134 results match your criteria procyclic metacyclic


Stage-Specific Differential Gene Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase in and .

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2020 Oct;9(3):324-330

Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: and are the etiological agents of cutaneous leishmaniosis. Leishmania species cause a board spectrum of phenotypes. A small number of genes are differentially expressed between them that have likely an important role in the disease phenotype. Read More

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October 2020

Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals differentially expressed proteins in Leishmania major metacyclogenesis.

Microb Pathog 2020 Dec 2;149:104557. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Medical Lab Technology, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Electronic address:

Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by Leishmania that widespread in 98 countries. The differentiation of Leishmania (L) from procyclic to metacyclic promastigote has occurred along with morphological and biochemical changes in proteome scale. We aim here to identify the proteomes of two successive developmental forms (procyclic and metacyclic promastigotes) from Leishmania major isolates using SWATH-MS quantitative proteomics technique. Read More

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December 2020

Proteomic analysis of exosomes derived from procyclic and metacyclic-like cultured Leishmania infantum chagasi.

J Proteomics 2020 09 14;227:103902. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Parasitas e Vetores, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Leishmania infantum chagasi is the primary etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America, a lethal disease that afflicts hundreds of thousands of people worldwide every year. Previous studies have shown that the parasite releases microvesicles known as exosomes, which prolong and exacerbate infection in the vertebrate vector. However, little is known of their role in the insect vector, the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Read More

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September 2020

Essential roles for deubiquitination in Leishmania life cycle progression.

PLoS Pathog 2020 06 16;16(6):e1008455. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

York Biomedical Research Institute and Department of Biology, University of York, United Kingdom.

The parasitic protozoan Leishmania requires proteasomal, autophagic and lysosomal proteolytic pathways to enact the extensive cellular remodelling that occurs during its life cycle. The proteasome is essential for parasite proliferation, yet little is known about the requirement for ubiquitination/deubiquitination processes in growth and differentiation. Activity-based protein profiling of L. Read More

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Distinct gene expression patterns in vector-residing Leishmania infantum identify parasite stage-enriched markers.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 03 3;14(3):e0008014. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Vector Molecular Biology Section, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland, United States of America.

Background: Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected disease. Inside the natural sand fly vector, the promastigote forms of Leishmania undergo a series of extracellular developmental stages to reach the infectious stage, the metacyclic promastigote. There is limited information regarding the expression profile of L. Read More

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Transmission potential of paromomycin-resistant Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2020 04;75(4):951-957

Laboratory of Microbiology, Parasitology and Hygiene (LMPH), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Objectives: Former studies demonstrated quick selection of paromomycin resistance for Leishmania infantum and Leishmania donovani accompanied by increased fitness. The present study aimed to interpret these findings in an epidemiological context by comparing infection of WT and experimentally derived paromomycin-resistant strains in the sand fly vector.

Methods: Depending on the Leishmania species, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus perniciosus or Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies were artificially infected with procyclic promastigotes of WT and paromomycin-resistant L. Read More

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A quantitative proteomic and bioinformatics analysis of proteins in metacyclogenesis of Leishmania tropica.

Acta Trop 2020 Feb 21;202:105227. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Proteomics Research Center, Faculty of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Recently there has a growing interest in MS-based analysis on Leishmania for biology study, host-parasite interaction and drug target discovery. The aims of this study were to analyzed protein profiles in the procyclic and metacyclic stages of L. tropica, and investigate their potential role in metacyclogenesis molecular mechanisms. Read More

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February 2020

Calpains of Leishmania braziliensis: genome analysis, differential expression, and functional analysis.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2019 23;114:e190147. Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Estudos Integrados em Protozoologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Background: Calpains are proteins belonging to the multi-gene family of calcium-dependent cysteine peptidases that undergo tight on/off regulation, and uncontrolled proteolysis of calpains is associated with severe human pathologies. Calpain orthologues are expanded and diversified in the trypanosomatids genome.

Objectives: Here, we characterised calpains in Leishmania braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Read More

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October 2019

Development of Leishmania orientalis in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and the biting midge Culicoides soronensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

Acta Trop 2019 Nov 3;199:105157. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, UK. Electronic address:

Leishmania (Mundinia) orientalis is a newly described species causing human leishmaniasis in Thailand whose natural vector is unknown. L. orientalis infections in sand flies and/or biting midges under laboratory conditions have not been previously investigated. Read More

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November 2019

Functional genomics in sand fly-derived Leishmania promastigotes.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 05 9;13(5):e0007288. Epub 2019 May 9.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas), Madrid, Spain.

Background: Leishmania development in the sand fly gut leads to highly infective forms called metacyclic promastigotes. This process can be routinely mimicked in culture. Gene expression-profiling studies by transcriptome analysis have been performed with the aim of studying promastigote forms in the sand fly gut, as well as differences between sand fly-and culture-derived promastigotes. Read More

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Axenic amastigote cultivation and in vitro development of Leishmania orientalis.

Parasitol Res 2019 Jun 10;118(6):1885-1897. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.

Leishmania (Mundinia) orientalis is a recently described new species that causes leishmaniasis in Thailand. To facilitate characterization of this new species, an in vitro culture system to generate L. orientalis axenic amastigotes was developed. Read More

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Gluconeogenesis is essential for trypanosome development in the tsetse fly vector.

PLoS Pathog 2018 12 17;14(12):e1007502. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Laboratoire de Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité (MFP), Université de Bordeaux, CNRS UMR-5234, Bordeaux, France.

In the glucose-free environment that is the midgut of the tsetse fly vector, the procyclic form of Trypanosoma brucei primarily uses proline to feed its central carbon and energy metabolism. In these conditions, the parasite needs to produce glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) through gluconeogenesis from metabolism of non-glycolytic carbon source(s). We showed here that two phosphoenolpyruvate-producing enzymes, PEP carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) have a redundant function for the essential gluconeogenesis from proline. Read More

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December 2018

Temperature shift activates bloodstream VSG expression site promoters in Trypanosoma brucei.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2018 12 3;226:20-23. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, 06536, USA.

Trypanosoma brucei relies on two types of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) expression sites (ESs) for RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription of VSG pre-mRNA. Trypanosomes developing into infectious metacyclic cells in the tsetse vector use metacyclic VSG ESs (MESs) and proliferating parasites in the mammalian host deploy bloodstream VSG ESs (BESs). Unlike the monocistronic MESs, BESs are polycistronic and their highly conserved promoters differ considerably from the MES promoters. Read More

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December 2018

Extracellular release of virulence factor major surface protease via exosomes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Jun 19;11(1):355. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Department of Biomedical Sciences and One Health Center for Zoonoses and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, St. Kitts & Nevis, West Indies, USA.

Background: The Leishmania spp. protozoa are introduced into humans through a sand fly blood meal, depositing the infectious metacyclic promastigote form of the parasite into human skin. Parasites enter a variety of host cells, although a majority are found in macrophages where they replicate intracellularly during chronic leishmaniasis. Read More

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Lutzomyia umbratilis from an area south of the Negro River is refractory to in vitro interaction with Leishmania guyanensis.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018 Mar;113(3):202-205

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Instituto Leônidas e Maria Deane, Manaus, AM, Brasil.

Background: Lutzomyia umbratilis, the vector for Leishmania guyanensis in northern South America, has been found naturally infected with L. guyanensis only in areas north of the Negro and Amazon rivers. While populations of this sand fly species are also found in areas south of these rivers, these populations have never been reported to be infected and/or transmitting L. Read More

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The proteome and transcriptome of the infectious metacyclic form of Trypanosoma brucei define quiescent cells primed for mammalian invasion.

Mol Microbiol 2017 Oct 4;106(1):74-92. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, 60 College Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

The infectious metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei result from a complex development in the tsetse fly vector. When they infect mammals, they cause African sleeping sickness in humans. Due to scarcity of biological material and difficulties of the tsetse fly as an experimental system, very limited information is available concerning the gene expression profile of metacyclic forms. Read More

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October 2017

The Transcriptome of Developmental Stages in Their Natural Sand Fly Vector.

mBio 2017 04 4;8(2). Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

The life cycle of the parasite in the sand fly vector involves differentiation into several distinctive forms, each thought to represent an adaptation to specific microenvironments in the midgut of the fly. Based on transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) results, we describe the first high-resolution analysis of the transcriptome dynamics of four distinct stages of as they develop in a natural vector, The early transformation from tissue amastigotes to procyclic promastigotes in the blood-fed midgut was accompanied by the greatest number of differentially expressed genes, including the downregulation of amastins, and upregulation of multiple cell surface proteins, sugar and amino acid transporters, and genes related to glucose metabolism and cell cycle progression. The global changes accompanying post-blood meal differentiation of procyclic promastigotes to the nectomonad and metacyclic stages were less extensive, though each displayed a unique signature. Read More

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An Overview of Infections: An Intense Host-Parasite Interaction.

Front Microbiol 2016 26;7:2126. Epub 2016 Dec 26.

Laboratory of Molecular Physiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Luis Razetti School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Central de Venezuela Caracas, Venezuela.

and , the causative agents of Human African Trypanosomiasis, are transmitted by tsetse flies. Within the vector, the parasite undergoes through transformations that prepares it to infect the human host. Sequentially these developmental stages are the replicative procyclic (in which the parasite surface is covered by procyclins) and trypo-epimastigote forms, as well as the non-replicative, infective, metacyclic form that develops in the vector salivary glands. Read More

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December 2016

Transcriptome Profiling of Trypanosoma brucei Development in the Tsetse Fly Vector Glossina morsitans.

PLoS One 2016 21;11(12):e0168877. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

African trypanosomes, the causative agents of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals, have a complex digenetic life cycle between a mammalian host and an insect vector, the blood-feeding tsetse fly. Although the importance of the insect vector to transmit the disease was first realized over a century ago, many aspects of trypanosome development in tsetse have not progressed beyond a morphological analysis, mainly due to considerable challenges to obtain sufficient material for molecular studies. Here, we used high-throughput RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) to profile Trypanosoma brucei transcript levels in three distinct tissues of the tsetse fly, namely the midgut, proventriculus and salivary glands. Read More

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Developmental differentiation in Leishmania lifecycle progression: post-transcriptional control conducts the orchestra.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2016 12 9;34:82-89. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Centre for Immunology and Infection, Department of Biology, University of York, YO10 5DD, UK. Electronic address:

The successful progression of Leishmania spp. through their lifecycle entails a series of differentiation processes; the proliferative procyclic promastigote forms become quiescent, human-infective metacyclic promastigotes during metacyclogenesis in the sandfly vector, which then differentiate into amastigotes during amastigogenesis in the mammalian host. The progression to these infective forms requires two components: environmental cues and a coordinated cellular response. Read More

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December 2016

T7 polymerase-driven transcription is downregulated in metacyclic promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania mexicana.

Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2016 May 18;63. Epub 2016 May 18.

Life Science Research Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic.

In our previous work we established a T7 polymerase-driven Tetracycline-inducible protein expression system in Leishmania mexicana (Biagi, 1953). We used this system to analyse gene expression profiles during development of L. mexicana in procyclic and metacyclic promastigotes and amastigotes. Read More

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Dynamics of sterol synthesis during development of Leishmania spp. parasites to their virulent form.

Parasit Vectors 2016 Apr 12;9:200. Epub 2016 Apr 12.

Departments of Internal Medicine, Microbiology and Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Background: The Leishmania spp. protozoa, the causative agents of the "neglected" tropical disease leishmaniasis, are transmitted to mammals by sand fly vectors. Within the sand fly, parasites transform from amastigotes to procyclic promastigotes, followed by development of virulent (metacyclic) promastigote forms. Read More

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A Trypanosomatid Iron Transporter that Regulates Mitochondrial Function Is Required for Leishmania amazonensis Virulence.

PLoS Pathog 2016 Jan 7;12(1):e1005340. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America.

Iron, an essential co-factor of respiratory chain proteins, is critical for mitochondrial function and maintenance of its redox balance. We previously reported a role for iron uptake in differentiation of Leishmania amazonensis into virulent amastigotes, by a mechanism that involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and is independent of the classical pH and temperature cues. Iron import into mitochondria was proposed to be essential for this process, but evidence supporting this hypothesis was lacking because the Leishmania mitochondrial iron transporter was unknown. Read More

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January 2016

Transcriptomic profiling of gene expression and RNA processing during Leishmania major differentiation.

Nucleic Acids Res 2015 Aug 6;43(14):6799-813. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, 3128 Bioscience Research Building, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA

Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania are the etiological agents of leishmaniasis, a group of diseases with a worldwide incidence of 0.9-1.6 million cases per year. Read More

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Characterization of a ricin-resistant mutant of Leishmania donovani that expresses lipophosphoglycan.

Glycobiology 2015 Apr 3;25(4):428-37. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY 40536, USA

The abundant cell-surface lipophosphoglycan (LPG) of Leishmania parasites plays a central role throughout the eukaryote's life cycle. A number of LPG-defective mutants and their complementing genes have been isolated and have proven invaluable in assessing the importance of LPG and related glycoconjugates in parasite virulence. While ricin agglutination selection protocols frequently result in lpg- mutants, one  Leishmania donovani variant we isolated, named JABBA, was found to be lpg+. Read More

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Characterization of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen of Leishmania donovani clinical isolates and its association with antimony resistance.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014 Jun 10;58(6):2997-3007. Epub 2014 Mar 10.

Division of Parasitology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, India

Previously, through a proteomic analysis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was found to be overexpressed in the sodium antimony gluconate (SAG)-resistant clinical isolate compared to that in the SAG-sensitive clinical isolate of Leishmania donovani. The present study was designed to explore the potential role of the PCNA protein in SAG resistance in L. donovani. Read More

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Recombinant expression and biochemical characterisation of two alanyl aminopeptidases of Trypanosoma congolense.

Exp Parasitol 2013 Dec 28;135(4):675-84. Epub 2013 Oct 28.

Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg Campus, Private Bag X01, Scottsville 3209, South Africa; CNRS, Université Bordeaux Segalen, Microbiologie fondamentale et Pathogénicité, UMR 5234, F-33000 Bordeaux, France.

Trypanosoma congolense is a haemoprotozoan parasite that causes African animal trypanosomosis, a wasting disease of cattle and small ruminants. Current control methods are unsatisfactory and no conventional vaccine exists due to antigenic variation. An anti-disease vaccine approach to control T. Read More

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December 2013

Expression, immunolocalization and serodiagnostic value of Tc38630 protein from Trypanosoma congolense.

Parasitol Res 2013 Sep 3;112(9):3357-63. Epub 2013 Jul 3.

National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-11, Inada, Obihiro, Hokkaido, 080-8555, Japan.

Animal African trypanosomosis is a serious constraint to livestock sector development in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease, mainly caused by Trypanosoma congolense, has a limitation in its diagnosis and treatment. There is urgent need for a simple, rapid detection technique to replace the few available serological tests that are of variable sensitivity and specificity. Read More

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September 2013

Silencing subtelomeric VSGs by Trypanosoma brucei RAP1 at the insect stage involves chromatin structure changes.

Nucleic Acids Res 2013 Sep 26;41(16):7673-82. Epub 2013 Jun 26.

Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, Center for Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA.

Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis and regularly switches its major surface antigen variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) to evade mammalian host immune responses at the bloodstream form (BF) stage. Monoallelic expression of BF Expression Site (BES)-linked VSGs and silencing of metacyclic VSGs (mVSGs) in BF cells are essential for antigenic variation, whereas silencing of both BES-linked and mVSGs in the procyclic form (PF) cells is important for cell survival in the midgut of its insect vector. We have previously shown that silencing BES-linked VSGs in BF cells depends on TbRAP1. Read More

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September 2013

Experimental acquisition, development, and transmission of Leishmania tropica by Phlebotomus duboscqi.

Acta Trop 2013 Jan 10;125(1):37-42. Epub 2012 Sep 10.

U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Cairo, Egypt.

We report experimental infection and transmission of Leishmania tropica (Wright), by the blood-feeding sand fly Phlebotomus duboscqi (Neveu-Lemaire). Groups of laboratory-reared female sand flies that fed "naturally" on L. tropica-infected hamsters, or artificially, via membrane feeding device, on a suspension of L. Read More

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January 2013