4,307 results match your criteria processes vast

Engineering bio-mimicking functional vesicles with multiple compartments for quantifying molecular transport.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 6;11(18):4669-4679. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Microbial Processes and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (NIIST) Trivandrum 695019 Kerala India

Controlled design of giant unilamellar vesicles under defined conditions has vast applications in the field of membrane and synthetic biology. Here, we bio-engineer bacterial-membrane mimicking models of controlled size under defined salt conditions over a range of pH. A complex bacterial lipid extract is used for construction of physiologically relevant Gram-negative membrane mimicking vesicles whereas a ternary mixture of charged lipids (DOPG, cardiolipin and lysyl-PG) is used for building Gram-positive bacterial-membrane vesicles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Advanced Oxidation Processes for Water and Wastewater Viral Disinfection. A Systematic Review.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, University Campus, Caratheodory 1, 26504, Patras, Greece.

Water and wastewater virological quality is a significant public health issue. Viral agents include emerging and re-emerging pathogens characterized by extremely small size, and high environmental stability. Since the mainly used conventional disinfection methods are usually not able to achieve complete disinfection of viral and other microbial targets, in real water and wastewater matrices, effective strategies for the treatment, use and reuse of water and the development of next-generation water supply systems are required. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

What value can TSPO PET bring for epilepsy treatment?

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Neurosciences Therapeutic Area, Early Solutions, UCB Pharma, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium.

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders and affects both the young and adult populations. The question we asked for this review was how positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with translocator protein (TSPO) radioligands can help inform the epilepsy clinic and the development of future treatments targeting neuroinflammatory processes.Even though the first TSPO PET scans in epilepsy patients were performed over 20 years ago, this imaging modality has not seen wide adoption in the clinic. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Bioleaching for environmental remediation of toxic metals and metalloids: A review on soils, sediments, and mine tailings.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 4;282:131108. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Microbiology, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Owing to industrial evolution, a huge mass of toxic metals, including Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and metalloids, such as As and Sb, has inevitably been released into the natural environment and accumulated in soils or sediments. Along with modern industrialization, many mineral mines have been explored and exploited to provide materials for industries. Mining industries also generate a vast amount of waste, such as mine tailings, which contain a high concentration of toxic metals and metalloids. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exploring polyps to colon carcinoma voyage: can blocking the crossroad halt the sequence?

Abdul Arif Khan

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Microbiology, Indian Council of Medical Research-National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Colorectal cancer is an important public health concern leading to significant cancer associate mortality. A vast majority of colon cancer arises from polyp which later follows adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and carcinoma sequence. This whole process takes several years to complete and recent genomic and proteomic technologies are identifying several targets involved in each step of polyp to carcinoma transformation in a large number of studies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of krüppel-like factor 8 for therapeutic drug-resistant multi-organ metastasis of breast cancer.

Am J Cancer Res 2021 15;11(5):2188-2201. Epub 2021 May 15.

Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences University of Central Florida College of Medicine 6900 Lake Nona Boulevard, Orlando, FL 32827, USA.

Metastasis and drug resistance are intertwined processes that are responsible for the vast majority of patient deaths from breast cancer. The underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We previously demonstrated that KLF8 activates CXCR4 transcription in metastatic breast cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nonadiabatic dynamics in multidimensional complex potential energy surfaces.

Chem Sci 2020 Sep 7;11(36):9827-9835. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS Marseille France

Despite the continuous development of theoretical methodologies for describing nonadiabatic dynamics of molecular systems, there is a lack of approaches for processes where the norm of the wave function is not conserved, , when an imaginary potential accounts for some irreversible decaying mechanism. Current approaches rely on building potential energy surfaces of reduced dimensionality, which is not optimal for more involving and realistic multidimensional problems. Here, we present a novel methodology for describing the dynamics of complex-valued molecular Hamiltonians, which is a generalisation of the trajectory surface hopping method. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2020

The pancreatic cancer genome revisited.

Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

The David M. Rubenstein Center for Pancreatic Cancer Research, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Pancreatic cancer is a genetic disease, and the recurrent genetic alterations characteristic of pancreatic cancer indicate the cellular processes that are targeted for malignant transformation. In addition to somatic alterations in the most common driver genes (KRAS, CDKN2A, TP53 and SMAD4), large-scale studies have revealed major roles for genetic alterations of the SWI/SNF and COMPASS complexes, copy number alterations in GATA6 and MYC that partially define phenotypes of pancreatic cancer, and the role(s) of polyploidy and chromothripsis as factors contributing to pancreatic cancer biology and progression. Germline variants that increase the risk of pancreatic cancer continue to be discovered along with a greater appreciation of the features of pancreatic cancers with mismatch repair deficiencies and homologous recombination deficiencies that confer sensitivity to therapeutic targeting. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Leveraging Microbial Genomes and Genomic Context for Chemical Discovery.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, United States.

ConspectusThe genomic era has dramatically changed how we discover and investigate microbial biochemistry. In particular, the exponential expansion in the number of sequenced microbial genomes provides investigators with a vast wealth of sequence data to exploit for the discovery of biochemical functions and mechanisms, as well as novel enzymes and metabolites. In contrast to early biochemical work, which was largely characterized by "forward" approaches that proceed from biomass to enzyme to gene, the availability of genome sequences enables the discovery of new microbial metabolic activities, enzymes, and metabolites by "reverse" approaches that originate with genetic information or by approaches that incorporate features of both forward and reverse methodologies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The role of affect in chronic pain: A systematic review of within-person symptom dynamics.

J Psychosom Res 2021 May 24;147:110527. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Objective: Chronic pain is conceptualized as a biopsychosocial phenomenon that involves both physical and emotional processes. The vast majority of research regarding these facets of chronic pain characterizes differences between individuals. In this review, we describe problems with assuming that differences between persons accurately characterize within-person processes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Inhibition of CMP-sialic acid transport by endogenous 5-methyl CMP.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(6):e0249905. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Vollum Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, United States of America.

Nucleotide-sugar transporters (NSTs) transport nucleotide-sugar conjugates into the Golgi lumen where they are then used in the synthesis of glycans. We previously reported crystal structures of a mammalian NST, the CMP-sialic acid transporter (CST) (Ahuja and Whorton 2019). These structures elucidated many aspects of substrate recognition, selectivity, and transport; however, one fundamental unaddressed question is how the transport activity of NSTs might be physiologically regulated as a means to produce the vast diversity of observed glycan structures. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Importance of Formalized, Lifelong Physician Career Development: Making the Case for a Paradigm Shift.

Acad Med 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

R.T. Collins is clinical associate professor, Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California; ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3387-6629. R. Sanford is director, Faculty Professional Development, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.

The value of structured development processes has been recognized and implemented in formal physician training programs such as residencies and fellowships. Physicians are seemingly viewed as a "finished product" upon completing formal training. In recent years, a number of academic medical centers have implemented formalized early-career development programs for physicians, largely those who have a major research focus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Fertility-Associated Polymorphism within Bovine and Its Significant Correlations with Ovarian and Luteal Traits.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 28;11(6). Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, No. 222 South Tianshui Road, Lanzhou 730000, China.

There is an urgent need to improve bovine fertility, and molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) can accelerate this process. Genome-wide association studies suggest that might affect fertility in bovines. As a member of the integrins family, ITGβ5 can bind to the extracellular matrix and mediate various cellular processes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Manipulations of the Response-Stimulus Intervals as a Factor Inducing Controlled Amount of Reaction Time Intra-Individual Variability.

Brain Sci 2021 May 20;11(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Specialized Neurosurgical Practice, ul. Hirszfelda 3/9, 20-092 Lublin, Poland.

Aggrandized fluctuations in the series of reaction times (RTs) are a very sensitive marker of neurocognitive disorders present in neuropsychiatric populations, pathological ageing and in patients with acquired brain injury. Even though it was documented that processing inconsistency founds a background of higher-order cognitive functions disturbances, there is a vast heterogeneity regarding types of task used to compute RT-related variability, which impedes determining the relationship between elementary and more complex cognitive processes. Considering the above, our goal was to develop a relatively new assessment method based on a simple reaction time paradigm, conducive to eliciting a controlled range of intra-individual variability. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

RNA-regulatory exosome complex confers cellular survival to promote erythropoiesis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Cell and Regenerative Biology, Wisconsin Blood Cancer Research Institute, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

Cellular differentiation requires vast remodeling of transcriptomes, and therefore machinery mediating remodeling controls differentiation. Relative to transcriptional mechanisms governing differentiation, post-transcriptional processes are less well understood. As an important post-transcriptional determinant of transcriptomes, the RNA exosome complex (EC) mediates processing and/or degradation of select RNAs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

-Gram based language processing using Twitter dataset to identify COVID-19 patients.

Sustain Cities Soc 2021 Sep 25;72:103048. Epub 2021 May 25.

Seneca College, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Due to the rapid growth of electronic documents, e.g., tweets, blogs, Facebook posts, snaps in different languages that use the same writing script, language categorization, and processing have great importance. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Deep Sequencing Reveals the Comprehensive CRISPR-Cas9 Editing Spectrum in .

CRISPR J 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China; Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Application of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats associated 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) technology has revolutionized biology by greatly enhancing the ability to introduce mutations into DNA for research and prospective therapeutic purposes. However, the understanding of Cas9 editing outcomes is still limited. Previously, it was considered that Cas9 introduces stochastic insertions or deletions (indels) at the target site. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Measuring the Multiscale Dynamics, Structure, and Function of Biomolecules at Interfaces.

Rodrigo Noriega

J Phys Chem B 2021 Jun 27;125(22):5667-5675. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, United States.

The individual and collective structure and properties of biomolecules can change dramatically when they are localized at an interface. However, the small spatial extent of interfacial regions poses challenges to the detailed characterization of multiscale processes that dictate the structure and function of large biological units such as peptides, proteins, or nucleic acids. This Perspective surveys a broad set of tools that provide new opportunities to probe complex, dynamic interfaces across the vast range of temporal regimes that connect molecular-scale events to macroscopic observables. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Immune-bacteriophage interactions in inflammatory bowel diseases.

Curr Opin Virol 2021 May 21;49:30-35. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, UT 84112, United States. Electronic address:

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are influenced by the bacterial and fungal organisms found within the intestine. However, the intestine is also home to a vast number of viral particles, with most of them being viruses that infect prokaryotes, called bacteriophages. While use of bacteriophages to specifically target pathogenic bacterial species involved in IBD is currently under investigation, recent studies have also highlighted that these viral particles can impact the mammalian immune system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

How Do the Players Play? A Post-Genomic Analysis Paradigm to Understand Aquatic Ecosystem Processes.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 7;8:662888. Epub 2021 May 7.

National Hydrology Research Centre, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.

Culture-independent and -omics sequencing methods have shed considerable light on the so-called "microbial dark matter" of Earth's environmental microbiome, improving our understanding of phylogeny, the tree of life, and the vast functional diversity of microorganisms. This influx of sequence data has led to refined and reimagined hypotheses about the role and importance of microbial biomass, that paradoxically, sequencing approaches alone are unable to effectively test. Post-genomic approaches such as metabolomics are providing more sensitive and insightful data to unravel the fundamental operations and intricacies of microbial communities within aquatic systems. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Regulatory non-coding RNAs: a new frontier in regulation of plant biology.

Funct Integr Genomics 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Center of Excellence in Genomics & Systems Biology (CEGSB), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad, India.

Beyond the most crucial roles of RNA molecules as a messenger, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs, the regulatory role of many non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in plant biology has been recognized. ncRNAs act as riboregulators by recognizing specific nucleic acid targets through homologous sequence interactions to regulate plant growth, development, and stress responses. Regulatory ncRNAs, ranging from small to long ncRNAs (lncRNAs), exert their control over a vast array of biological processes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Organosilica Cages Target Hepatic Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells Avoiding Macrophage Filtering.

ACS Nano 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Molecular Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, IRCCS, Via Mario Negri 2, 20156 Milano, Italy.

Over the last years, advancements in the use of nanoparticles for biomedical applications have clearly showcased their potential for the preparation of improved imaging and drug-delivery systems. However, compared to the vast number of currently studied nanoparticles for such applications, only a few successfully translate into clinical practice. A common "barrier" that prevents nanoparticles from efficiently delivering their payload to the target site after administration is related to liver filtering, mainly due to nanoparticle uptake by macrophages. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The extracellular matrix viscoelasticity as a regulator of cell and tissue dynamics.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2021 May 13;72:10-18. Epub 2021 May 13.

Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA; Cell and Tissue Mechanobiology Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, London, UK; Department of Physics, King's College London, London, UK; Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

The extracellular matrix mechanical properties regulate processes in development, cancer, and fibrosis. Among the distinct mechanical properties, the vast majority of research has focused on the extracellular matrix's elasticity as the primary determinant of cell and tissue behavior. However, both cells and the extracellular matrix are not only elastic but also viscous. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Critical review of advanced oxidation processes in organic wastewater treatment.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 27;275:130104. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan, 410082, China; Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan, 410082, China.

With the development of industrial society, organic wastewater produced by industrial manufacturing has caused many environmental problems. The vast majority of organic pollutants in water bodies are persistent in the environment, posing a threat to human and animal health. Therefore, efficient treatment methods for highly concentrated organic wastewater are urgently needed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chromium and cerium co-doped magnetite/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite as a potent antibacterial agent against S. aureus.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 15;274:129988. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran. Electronic address:

The development of innovative antibacterial samples with high efficacy has received a great deal of interest. Herein, we synthesized magnetite modified by Cr and co-modified by Cr and Ce, along with their reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based nanocomposites via facile hydrothermal and co-precipitation methods. The rGO-based samples showed proper magnetic behavior, high porosity, and vast specific surface area. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transfection types, methods and strategies: a technical review.

PeerJ 2021 21;9:e11165. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia.

Transfection is a modern and powerful method used to insert foreign nucleic acids into eukaryotic cells. The ability to modify host cells' genetic content enables the broad application of this process in studying normal cellular processes, disease molecular mechanism and gene therapeutic effect. In this review, we summarized and compared the findings from various reported literature on the characteristics, strengths, and limitations of various transfection methods, type of transfected nucleic acids, transfection controls and approaches to assess transfection efficiency. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Photodegradation of α-Pinene Secondary Organic Aerosol Dominated by Moderately Oxidized Molecules.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 May 7;55(10):6936-6943. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen, Switzerland.

Atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) undergoes chemical and physical changes when exposed to UV radiation, affecting the atmospheric lifetime of the involved molecules. However, these photolytic processes remain poorly constrained. Here, we present a study aimed at characterizing, at a molecular level and in real time, the chemical composition of α-pinene SOA exposed to UV-A light at 50% relative humidity in an atmospheric simulation chamber. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

SHAPE Directed Discovery of New Functions in Large RNAs.

Kevin M Weeks

Acc Chem Res 2021 05 7;54(10):2502-2517. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3290, United States.

RNA lies upstream of nearly all biology and functions as the central conduit of information exchange in all cells. RNA molecules encode information both in their primary sequences and in complex structures that form when an RNA folds back on itself. From the time of discovery of mRNA in the late 1950s until quite recently, we had only a rudimentary understanding of RNA structure across vast regions of most messenger and noncoding RNAs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Direct and Indirect Measurements of Sex Hormones in Rodents During Fear Conditioning.

Curr Protoc 2021 May;1(5):e102

Institut de Neurociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain.

Fear conditioning (FC) is a widely accepted tool for the assessment of learning and memory processes in rodents related to normal and dysregulated acquired fear. The study of sex differences in fear learning and memory is vast and currently increasing. Sex hormones have proven to be crucial for fear memory formation in males and females, and several methods have been developed to assess this hormonal state in rats and mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Various strategies applied for the removal of emerging micropollutant sulfamethazine: a systematic review.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biotechnology, GM Institute of Technology, Davangere, KA, 577006, India.

Pharmaceutical active drug(s) especially sulfamethazine (SMZ) is considered as one of the major emerging microcontaminants due its long-term existence in the environmental system and that can influence on the developmental of antibacterial resistance genes. Because of this region it has a great concern in the aquatic system. Moreover, the vast utilization of SMZ, excretion of undigested portion by animals and also through dumping or mishandling, SMZ is frequently detected in various samples (including water) of different places and its surroundings. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF