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ADP-ribosylation of DNA and RNA.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2021 Jun 3;105:103144. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

ADP-ribosylation is a chemical modification of macromolecules found across all domains of life and known to regulate a variety of cellular processes. Notably, it has a well-established role in the DNA damage response. While it was historically known as a post-translational modification of proteins, recent studies have shown that nucleic acids can also serve as substrates of reversible ADP-ribosylation. Read More

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Memory for Surface Objects in an Arena by the Horse (Equus ferus caballus) Under Saddle: Evidence for Dual Process Theory of Spatial Representation.

Behav Processes 2021 Jun 8:104442. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Canada.

Place memory, the ability to remember locations, is a feature of many animal species. This episodic-like memory is displayed in the foraging behavior of animals and has been studied in many different kinds of laboratory spatial tasks. A horse stallion, Equus ferus caballus, will create "dung-heaps or stud-piles" by defecation in the same place suggesting that the behavior is central to spatial behavior but to date there has been little investigation of horse olfactory/spatial behavior. Read More

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Diverse functions and mechanisms of regulatory T cell in ischemic stroke.

Exp Neurol 2021 Jun 8:113782. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

The inflammatory and immune processes are key pathophysiological processes in the ischemic stroke, including leukocyte infiltration and destruction of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), which further lead to increased post-ischemic inflammation. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a specific subset of T lymphocytes that play a pivotal role in suppressing the activation of immune system, maintaining immune homeostasis, and regulating inflammation induced by pathogens and environmental toxins. We would like to discuss the paradox function of Tregs in ischemic stroke. Read More

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Extreme-Pressure Imprint Lithography for Heat and Ultraviolet-Free Direct Patterning of Rigid Nanoscale Features.

ACS Nano 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is typically performed by filling up of molds by heated polymers or UV-curable liquid resists, inevitably requiring subsequent pattern-transfer processes. Although direct NIL techniques have been suggested alternatively, they usually require precursors or ink-type resists containing undesired organic components. Here, we demonstrate extreme-pressure imprint lithography (EPIL) that effectively produces well-defined multiscale structures with a wide range from 10 nm to 10 mm on diverse surfaces even including pure or alloy metals without using any precursors, heating, UV exposure, or pattern transfer. Read More

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An in vivo reporter for tracking lipid droplet dynamics in transparent zebrafish.

Elife 2021 Jun 11;10. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, United States.

Lipid droplets are lipid storage organelles found in nearly all cell types from adipocytes to cancer cells. Although increasingly implicated in disease, current methods to study lipid droplets in vertebrate models rely on static imaging or the use of fluorescent dyes, limiting investigation of their rapid in vivo dynamics. To address this, we created a lipid droplet transgenic reporter in whole animals and cell culture by fusing tdTOMATO to Perilipin-2 (PLIN2), a lipid droplet structural protein. Read More

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Mitochondrial function in development and disease.

Dis Model Mech 2021 Jun 11;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 01238, USA.

Mitochondria are organelles with vital functions in almost all eukaryotic cells. Often described as the cellular 'powerhouses' due to their essential role in aerobic oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondria perform many other essential functions beyond energy production. As signaling organelles, mitochondria communicate with the nucleus and other organelles to help maintain cellular homeostasis, allow cellular adaptation to diverse stresses, and help steer cell fate decisions during development. Read More

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The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Development and Cancer.

Annu Rev Cancer Biol 2020 Mar 25;4:197-220. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York NY 10065 USA.

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) are complex cellular processes where cells undergo dramatic changes in signaling, transcriptional programming, and cell shape, while directing the exit of cells from the epithelium and promoting migratory properties of the resulting mesenchyme. EMTs are essential for morphogenesis during development and are also a critical step in cancer progression and metastasis formation. Here we provide an overview of the molecular regulation of the EMT process during embryo development, focusing on chick and mouse gastrulation and neural crest development. Read More

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Understanding the Impact of Uterine Fibroids on Human Endometrium Function.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:633180. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are the most common benign gynecological tumors in women of reproductive age worldwide. They cause heavy menstrual bleeding, usually leading to severe anemia, pelvic pain/pressure, infertility, and other debilitating morbidities. Fibroids are believed to be monoclonal tumors arising from the myometrium, and recent studies have demonstrated that fibroids actively influence the endometrium globally. Read More

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Role of HOXC10 in Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 25;11:684021. Epub 2021 May 25.

Central Laboratory, Affiliated Jinhua Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Jinhua, China.

The HOXC10 gene, a member of the HOX genes family, plays crucial roles in mammalian physiological processes, such as limb morphological development, limb regeneration, and lumbar motor neuron differentiation. HOXC10 is also associated with angiogenesis, fat metabolism, and sex regulation. Additional evidence suggests that HOXC10 dysregulation is closely associated with various tumors. Read More

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The Phosphobase Methylation Pathway in : A New Route to Phospholipids in Animals.

Curr Chem Biol 2011 ;5(3):183-188

Department of Biology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130.

Parasitic nematodes are a major cause of human health problems with an estimated 1 billion people infected worldwide by these organisms. Identifying biochemical targets that differ between the parasite and host species is essential for finding effective new anti-parasitic molecules. The free-living nematode is a powerful model system for experiments in genetics and developmental biology needed to achieve this goal; however, in-depth understanding of metabolic processes in this organism is limited as it still contains unexplored biochemical pathways. Read More

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January 2011

Enacting Media. An Embodied Account of Enculturation Between Neuromediality and New Cognitive Media Theory.

Joerg Fingerhut

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:635993. Epub 2021 May 25.

Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Department of Philosophy, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

This paper argues that the still-emerging paradigm of situated cognition requires a more systematic perspective on media to capture the enculturation of the human mind. By virtue of being media, cultural artifacts present central experiential models of the world for our embodied minds to latch onto. The paper identifies references to external media within , and approaches to cognition, which remain underdeveloped in terms of the profound impact that media have on our mind. Read More

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Genome-wide characterization of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases in Penicillium and their regulation by salt stress in a halotolerant P. oxalicum.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12292. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biotechnology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, 143005, India.

Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases) are the only class of enzymes capable of cis-trans isomerization of the prolyl peptide bond. The PPIases, comprising of different families viz., cyclophilins, FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), parvulins and protein phosphatase 2A phosphatase activators (PTPAs), play essential roles in different cellular processes. Read More

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Navigating change - managers' experience of implementation processes in disability health care: a qualitative study.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Jun 10;21(1):571. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University Health Care Research Center, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.

Background: Effective implementation processes play a central role in health care organizations and affect the care of patients. Managers are pivotal in facilitating the use of new practices, but their experience and how it affects the implementation outcome are still largely unknown. In the field of disability health care in particular, managers experiences have scarcely been investigated. Read More

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PID: An integrative and comprehensive platform of plant intron.

Comput Biol Chem 2021 Jun 5;93:107528. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Agricultural Big-Data Research Center and College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Daizong Road No. 61, Tai'an, Shandong, 271018, China. Electronic address:

Intron is a non-coding sequence of a broken gene and participates in important biological processes, such as transcription regulation, alternative splicing, and nuclear export. With the development of plant genomes, a comprehensive platform for intron analysis in plants must be established. Plant Intron Database (PID), a publicly available searchable database, was developed to efficiently store, query, analyze, and integrate intron resources in plants. Read More

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The role of PTEN signaling in synaptic function: implications in autism spectrum disorder.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 7:136015. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Laboratory of Molecular and Functional Neurobiology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) regulates several cellular processes including survival, proliferation, and metabolism. In the brain, PTEN is a key modulator of synaptic function, and is involved in regulating synaptogenesis, connectivity, and synaptic plasticity. Herein we discuss how alterations in PTEN can disturb these mechanisms, thus compromising normal synaptic function and consequently contributing to behavioral and cognitive phenotypes observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Read More

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A review on the role of TANK-binding kinase 1 signaling in cancer.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India. Electronic address:

TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) regulates various biological processes including, NF-κB signaling, immune response, autophagy, cell division, Ras-mediated oncogenesis, and AKT pro-survival signaling. Enhanced TBK1 activity is associated with autoimmune diseases and cancer, suggesting its role in therapeutic targeting of interferonopathies. In addition, dysregulation of TBK1 activity promotes several inflammatory disorders and oncogenesis. Read More

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Predictive visuo-motor communication through neural oscillations.

Curr Biol 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Translational Research on New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy; Laboratory of Medical Physics and Magnetic Resonance, IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

The mechanisms coordinating action and perception over time are poorly understood. The sensory cortex needs to prepare for upcoming changes contingent on action, and this requires temporally precise communication that takes into account the variable delays between sensory and motor processing. Several theorists have proposed synchronization of the endogenous oscillatory activity observed in most regions of the brain as the basis for an efficient and flexible communication protocol between distal brain areas, a concept known as "communication through coherence. Read More

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Intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation and differentiation.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2020 Oct 21. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. Electronic address:

Oligodendrocytes are highly specialized glial cells, responsible for producing myelin in the central nervous system (CNS). The multi-stage process of oligodendrocyte development is tightly regulated to ensure proper lineage progression of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) to mature myelin producing oligodendrocytes. This developmental process involves complex interactions between several intrinsic signaling pathways that are modulated by an array of extrinsic factors. Read More

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October 2020

Lysophosphatidic Acid Regulates Rho Family of GTPases in Lungs.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Dorothy M. Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

The bio-active lipid, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) interacts with various lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs) to affect a variety of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, survival, migration, morphogenesis and others. The Rho family of small GTPases, is well-known downstream signaling pathways activated by LPA. Among the Rho GTPases, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 are best characterized and LPA-induced activation of the GTPases RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 influences a wide range of cellular processes and functions such as cell differentiation, contractile movements, cellular migration, or infiltration. Read More

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With no lysine kinases: the key regulatory networks and phytohormone cross talk in plant growth, development and stress response.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani, K. K. Birla Goa Campus, Goa, 403 726, India.

With No Lysine kinases (WNKs) are a distinct family of Serine/Threonine protein kinase with unique arrangement of catalytic residues in kinase domain. In WNK, an essential catalytic lysine requisite for attaching ATP and phosphorylation reaction is located in subdomain I, instead of subdomain II, which is essentially a typical feature of other Ser/Thr kinases. WNKs are identified in diverse organisms including multicellular and unicellular organisms. Read More

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High Yield Poly(ethylene--maleic acid) Grafting to Wood Pulp while Minimizing Fiber/Fiber Wet Adhesion.

Biomacromolecules 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7.

Heating bleached kraft pulps treated with poly(ethylene--maleic acid) (PEMAc) can lead to high yields of carboxylated polymer grafted to fibers. However, in many cases, the cured, dry pulp cannot be effectively repulped (redispersed in water) because the wet strength is too high. Impregnation with PEMAc solutions at pH 4 followed by high temperature (120-180 °C), catalyst-free curing for short times can give fixation yields >85% while maintaining repulpability. Read More

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A meta-analysis of the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and depression in adolescence and young adulthood.

Psychol Med 2021 Jun 10:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Psychology & Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.

Early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are broad, pervasive themes and patterns of emotions, memories, cognition and physical sensations that impede the goal of individuals. Maladaptive behaviours can occur as a response to maladaptive or negative schemas, often culminating in depression or anxiety. The current meta-analysis integrates the existing literature to estimate the magnitude of effect of association between EMS and depression among adolescents and young adults. Read More

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The gene regulatory network controlling plasma cell function.

Immunol Rev 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Antibodies are an essential element of the immune response to infection, and in long-term protection upon re-exposure to the same micro-organism. Antibodies are produced by plasmablasts and plasma cells, the terminally differentiated cells of the B lymphocyte lineage. These relatively rare populations, collectively termed antibody secreting cells (ASCs), have developed highly specialized transcriptional and metabolic pathways to facilitate their extraordinarily high rates of antibody synthesis and secretion. Read More

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Two-component signaling system in plants: interaction network and specificity in response to stress and hormones.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Stress Physiology and Molecular Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, Delhi, India.

Plants are exposed to various environmental challenges that can hamper their growth, development, and productivity. Being sedentary, plants cannot escape from these unfavorable environmental conditions and have evolved various signaling cascades to endure them. The two-component signaling (TCS) system is one such essential signaling circuitry present in plants regulating responses against multiple abiotic and biotic stresses. Read More

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An investigation of psychological responses to COVID-19 in Irish healthcare workers: longitudinal quantitative and nested qualitative study.

HRB Open Res 2021 3;4:15. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Medicine and HRB CRF, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

COVID-19 is an unprecedent occurrence in modern times and individuals who work within healthcare settings, face a broad array of challenges in responding to this worldwide event. Key information on the psychosocial responses of such healthcare workers (HCWs) in the context of COVID-19 is limited and in particular there is a need for studies that utilise longitudinal methods, an overarching theoretical model, and use of a cohort of participants within a defined geographical area across acute and community settings. The work packages making up the current research project use quantitative and qualitative methods to examine the psychological sequelae for HCWs in the context of COVID-19 in geographically adjacent healthcare areas (South and Mid-West of Ireland) across four time points (induction, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year follow-up). Read More

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February 2021

Digital Innovation in Medicinal Product Regulatory Submission, Review, and Approvals to Create a Dynamic Regulatory Ecosystem-Are We Ready for a Revolution?

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 21;8:660808. Epub 2021 May 21.

Global Regulatory Operations, Pfizer, Sandwich, United Kingdom.

The pace of scientific progress over the past several decades within the biological, drug development, and the digital realm has been remarkable. The'omics revolution has enabled a better understanding of the biological basis of disease, unlocking the possibility of new products such as gene and cell therapies which offer novel patient centric solutions. Innovative approaches to clinical trial designs promise greater efficiency, and in recent years, scientific collaborations, and consortia have been developing novel approaches to leverage new sources of evidence such as real-world data, patient experience data, and biomarker data. Read More

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Photo-controllable bioorthogonal chemistry for spatiotemporal control of bio-targets in living systems.

Chem Sci 2020 Mar 10;11(13):3390-3396. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Sciences, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Organic Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chemistry and Biomedicine Innovation Center (ChemBIC), Nanjing University Nanjing 210023 China

The establishment of bioorthogonal chemistry is one of the most significant advances in chemical biology using exogenous chemistry to perturb and study biological processes. Photo-modulation of biological systems has realized temporal and spatial control on biomacromolecules in living systems. The combination of photo-modulation and bioorthogonal chemistry is therefore emerging as a new direction to develop new chemical biological tools with spatiotemporal resolution. Read More

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Effects of Mountain Uplift and Climatic Oscillations on Phylogeography and Species Divergence of (Apiaceae).

Front Plant Sci 2021 24;12:673200. Epub 2021 May 24.

Key Laboratory of Bio-Resources and Eco-Environment of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Exploring the effects of orographic events and climatic shifts on the geographic distribution of organisms in the Himalayas-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) region and Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is crucial to understand the impact of environmental changes on organism evolution. To gain further insight into these processes, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of nine species distributed across the HHM and QTP regions. In total, 525 individuals from 56 populations of the nine species were analyzed based on three maternally inherited chloroplast fragments (, , and ) and one nuclear DNA region (internal transcribed spacer, ITS). Read More

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Updates in Magnetic Resonance Venous Imaging.

Semin Intervent Radiol 2021 Jun 3;38(2):202-208. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Radiology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Chicago, Illinois.

For years, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) has been a leading imaging modality in the assessment of venous disease involving the pelvis and lower extremities. Current advancement in noncontrast MRA techniques enables imaging of a larger subset of patients previously excluded due to allergy or renal insufficiency, allowing for preintervention assessment and planning. In this article, the current status of MR venography, with a focus on current advancements, will be presented. Read More

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Quantum-enhanced nonlinear microscopy.

Nature 2021 Jun 9;594(7862):201-206. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland, Australia.

The performance of light microscopes is limited by the stochastic nature of light, which exists in discrete packets of energy known as photons. Randomness in the times that photons are detected introduces shot noise, which fundamentally constrains sensitivity, resolution and speed. Although the long-established solution to this problem is to increase the intensity of the illumination light, this is not always possible when investigating living systems, because bright lasers can severely disturb biological processes. Read More

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