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Structural characterization and antioxidant activities of one neutral polysaccharide and three acid polysaccharides from the roots of Arctium lappa L.: A comparison.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of Food Processing Technology and Quality Control of Shandong Higher Education Institutes, College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, 61 Daizong Street, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, PR China. Electronic address:

In this work, we comparatively analyzed the structure and antioxidant activities of different polysaccharide fractions from Arctium lappa L. A total of four water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (ALP-1, ALP-2, ALP-3 and ALP-4) were obtained from the roots of Arctium lappa L. They differed in monosaccharide composition, molecular weight and linkage mode. Read More

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Performance of International AIDS Vaccine Initiative African clinical research laboratories in standardised ELISpot and peripheral blood mononuclear cell processing in support of HIV vaccine clinical trials.

Afr J Lab Med 2021 17;10(1):1056. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), Human Immunology Laboratory, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Standardisation of procedures for performing cellular functional assays across laboratories participating in multicentre clinical trials is key for generating comparable and reliable data.

Objective: This article describes the performance of accredited laboratories in Africa and Europe on testing done in support of clinical trials.

Methods: For enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot) proficiency, characterised peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 48 HIV-negative blood donors in Johannesburg, South Africa, were sent to participating laboratories between February 2010 and February 2014. Read More

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February 2021

Validation of the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) across genders, socioeconomic levels, and forms of aggression.

Psychol Assess 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences.

The goals of the current study were to (a) replicate the factor structure of the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP), (b) evaluate the measurement invariance of the SIP-AP across genders, socioeconomic (SES) levels, and forms of aggression, and (c) assess the convergent validity of the SIP-AP through associations with aggression, social competence, and rule-breaking behavior. Participants were 189 racially/ethnically diverse children (53% male; = 8.50 years) who completed the SIP-AP. Read More

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Combining natural language processing and metabarcoding to reveal pathogen-environment associations.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 7;15(4):e0008755. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, United States of America.

Cryptococcus neoformans is responsible for life-threatening infections that primarily affect immunocompromised individuals and has an estimated worldwide burden of 220,000 new cases each year-with 180,000 resulting deaths-mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Surprisingly, little is known about the ecological niches occupied by C. neoformans in nature. Read More

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ELAV/Hu RNA binding proteins determine multiple programs of neural alternative splicing.

PLoS Genet 2021 Apr 7;17(4):e1009439. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York City, New York, United States of America.

ELAV/Hu factors are conserved RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that play diverse roles in mRNA processing and regulation. The founding member, Drosophila Elav, was recognized as a vital neural factor 35 years ago. Nevertheless, little was known about its impacts on the transcriptome, and potential functional overlap with its paralogs. Read More

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The hypothalamus for whole-body physiology: from metabolism to aging.

Protein Cell 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, NY, 10461, USA.

Obesity and aging are two important epidemic factors for metabolic syndrome and many other health issues, which contribute to devastating diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, stroke and cancers. The brain plays a central role in controlling metabolic physiology in that it integrates information from other metabolic organs, sends regulatory projections and orchestrates the whole-body function. Emerging studies suggest that brain dysfunction in sensing various internal cues or processing external cues may have profound effects on metabolic and other physiological functions. Read More

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Frontoinsular cortical microstructure is linked to life satisfaction in young adulthood.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.

Life satisfaction is a component of subjective well-being that reflects a global judgement of the quality of life according to an individual's own needs and expectations. As a psychological construct, it has attracted attention due to its relationship to mental health, resilience to stress, and other factors. Neuroimaging studies have identified neurobiological correlates of life satisfaction; however, they are limited to functional connectivity and gray matter morphometry. Read More

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Input-specific regulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex by mGlu/mGlu receptor heterodimers.

Sci Signal 2021 Apr 6;14(677). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G protein-coupled receptors that regulate various aspects of central nervous system processing in normal physiology and in disease. They are thought to function as disulfide-linked homodimers, but studies have suggested that mGluRs can form functional heterodimers in cell lines. Using selective allosteric ligands, ex vivo brain slice electrophysiology, and optogenetic approaches, we found that two mGluR subtypes-mGluR2 and mGluR4 (or mGlu and mGlu)-exist as functional heterodimers that regulate excitatory transmission in a synapse-specific manner within the rodent medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Read More

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Improving reading skills in children with dyslexia: efficacy studies on a newly proposed remedial intervention-repeated reading with vocal music masking (RVM).

Ann Dyslexia 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Laboratoire d'Etude des Mécanismes Cognitifs (EA 3082), Université Lyon 2, Lyon, France.

In this work, two different studies are examined to evaluate the effectiveness of a novel intervention program for the improvement of reading ability in children with dyslexia, known as repeated reading with vocal music masking (RVM). The proposed remedial approach is inspired by Breznitz's original work. The studies assess a 5-week program of intensive RVM training in a pre-post-test clinical paradigm, as well as a longitudinal paradigm where it is compared to 8 months of the standard remediation program (SRP). Read More

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pDeepXL: MS/MS Spectrum Prediction for Cross-Linked Peptide Pairs by Deep Learning.

J Proteome Res 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Information Processing of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Institute of Computing Technology, CAS, Beijing 100190, China.

In cross-linking mass spectrometry, the identification of cross-linked peptide pairs heavily relies on the ability of a database search engine to measure the similarities between experimental and theoretical MS/MS spectra. However, the lack of accurate ion intensities in theoretical spectra impairs the performance of search engines, in particular, on proteome scales. Here we introduce pDeepXL, a deep neural network to predict MS/MS spectra of cross-linked peptide pairs. Read More

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Analysis of glycosylation and disulfide bonding of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the etiologic agent of COVID-19, uses its spike (S) glycoprotein anchored in the viral membrane to enter host cells. The S glycoprotein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies elicited by natural infection and by vaccines. Approximately 35% of the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein consists of carbohydrate, which can influence virus infectivity and susceptibility to antibody inhibition. Read More

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Ultra-broadband and covalently linked core-shell CoFeO@PPy nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide for microwave absorption.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Mar 10;595:168-177. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

The MOE Key Laboratory of Material Physics and Chemistry under Extraordinary Conditions, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710129, PR China.

Covalent bond usually ensures a stable connection between nonmetallic atoms. However, the traditional reflux method usually requires the construction of complex instruments and equipment with tedious steps to ensure airtightness and reaction stability. In this work, an advanced method is adopted to bind core-shell CoFeO@PPy and rGO tightly via the aid of 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)ethanamine (PyEA), dispense with a high-temperature environment or protective gas. Read More

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Rules of order: Evidence for a novel influence on ordinal processing of numbers.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Psychology.

Research on how people process numerical order carries implications for our theoretical understanding of what a number means and our practical understanding of the foundation upon which more sophisticated mathematics is built. Current thinking posits that ordinal processing of numbers is linked to repeated practice with the integer count list, but the mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. For instance, in standard ordinal verification paradigms, participants more rapidly and accurately verify that count-list sequences (e. Read More

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Protein interactome of the Cancerous Inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) in Th17 cells.

Curr Res Immunol 2020 Dec;1:10-22

Turku Bioscience Centre, University of Turku and Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.

Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is involved in immune response, cancer progression, and Alzheimer's disease. However, an understanding of the mechanistic basis of its function in this wide spectrum of physiological and pathological processes is limited due to its poorly characterized interaction networks. Here we present the first systematic characterization of the CIP2A interactome by affinity-purification mass spectrometry combined with validation by selected reaction monitoring targeted mass spectrometry (SRM-MS) analysis in T helper (Th) 17 (Th17) cells. Read More

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December 2020

Anti--homocysteine-protein autoantibodies are associated with impaired cognition.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2021 31;7(1):e12159. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Poznań University of Life Sciences Poznań Poland.

Introduction: Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) and related metabolites accelerate Alzheimer's disease. Hcy-lowering B vitamins slow brain atrophy/cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Modification with Hcy-thiolactone generates auto-immunogenic -Hcy-protein. Read More

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An Event-Related Brain Potential (ERP) Study of Complex Anaphora in Spanish.

Front Psychol 2021 18;12:625314. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, University of Connecticut, Mansfield, CT, United States.

This study examines the event- related brain potential (ERP) of 25 Mexican monolingual Spanish-speakers when reading Spanish sentences with single entity anaphora or complex anaphora. Complex anaphora is an expression that refer to propositions, states, facts or events while, a single entity anaphora is an expression that refers back to a concrete object. Here we compare the cognitive cost in processing a single entity anaphora [; La renuncia (resignation)] from a complex anaphora [; La renuncia fue aceptada (The resignation was accepted)]. Read More

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Registry of Compartmental Ephrin-B3 Guidance Patterns With Respect to Emerging Multimodal Midbrain Maps.

Front Neuroanat 2021 16;15:649478. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Biology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA, United States.

Guidance errors and unrefined neural map configurations appear linked to certain neurodevelopmental conditions, including autism spectrum disorders. Deficits in specific multisensory tasks that require midbrain processing are highly predictive of cognitive and behavioral phenotypes associated with such syndromes. The lateral cortex of the inferior colliculus (LCIC) is a shell region of the mesencephalon that integrates converging information from multiple levels and modalities. Read More

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On Premises and Principles for Measurement of Gastrointestinal Peptide Hormones.

Peptides 2021 Mar 31:170545. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides, and the gastrointestinal tract is the largest endocrine organ in the body for production of peptide hormones. As a premise for accurate measurement of gastrointestinal hormones, the present review provides first an overview over the complex biology of the hormones: The structures and structural homologies; biogenetic aspects; phenotype variabilities; and cellular expression in- and outside the digestive tract. Second, the different methodological principles for measurement are discussed: Bioassay, radioimmunoassay (RIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and processing-independent analysis (PIA). Read More

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Online Betting Intensity is Linked with Extraversion and Conscientiousness.

J Pers 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu Campus, Business School, P.O: Box 111, FI-80101, Joensuu, Finland.

Introduction: Extraversion and conscientiousness are well-studied personality traits associated with reward processing and goal prioritization, respectively, and bear on individual differences in financial risk-taking. Using unique large datasets, we investigated the link between these traits and male online gamblers' actual betting participation and intensity.

Methods: We combined datasets containing online horse betting data (during 2015-2016) from the Finnish monopoly betting company; administrative registry data from Statistics Finland; and personality trait measures from the Finnish Defence Forces corresponding to extraversion and conscientiousness as defined in the five-factor model. Read More

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Tactile Processing and Quality of Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Brain Sci 2021 Mar 12;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Biochemical Sciences, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) commonly experience problems with the processing of tactile stimuli and poor quality of sleep. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether tactile stimuli modulation (TSM) disorders might be linked to insomnia prevalence in ASD individuals. We hypothesized that sleep disorders in children with ASD may result from improper tactile under/over responsivity. Read More

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Chemical Characteristics and Oxidative Stability of Buffalo Mozzarella Cheese Produced with Fresh and Frozen Curd.

Molecules 2021 Mar 5;26(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e L'analisi Dell'economia Agraria (CREA), Centro di Ricerca Zootecnia e Acquacoltura, Via Salaria, 31, 00015 Monterotondo (RM), Italy.

Milk and dairy products can have variable contents of antioxidant compounds that contribute to counteract the oxidation of lipids and proteins during processing and storage. The content of active antioxidant compounds is closely linked to their protection by oxidation. Freezing is one of the factors that can reduce antioxidant activity. Read More

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Effect of Cooking Methods on the Antioxidant Capacity of Foods of Animal Origin Submitted to In Vitro Digestion-Fermentation.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 13;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología, Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de Alimentos, Centro de Investigación Biomédica, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain.

The human body is exposed to oxidative damage to cells and though it has some endogenous antioxidant systems, we still need to take antioxidants from our diet. The main dietary source of antioxidants is vegetables due to their content of different bioactive molecules. However, there are usually other components of the diet, such as foods of animal origin, that are not often linked to antioxidant capacity. Read More

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Can EEG Be Adopted as a Neuroscience Reference for Assessing Software Programmers' Cognitive Load?

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 27;21(7). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Informatics Engineering, CISUC-Centre for Informatics and Systems of the University of Coimbra, University of Coimbra, P-3030-790 Coimbra, Portugal.

An emergent research area in software engineering and software reliability is the use of wearable biosensors to monitor the cognitive state of software developers during software development tasks. The goal is to gather physiologic manifestations that can be linked to error-prone scenarios related to programmers' cognitive states. In this paper we investigate whether electroencephalography (EEG) can be applied to accurately identify programmers' cognitive load associated with the comprehension of code with different complexity levels. Read More

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Hierarchical Multipath Blockchain Based IoT Information Management Techniques for Efficient Distributed Processing of Intelligent IoT Information.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 14;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 14.

College of General Education, Semyung University, Jechon-si 27136, Korea.

As cloud technology advances, devices such as IoT (Internet of Things) are being utilized in various areas ranging from transportation, manufacturing, energy, automation, space, defense, and healthcare. As the number of IoT devices increases, the safety of IoT information, which is vulnerable to cyber attacks, is emerging as an important area of interest in distributed cloud environments. However, integrity techniques are not guaranteed to easily identify the integrity threats and attacks on IoT information operating in the distributed cloud associated with IoT systems and CPS (Cyber-Physical System). Read More

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Purification, structural characterization and immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides from Umbilicaria esculenta.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Mar 30;181:743-751. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Engineering Research Center of Bio-process, Ministry of Education, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, People's Republic of China; School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

In this study, an active component UP1-1 was isolated from Chinese Huangshan Umbilicaria esculenta via hot water extraction and purified by anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. UP1-1 mainly composed of galactose, mannose and glucose in a molar ratio of 0.8:1. Read More

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Redox-Linked Coordination Chemistry Directs Vitamin B Trafficking.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Michigan Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.

ConspectusMetals are partners for an estimated one-third of the proteome and vary in complexity from mononuclear centers to organometallic cofactors. Vitamin B or cobalamin represents the epitome of this complexity and is the product of an assembly line comprising some 30 enzymes. Unable to biosynthesize cobalamin, mammals rely on dietary provision of this essential cofactor, which is needed by just two enzymes, one each in the cytoplasm (methionine synthase) and the mitochondrion (methylmalonyl-CoA mutase). Read More

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Childhood maltreatment interacts with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis negative feedback and major depression: effects on cognitive performance.

Eur J Psychotraumatol 2021 Mar 10;12(1):1857955. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Bellvitge University Hospital, Psychiatry Department. Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), Neurosciences Group - Psychiatry and Mental Health, Barcelona, Spain.

: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is associated with impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback and cognitive dysfunction, resembling those abnormalities linked to major depressive disorder (MDD). : We aimed to assess the potential modulating effects of MDD diagnosis or HPA axis function in the association between different types of CM and cognitive performance in adulthood. : Sixty-eight MDD patients and 87 healthy controls were recruited. Read More

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Tactile cortical responses and association with tactile reactivity in young children on the autism spectrum.

Mol Autism 2021 04 1;12(1):26. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Radiology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 4N1, Canada.

Background: Unusual behavioral reactions to sensory stimuli are frequently reported in individuals on the autism spectrum (AS). Despite the early emergence of sensory features (< age 3) and their potential impact on development and quality of life, little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying sensory reactivity in early childhood autism.

Methods: Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate tactile cortical processing in young children aged 3-6 years with autism and in neurotypical (NT) children. Read More

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Linked Social-Communication Dimensions and Connectivity in Functional Brain Networks in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, High-Field Magnetic Resonance Brain Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 611731, PR China.

Much recent attention has been directed toward elucidating the structure of social interaction-communication dimensions and whether and how these symptom dimensions coalesce with each other in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the underlying neurobiological basis of these symptom dimensions is unknown, especially the association of social interaction and communication dimensions with brain networks. Here, we proposed a method of whole-brain network-based regression to identify the functional networks linked to these symptom dimensions in a large sample of children with ASD. Read More

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Larger bilateral amygdalar volumes are associated with affective loss experiences.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Affective loss (AL) (i.e., bereavement, relationship breakup) is a stressful life event leading to a heightened risk of developing a psychiatric disorder, for example, depression and anxiety disorder. Read More

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