver are located. If maintaining spacing, higher call rates would be expected in denser vegetation; alternatively, if birds gain information about predation risk from the cessation of contact calling, then open areas might elicit higher call rate. Read More

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Novel hybrid method to additively manufacture denser graphite structures using Binder Jetting.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 28;11(1):2438. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

School of Engineering, London South Bank University, London, SE10AA, UK.

This study introduces two hybrid processes integrating an additive manufacturing technique with post-processing treatments namely (i) Binder Jetting Printing (BJP) + Cold Isostatic Pressing (CIP) + cycle and (ii) BJP + cycle where cycle refers to a sequence of Impregnation-Drying-Pyrolysis. These two new processes yielded additively manufactured parts with higher density and reduced defects/porosities. As a testbed, we used these new processes to fabricate graphite structures. Read More

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January 2021

Identification of urban land use efficiency by indicator-SDG 11.3.1.

PLoS One 2020 28;15(12):e0244318. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

National Geomatics Center of China, Beijing, China.

Inefficiency in urban land use is one of the problems caused by rapid urbanization. The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) indicator 11.3. Read More

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Developmental conditions promote individual differentiation of endocrine axes and behavior in a tropical pinniped.

Oecologia 2021 Jan 19;195(1):25-35. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Animal Behaviour, Bielefeld University, Morgenbreede 45, 33615, Bielefeld, Germany.

Between-individual variation in behavior can emerge through complex interactions between state-related mechanisms, which include internal physiological constraints or feedback derived from the external environment. State-related conditions can be especially influential during early life, when parental effort and exposure to social stress may canalize consistent differences in offspring hormonal profiles and foster specific behavioral strategies. Here, we unravel how relevant state variables, including sex, somatic condition, local population density, and maternal traits, contribute to within-cohort differences in stress, sex, and thyroid hormone axes in dependent Galapagos sea lions with the primary goal of understanding downstream effects on boldness, docility, habitat use, and activity. Read More

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January 2021

The effect of Macro and Nano-emulsions of cinnamon essential oil on the properties of edible active films.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Dec 25;8(12):6568-6579. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences University Polytechnical of Marche Ancona Italy.

The effect of Nano-emulsion (NE) and Macro-emulsion (ME) of cinnamon essential oil (CEO) on the properties of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-based films was investigated. MEs (diameters of 242-362 nm) and NEs (diameters of 59-80 nm) of CEO were produced through Ultra-Turrax and Ultrasonication, respectively. The scanning electron microscopy () and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed different morphologies in the films containing ME and NE, also a denser and more uniform microstructure was observed in the NE films in comparison with the ME ones. Read More

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December 2020

Towards Ultrahigh Performance Concrete Produced with Aluminum Oxide Nanofibers and Reduced Quantities of Silica Fume.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Nov 19;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA.

Ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC), which is characterized by dense microstructure and strain hardening behavior, provides exceptional durability and a new level of structural response to modern structures. However, the design of the UHPC matrix often requires the use of high quantities of supplementary cementitious materials, such as silica fume, which can significantly increase the cost and elevate the production expenses associated with silica fume handling. This paper demonstrates that a fiber-reinforced composite with properties similar to conventional UHPC can be realized with very low quantities of silica fume, such as 1% by mass of cementitious materials. Read More

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November 2020

Virtual multiplication of light sources for a 360°-viewable tabletop 3D display.

Shunsuke Yoshida

Opt Express 2020 Oct;28(22):32517-32528

A method to construct a virtual annular projector array that acts as numerous light sources to produce 360°-viewable 3D images on a round table is proposed. The conventional method requires multiple projectors and a conical screen for its 3D imaging principle but is limited physically by the projector arrangement. The proposed approach significantly increases the number of projectors virtually by inserting cylindrical mirrors into the optical paths used in the conventional method. Read More

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October 2020

Baleen-Mimicking Virtual Filters for Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria in Water Using Magnetic Nanoparticle Chains and a Halbach Ring.

ACS Sens 2020 11 26;5(11):3432-3437. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang 37673, Gyeongbuk, Republic of Korea.

We have developed a virtual filter that quickly and efficiently captures and detects pathogenic bacteria in large amounts of water. The virtual filter comprised magnetic nanoparticle chains (MNCs) obtained by cross-linking alginate-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). When the MNC solution in a disposable plastic tube was exposed to an external magnetic field, the MNCs were aligned along the magnetic field lines, forming a filter similar to a whale's baleen filtering system. Read More

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November 2020

Evidence that Bacteria Packaging by Is a Widespread Phenomenon.

Microorganisms 2020 Oct 7;8(10). Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes, Pavillon Charles-Eugène-Marchand, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada.

Protozoa are natural predators of bacteria, but some bacteria can evade digestion once phagocytosed. Some of these resistant bacteria can be packaged in the fecal pellets produced by protozoa, protecting them from physical stresses and biocides. Depending on the bacteria and protozoa involved in the packaging process, pellets can have different morphologies. Read More

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October 2020

Speakers and listeners exploit word order for communicative efficiency: A cross-linguistic investigation.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2021 Mar 24;150(3):583-594. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Psychology.

Pragmatic theories and computational models of reference must account for people's frequent use of redundant color adjectives (e.g., referring to a single triangle as "the blue triangle"). Read More

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A Study on the Improvement of Using Raw Lacquer and Electrospinning on Properties of PVP Nanofilms.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Aug 31;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Fujian Engineering and Research Center of New Chinese Lacquer Materials, Ocean College, Minjiang University, Fuzhou 350108, China.

Raw lacquer (RL), ethanol being used as the solvent, was added to polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and then electrospun into RL/PVP nanofilms. Manufacturing parameters such as RL/PVP ratio, voltage, flow velocity, needle type, and the distance between syringe and the collection board were systematically investigated. A scanning electronic microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology of nanofilms; the block drop method was used to measure the water contact angle; the mechanical properties of RL/PVP nanofilms of different proportions were tested by universal material testing machine; and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to characterize the structure. Read More

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Slag Blended Cement Paste Carbonation under Different CO Concentrations: Controls on Mineralogy and Morphology of Products.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Aug 1;13(15). Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Division of Building Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.

To investigate the effect of different CO concentrations on the carbonation results of slag blended cement pastes, carbonation experiments under natural (0.03% CO) and accelerated conditions (3, 20, and 100% CO) were investigated with various microscopic testing methods, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (Si MAS NMR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD results indicated that the major polymorphs of CaCO after carbonation were calcite and vaterite. Read More

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4D Printing of NiTi Auxetic Structure with Improved Ballistic Performance.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 Jul 31;11(8). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

Auxetic structures have attracted attention in energy absorption applications owing to their improved shear modulus and enhanced resistance to indentation. On the other hand, four-dimensional (4D) printing is an emerging technology that is capable of 3D printing smart materials with additional functionality. This paper introduces the development of a NiTi negative-Poisson's-ratio structure with superelasticity/shape memory capabilities for improved ballistic applications. Read More

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Engineered Prevascularization for Oral Tissue Grafting: A Systematic Review.

Tissue Eng Part B Rev 2020 08 7;26(4):383-398. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Univ. Bordeaux, INSERM, Laboratoire Bioingénierie Tissulaire (BioTis), U1026, CHU Bordeaux, 33000, Bordeaux, France.

Extensive dental and periodontal defects are frequent and with a limited regenerative potential. Tissue engineering could be a promising tool to obtain personalized oral grafts. However, current research shows a lack of engineered oral tissues. Read More

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A bedform phase diagram for dense granular currents.

Nat Commun 2020 06 8;11(1):2873. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK.

Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are a life-threatening volcanic hazard. Our understanding and hazard assessments of these flows rely on interpretations of their deposits. The occurrence of stratified layers, cross-stratification, and bedforms in these deposits has been assumed as indicative of dilute, turbulent, supercritical flows causing traction-dominated deposition. Read More

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Role of sweeteners on temporality and bar hardening of protein bars.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Jul 21;103(7):6032-6053. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences, Southeast Dairy Foods Research Center, Box 7624, North Carolina State University, Raleigh 27695-7624. Electronic address:

Protein bars are one product that meet consumer demands for a low-carbohydrate, high-protein food. With such a large market for protein bars, producers need to find the correct texture and sweetness levels to satisfy consumers while still delivering a high-protein, low-carbohydrate bar. In the bar industry, bar hardening is a major concern, and currently the effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on bar hardening is unknown. Read More

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Stable anchoring of bacteria-based protein nanoparticles for surface enhanced cell guidance.

J Mater Chem B 2020 06 13;8(23):5080-5088. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Molecular Nanoscience and Organic Materials, Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra 08193, Spain.

In tissue engineering, biological, physical, and chemical inputs have to be combined to properly mimic cellular environments and successfully build artificial tissues which can be designed to fulfill different biomedical needs such as the shortage of organ donors or the development of in vitro disease models for drug testing. Inclusion body-like protein nanoparticles (pNPs) can simultaneously provide such physical and biochemical stimuli to cells when attached to surfaces. However, this attachment has only been made by physisorption. Read More

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Gamma-ray irradiation effects on tantalum thin film for improved mechanical compatibility and cytocompatibility.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 May 28;110:110700. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

School of Physic and Microelectronics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China. Electronic address:

In this work, tantalum thin films were prepared on titanium substrates by an ion beam sputtering method. Tantalum thin films were irradiated by gamma-ray with different total dose levels. The effect of irradiation on the phase composition, microstructure, surface morphology, and chemical resistance were analyzed. Read More

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Bacterial Cellulose-Chitosan Paper with Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities.

Biomacromolecules 2020 04 24;21(4):1568-1577. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.

The production of paper-based bacterial cellulose-chitosan (BC-Ch) nanocomposites was accomplished following two different approaches. In the first, BC paper sheets were produced and then immersed in an aqueous solution of chitosan (BC-ChI); in the second, BC pulp was impregnated with chitosan prior to the production of paper sheets (BC-ChM). BC-Ch nanocomposites were investigated in terms of physical characteristics, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and the ability to inhibit the formation of biofilms on their surface. Read More

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Rheology and Microstructures of Rennet Gels From Differently Heated Goat Milk.

Foods 2020 Mar 4;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department for Animal Source Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade, Nemanjina 6, 11081 Belgrade, Serbia.

Rennet coagulation of goat milk heated to 65 °C/30 min (Gc), 80 °C/5 min (G8) and 90 °C/5 min (G9) was studied. A rheometer equipped with a vane geometry tool was used to measure milk coagulation parameters and viscoelastic properties of rennet gels. Yield parameters: curd yield, laboratory curd yield and curd yield efficiency were measured and calculated. Read More

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Effect of nanoscale bioactive glass with radial spherical particles on osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2020 Mar 5;31(3):29. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, Jiangsu, China.

To validate the feasibility of two types of bioactive glass that contains spherical and radical spherical nano-sized particles in promoting bone repair, we hypothesize that radical spherical nano-sized particles have higher bone repair effectiveness than spherical one due to the physicochemical properties. We rigorously compared the physicochemical properties and bioactivities of these two types of bioactive glass. Specifically, we measured the size, surface morphology, concentration of ionic-dissolution products, bioactivity, and biological effects of two groups of bioactive glass on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) and evaluate their effect on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs in vitro. Read More

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Effect of Sonication on the Properties of Flaxseed Gum Films Incorporated with Carvacrol.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 28;21(5). Epub 2020 Feb 28.

College of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China.

Carvacrol is a natural compound known to be a highly effective antibacterial; however, it is a hydrophobic molecule, which is a limitation to its use within food packaging. Flaxseed gum (FG) films containing different contents of carvacrol (C) were produced by a film-casting method with sonication. The effects of sonication power and time on the properties of the FG-C films were investigated by measuring the film thickness, mechanical properties, contact angle, opacity, water vapor permeability (WVP), water sorption isotherm, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and microstructure. Read More

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February 2020

Demolished concretes recycling by the use of pneumatic jigs.

Waste Manag Res 2020 Apr 12;38(4):392-399. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Laboratory of Environmental Studies in Metallurgy, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Large quantities of construction and demolition waste is generated annually around the world. Part of this material is processed in recycling plants. After removing metals, fines and lights, the construction and demolition waste is crushed and sized and can be used as aggregates for low resistance concrete, for road sub-base, city landfill and other low value-added applications. Read More

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16S rRNA metagenomic analysis of the bacterial community associated with turf grass seeds from low moisture and high moisture climates.

PeerJ 2020 10;8:e8417. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Plant Biology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Turfgrass investigators have observed that plantings of grass seeds produced in moist climates produce seedling stands that show greater stand evenness with reduced disease compared to those grown from seeds produced in dry climates. Grass seeds carry microbes on their surfaces that become endophytic in seedlings and promote seedling growth. We hypothesize that incomplete development of the microbiome associated with the surface of seeds produced in dry climates reduces the performance of seeds. Read More

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January 2020