2,173 results match your criteria produce constitutive

Constitutive expression of prochymosin B in .

Heliyon 2021 May 28;7(5):e07137. Epub 2021 May 28.

National Center for Biotechnology, 13/5 Kurgalzhynskoye Road, Nur-Sultan, 010000, Kazakhstan.

Camel chymosin can be efficiently employed to produce cheese. Traditionally the rennet enzyme produced by the glands of the fourth stomach of ruminant animals (abomassum) is used in cheese making. Full-length (Bactrian camel) prochymosin gene was synthesized and constitutively expressed in cells under glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. Read More

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Generation of Iron-Independent Siderophore-Producing through the Constitutive Expression of .

Genes (Basel) 2021 May 13;12(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Bio & Medical Big Data and Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

secretes siderophore to uptake environmental iron. Siderophore secretion in was enabled only in the iron-free minimal medium due to iron repression of , a transcriptional activator of siderophore biosynthetic genes. Aiming to produce siderophore using conventional iron-containing complex media, we constructed a recombinant strain of that escapes gene repression. Read More

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Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm producing clinical coagulase negative staphylococci from Nepal and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2021 May 31;20(1):41. Epub 2021 May 31.

Amity Institute of Microbial Technology, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, UP, 201303, India.

Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) survive as commensals of skin, anterior nares and external canals of human and were regarded as non-infectious pathogens. However, they are emerging as a major cause of nosocomial infectious due to their ability to form biofilms and high resistance to several classes of antibiotics. This study examines the biofilm forming abilities of 214 clinical CNS isolates using phenotypic and genotypic methods, and determines their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Read More

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Merlin and expanded integrate cell signaling that regulates cyst stem cell proliferation in the Drosophila testis niche.

Dev Biol 2021 May 24;477:133-144. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, CO, USA. Electronic address:

The Drosophila testis is a model organism stem cell niche in which two stem cell populations coordinate together to produce sperm; thus, these stem cells must be balanced in the niche. Merlin, a tumor-suppressor and human disease gene required for contact inhibition of proliferation, is known to limit the proliferation of the somatic cyst stem cells in the testis niche. Expanded encodes a protein that is structurally similar to Merlin in Drosophila, and is semi-redundant with Merlin in multiple tissues. Read More

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A biophysical limit for quorum sensing in biofilms.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(21)

Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544;

Bacteria grow on surfaces in complex immobile communities known as biofilms, which are composed of cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. Within biofilms, bacteria often interact with members of their own species and cooperate or compete with members of other species via quorum sensing (QS). QS is a process by which microbes produce, secrete, and subsequently detect small molecules called autoinducers (AIs) to assess their local population density. Read More

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Physiological concentrations of cyanide stimulate mitochondrial Complex IV and enhance cellular bioenergetics.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(20)

Chair of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg, Switzerland

In mammalian cells, cyanide is viewed as a cytotoxic agent, which exerts its effects through inhibition of mitochondrial Complex IV (Cytochrome C oxidase [CCOx]). However, the current report demonstrates that cyanide's effect on CCOx is biphasic; low (nanomolar to low-micromolar) concentrations stimulate CCOx activity, while higher (high-micromolar) concentrations produce the "classic" inhibitory effect. Low concentrations of cyanide stimulated mitochondrial electron transport and elevated intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), resulting in the stimulation of cell proliferation. Read More

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Endogenous µ-opioid receptor activity in the lateral and capsular subdivisions of the right central nucleus of the amygdala prevents chronic postoperative pain.

J Neurosci Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Pittsburgh Center for Pain Research, Pittsburgh Project to End Opioid Misuse, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Tissue injury induces a long-lasting latent sensitization (LS) of spinal nociceptive signaling that is kept in remission by an opposing µ-opioid receptor (MOR) constitutive activity. To test the hypothesis that supraspinal sites become engaged, we induced hindpaw inflammation, waited 3 weeks for mechanical hypersensitivity to resolve, and then injected the opioid receptor inhibitors naltrexone, CTOP or β-funaltrexamine subcutaneously, and/or into the cerebral ventricles. Intracerebroventricular injection of each inhibitor reinstated hypersensitivity and produced somatic signs of withdrawal, indicative of LS and endogenous opioid dependence, respectively. Read More

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Toll receptors remodel epithelia by directing planar-polarized Src and PI3K activity.

Dev Cell 2021 Jun 30;56(11):1589-1602.e9. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Toll-like receptors are essential for animal development and survival, with conserved roles in innate immunity, tissue patterning, and cell behavior. The mechanisms by which Toll receptors signal to the nucleus are well characterized, but how Toll receptors generate rapid, localized signals at the cell membrane to produce acute changes in cell polarity and behavior is not known. We show that Drosophila Toll receptors direct epithelial convergent extension by inducing planar-polarized patterns of Src and PI3-kinase (PI3K) activity. Read More

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Method for the Production and Purification of Plant Immuno-Active Xylanase from .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 19;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Plant Protection Institute, Agricultural Research Organization, Volcani Institute, Rishon LeZion 50250, Israel.

Plants lack a circulating adaptive immune system to protect themselves against pathogens. Therefore, they have evolved an innate immune system based upon complicated and efficient defense mechanisms, either constitutive or inducible. Plant defense responses are triggered by elicitors such as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Read More

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Effect of Pre-Stress on Laser-Induced Thermoplastic Deformation of Inconel 718 Beams.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;14(8). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Mechatronics and Mechanical Engineering, Kielce University of Technology, al. Tysiąclecia P.P. 7, 25-314 Kielce, Poland.

Laser thermal forming is an application of laser heating without any intentional use of external forces. Force-assisted laser bending and laser-assisted bending are hybrid techniques, which combine the use of external forces and local heating to increase the effectiveness of forming. A quantitative description of bending deformation induced by concurrent laser heating and mechanical loading is proposed in this study. Read More

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Roles of three putative salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) prostaglandin E synthases in physiology and host-parasite interactions.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 19;14(1):206. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, SLCR-Sea Lice Research Centre, University of Bergen, P. box 7803, 5020, Bergen, Norway.

Background: The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a parasite of salmonid fish. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exhibit only a limited and ineffective immune response when infested with this parasite. Prostaglandins (PGs) have many biological functions in both invertebrates and vertebrates, one of which is the regulation of immune responses. Read More

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Constitutive nitric oxide synthase-like enzyme in two species involved in cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

Parasitol Int 2021 Aug 19;83:102347. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Federal University of Para, Institute of Biological Sciences, Laboratory of Structural Biology, Belém 66095-110, Pará, Brazil; National Institute of Science and Technology in Structural Biology and Bioimaging, Rio de Janeiro, 21.941-902 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Leishmania is an obligate intracellular parasite that primarily inhabits macrophages. The destruction of the parasite in the host cell is a fundamental mechanism for infection control. In addition, inhibition of the leishmanicidal activity of macrophages seems to be related to the ability of some species to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) by depleting arginine. Read More

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A small Ustilago maydis effector acts as a novel adhesin for hyphal aggregation in plant tumors.

New Phytol 2021 07 8;231(1):416-431. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Organismic Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Karl-von-Frisch-Straße 10, Marburg, 35043, Germany.

The biotrophic basidiomycete fungus Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize. Hallmarks of the disease are characteristic large tumors in which dark pigmented spores are formed. Here, we functionally characterized a novel core effector lep1 (late effector protein 1) which is highly expressed during tumor formation and contributes to virulence. Read More

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High-efficiency production of 5-aminovalerate in engineered Escherichia coli controlled by an anaerobically-induced nirB promoter.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 19;552:170-175. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Key Laboratory of Coarse Cereal Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Food and Biological Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu, 610106, PR China. Electronic address:

Biobased production of 5-aminovalerate (5AVA) from biomass can support a sustainable and economic biorefinery process to produce bio-based nylon 5 for food packaging materials. Cost-competitive production of 5AVA from biomass is a key factor in the successful commercialization of nylon 5. Bioproduction of 5AVA is a promising candidate for the industrial process to the current petrochemical route. Read More

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The Discovery of Novel BCR-ABL Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Using a Pharmacophore Modeling and Virtual Screening Approach.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 4;9:649434. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, St. John's University, Queens, NY, United States.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) typically results from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22 to produce the oncogene that when translated, yields the p210 BCR-ABL protein in more than 90% of all CML patients. This protein has constitutive tyrosine kinase activity that activates numerous downstream pathways that ultimately produces uncontrolled myeloid proliferation. Although the use of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, and ponatinib have increased the overall survival of CML patients, their use is limited by drug resistance and severe adverse effects. Read More

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Stable Recombinant-Gene Expression from a Live Bacterial Vector via Chromosomal Integration.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 05 11;87(11). Epub 2021 May 11.

Infection and Immunity Program, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, and Department of Microbiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia

Disease control in animal production systems requires constant vigilance. Historically, the application of in-feed antibiotics to control bacteria and improve performance has been a much-used approach to maintain animal health and welfare. However, the widespread use of in-feed antibiotics is thought to increase the risk of antibiotic resistance developing. Read More

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Functional analysis of a chaetoglobosin A biosynthetic regulator in Chaetomium globosum.

Fungal Biol 2021 Mar 27;125(3):201-210. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

School of Life Sciences and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150000, China. Electronic address:

Cytochalasins are a group of fungal secondary metabolites with diverse structures and bioactivities, including chaetoglobosin A production. Chaetoglobosin A is produced by Chaetomium globosum and has potential antifungal activity. Bioinformatics analysis of the chaetoglobosin A gene cluster (che) showed it that consists of nine open reading frames, including those encoding polyketide synthases (PKSs), PKS extender units, post-PKS modifications, and proposed regulators. Read More

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The Fate of Speckled Protein 100 (Sp100) During Herpesviruses Infection.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 1;10:607526. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

The constitutive expression of Speckled-100 (Sp100) is known to restrict the replication of many clinically important DNA viruses. This pre-existing (intrinsic) immune defense to virus infection can be further upregulated upon interferon (IFN) stimulation as a component of the innate immune response. In humans, Sp100 is encoded by a single gene locus, which can produce alternatively spliced isoforms. Read More

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February 2021

Exo70 intracellular redistribution after repeated mild traumatic brain injury.

Biol Res 2021 Feb 16;54(1). Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Departamento de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Libertador Bernardo O´Higgins 340, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Exo70 is a subunit of the greater exocyst complex, a collection of proteins that oversees cellular membrane addition and polarized exocytosis by acting as a tethering intermediate between the plasma membrane and newly synthesized secretory vesicles. Although Exo70 function has been implicated in several developmental events including cytokinesis and the establishment of cell polarity, its role in neuropathologies is poorly understood. On the other hand, traumatic brain injury is the result of mechanical external force including contusion, fast acceleration, and expansive waves that produce temporal or permanent cognitive damage and triggers physical and psychosocial alterations including headache, memory problems, attention deficits, difficulty thinking, mood swings, and frustration. Read More

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February 2021

Inactivation of cytosolic FUMARASE2 enhances growth and photosynthesis under simultaneous copper and iron deprivation in Arabidopsis.

Plant J 2021 May 18;106(3):766-784. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Faculty of Biology, Plant Molecular Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Großhadernerstr. 2-4, Planegg-Martinsried, D-82152, Germany.

Copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) are essential for plant growth and are often in short supply under natural conditions. Molecular responses to simultaneous lack of both metals (-Cu-Fe) differ from those seen in the absence of either alone. Metabolome profiling of plant leaves previously revealed that fumarate levels fall under -Cu-Fe conditions. Read More

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Targeted Delivery of Gene Silencing in Fungi Using Genetically Engineered Bacteria.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Feb 9;7(2). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Exploiting RNA interference (RNAi) in disease control through non-transformative methods that overcome the hurdle of producing transgenic plants has attracted much attention over the last years. Here, we explored such a method and used non-pathogenic bacteria as a versatile system for delivering RNAi to fungi. Specifically, the RNaseIII-null mutant strain of HT115(DE3) was transformed with two plasmid vectors that enabled the constitutive or IPTG-inducible production of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) against genes involved in aflatoxins production in () or virulence of (). Read More

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February 2021

The Dual Role of Macropinocytosis in Cancers: Promoting Growth and Inducing Methuosis to Participate in Anticancer Therapies as Targets.

Front Oncol 2020 19;10:570108. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Research Unit of Oral Carcinogenesis and Management, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Macropinocytosis is an important mechanism of internalizing extracellular materials and dissolved molecules in eukaryotic cells. Macropinocytosis has a dual effect on cancer cells. On the one hand, cells expressing RAS genes (such as K-RAS, H-RAS) under the stress of nutrient deficiency can spontaneously produce constitutive macropinocytosis to promote the growth of cancer cells by internalization of extracellular nutrients (like proteins), receptors, and extracellular vesicles(EVs). Read More

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January 2021

Production of Class II MHC Proteins in Lentiviral Vector-Transduced HEK-293T Cells for Tetramer Staining Reagents.

Curr Protoc 2021 Feb;1(2):e36

Emory Vaccine Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Class II major histocompatibility complex peptide (MHC-IIp) multimers are precisely engineered reagents used to detect T cells specific for antigens from pathogens, tumors, and self-proteins. While the related Class I MHC/peptide (MHC-Ip) multimers are usually produced from subunits expressed in E. coli, most Class II MHC alleles cannot be produced in bacteria, and this has contributed to the perception that MHC-IIp reagents are harder to produce. Read More

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February 2021

Endoglin and TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 Jan 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Laboratory of Molecular Neuro-Oncology, Department of Neurology, University Hospital and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Microvascular proliferation is a key feature of glioblastoma and neovascularization has been implicated in tumor progression. Glioblastomas use pro-angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) for new blood vessel formation. Yet, anti-VEGF therapy does not prolong overall survival so that alternative angiogenic pathways may need to be explored as drug targets. Read More

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January 2021

O-linked N-Acetylglucosamine Transferase (OGT) regulates pancreatic α-cell function in mice.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan 15:100297. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, University of Minnesota Medical School. Electronic address:

The nutrient sensor O-GlcNAc Transferase (OGT) catalyzes posttranslational addition of O-GlcNAc onto target proteins, influencing signaling pathways in response to cellular nutrient levels. OGT is highly expressed in pancreatic glucagon-secreting cells (α-cells), which secrete glucagon in response to hypoglycemia. The objective of this study was to determine whether OGT is necessary for the regulation of α-cell mass and function in vivo. Read More

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January 2021

Optimization of Cephalosporin C Acylase Expression in Escherichia coli by High-Throughput Screening a Constitutive Promoter Mutant library.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2021 Apr 6;193(4):1056-1071. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Cephalosporin C acylase (CCA) is capable of catalyzing cephalosporin C (CPC) to produce 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA), an intermediate of semi-synthetic cephalosporins. Inducible expression is usually used for CCA. To improve the efficiency of CCA expression without gene induction, three recombinant strains regulated by constitutive promoters BBa_J23105, PLtetO1, and tac were constructed, respectively. Read More

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Characterization of Viral Genome Encapsidated in Adeno-associated Recombinant Vectors Produced in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Mol Biotechnol 2021 Feb 3;63(2):156-165. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Yeast Genetics and Genomics Group, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, via Moruzzi 1, 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small, non-enveloped virus used as vector in gene therapy, mainly produced in human cells and in baculovirus systems. Intense studies on these platforms led to the production of vectors with titers between 10 and 10 viral genomes (vg) per cells. In spite of this, vector yields need to be improved to satisfy the high product demands of clinical trials and future commercialization. Read More

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February 2021

Optimization and evaluation of fluorescence in situ hybridization chain reaction in cleared fresh-frozen brain tissues.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Mar 2;226(2):481-499. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Michigan Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan, 205 Zina Pitcher pl, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Transcript labeling in intact tissues using in situ hybridization chain reaction has potential to provide vital spatiotemporal information for molecular characterization of heterogeneous neuronal populations. However, large tissue labeling in non-perfused or fresh-frozen rodent and postmortem human samples, which provide more flexible utilization than perfused tissues, is largely unexplored. In the present study, we optimized the combination of in situ hybridization chain reaction in fresh-frozen rodent brains and then evaluated the uniformity of neuronal labeling between two clearing methods, CLARITY and iDISCO. Read More

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Structural definition of terrestrial chondroitin sulfate of various origin and repeatability of the production process.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Feb 7;195:113826. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; Clinical and Experimental Medicine PhD Program, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

We report results on the structure, physicochemical characteristics and purity of chondroitin sulfate (CS) samples derived from three largely available and common biological sources such as bovine and porcine trachea and chicken keel bones with the aim to define their structural signatures. Many lots of CS produced by a manufacturer at industrial scale were characterized with a view to assess the reproducibility of the process as not controlled extractive procedures may produce final products with variable structure and biological contaminants as well as not constant clinical efficacy and safety. By using standardized source animal tissues and manufacturing procedure, highly pure CS (∼92 %) products with constant structure and characteristics were obtained. Read More

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February 2021

Expression of a Hyperthermophilic Cellobiohydrolase in Transgenic by Protein Storage Vacuole Targeting.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Dec 18;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università di Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona, Italy.

Plant expression of microbial Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes (CWDEs) is a valuable strategy to produce industrial enzymes at affordable cost. Unfortunately, the constitutive expression of CWDEs may affect plant fitness to variable extents, including developmental alterations, sterility and even lethality. In order to explore novel strategies for expressing CWDEs in crops, the cellobiohydrolase CBM3GH5, from the hyperthermophilic bacterium , was constitutively expressed in by targeting the enzyme both to the apoplast and to the protein storage vacuole. Read More

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December 2020