25,797 results match your criteria processes remain


Temporal order of mutations influences cancer initiation dynamics.

Phys Biol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemistry and Rice Quantum Institute, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, USA, Houston, Texas, 77005-1892, UNITED STATES.

Cancer is a set of genetic diseases that are driven by mutations. It was recently discovered that the temporal order of genetic mutations affects the cancer evolution and even the nature of the disease itself. The mechanistic origin of these observations, however, remain not well understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Multifaceted Regulation of Potassium-Ion Channels by Graphene Quantum Dots.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Quantitative Biology, Shanghai Institute for Advanced Study, Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China.

Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are emerging as a versatile nanomaterial with numerous proposed biomedical applications. Despite the explosion in potential applications, the molecular interactions between GQDs and complex biomolecular systems, including potassium-ion (K) channels, remain largely unknown. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and electrophysiology to study the interactions between GQDs and three representative K channels, which participate in a variety of physiological processes and are closely related to many disease states. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Switchable electrical conductivity in a three-dimensional metal-organic framework reversible ligand n-doping.

Chem Sci 2019 Dec 18;11(5):1342-1346. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Chemistry, Barnard College New York New York 10027 USA

Redox-active metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising materials for a number of next-generation technologies, and recent work has shown that redox manipulation can dramatically enhance electrical conductivity in MOFs. However, ligand-based strategies for controlling conductivity remain under-developed, particularly those that make use of reversible redox processes. Here we report the first use of ligand n-doping to engender electrical conductivity in a porous 3D MOF, leading to tunable conductivity values that span over six orders of magnitude. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2019

Metabolomics analysis underlay mechanisms in the renal impairment of mice caused by combination of aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A.

Toxicology 2021 Jun 11:152835. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Key Laboratory of Quality & Safety Control for Milk and Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, PR China; Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Dairy Products of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, PR China; Milk and Milk Products Inspection Center of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100193, PR China. Electronic address:

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are pernicious mycotoxins widely co-existing in the environment. However, nephrotoxicity and underlying mechanism induced by AFM1 coupled with OTA still remain to be explored. In this study, CD-1 mice were treated with 3. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Stop touching your face! A systematic review of triggers, characteristics, regulatory functions and neuro-physiology of facial self touch.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Leipzig, Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain Research, Haptic Research Lab, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Spontaneous face touching (sFST) is an ubiquitous behavior that occurs in people of all ages and all sexes, up to 800 times a day. Despite their high frequency, they have rarely been considered as an independent phenomenon. Recently, sFST have sparked scientific interest since they contribute to self-infection with pathogens. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Is behaviourism really dead? A scoping review to document the presence of behaviourism in current medical education.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Apr;71(4):1214-1220

Department of Community Medicine, Wah Medical College, Wah Cantt, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Behaviourism is the underpinning learning theory of many teaching and assessment tools utilised to enhance the effectiveness of learning. Feedback, reinforcements, motivation, learning outcomes and objectives are a few among many which are implied by the medical teachers while teaching both basic and clinical sciences to students. The claim of behaviourism being redundant or dead is not based on realities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

3D-Printed Self-Healing Elastomers for Modular Soft Robotics.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433, United States.

Advances in materials, designs, and controls are propelling the field of soft robotics at an incredible rate; however, current methods for prototyping soft robots remain cumbersome and struggle to incorporate desirable geometric complexity. Herein, a vat photopolymerizable self-healing elastomer system capable of extreme elongations up to 1000% is presented. The material is formed from a combination of thiol/acrylate mixed chain/step-growth polymerizations and uses a combination of physical processes and dynamic-bond exchange via thioethers to achieve full self-healing capacity over multiple damage/healing cycles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

π-Conjugated stannole copolymers synthesised by a tin-selective Stille cross-coupling reaction.

Mater Adv 2021 Mar 27;2(10):3282-3293. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute for Organic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Bremen Leobener Str. 7 28359 Bremen Germany

The synthesis of four well-defined conjugated polymers containing unusual heterocycle units in the main chain, namely stannole units as building blocks, is reported. The stannole-thiophenyl copolymers were generated by tin-selective Stille coupling reactions in nearly quantitative yields of 94% to 98%. NMR data show that the tin atoms in the rings remain unaffected. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A study protocol of qualitative data sharing practices in clinical trials in the UK and Ireland: towards the production of good practice guidance.

HRB Open Res 2021 10;4:47. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.

: Data sharing enables researchers to conduct novel research with previously collected data sets, thus maximising scientific findings and cost effectiveness, and reducing research waste. The value of sharing anonymised data from clinical trials is well recognised with a moderated access approach recommended. While substantial challenges to data sharing remain, there are additional challenges for qualitative data. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pathobiolgy and Management of Alzheimer's Disease.

Chonnam Med J 2021 May 24;57(2):108-117. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Neurology, Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju, Korea.

Amyloid and tau protein abnormalities have been identified as the main causes of Alzheimer's disease but exact mechanisms remain to be revealed. Especially, amyloid beta and tau protein coupling and neuroinflammatory and neurovascular contributions to Alzheimer disease are quite mysterious. Many animal models and basic biological research are trying to solve these puzzles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A few dominant bacteria and their genomic basis in mediating distinct ecosystem functions.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Species attributes such as abundance and traits are important determinant components for ecosystem functions (EFs), while their influences on distinct functions remain understudied. Here, we linked 753 treehole bacterial communities to two distinct types of EFs, including the three broad functions of respiration, metabolic activity and cell yield, and the four narrow functions related to specific organic matter degradation. Towards high occurrence of phylotypes or traits, the dependency of broad ecosystem functions on species abundance or traits increased, whereas the dependency of narrow functions decreased. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Global distribution and evolutionary transitions of angiosperm sexual systems.

Ecol Lett 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Ecology and Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Angiosperm sexual systems are fundamental to the evolution and distribution of plant diversity, yet spatiotemporal patterns in angiosperm sexual systems and their drivers remain poorly known. Using data on sexual systems and distributions of 68453 angiosperm species, we present the first global maps of sexual system frequencies and evaluate sexual system evolution during the Cenozoic. Frequencies of dioecy and monoecy increase with latitude, while hermaphrodites are more frequent in warm and arid regions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Transcriptome sequencing analysis of primary fibroblasts: a new insight into postoperative abdominal adhesion.

Surg Today 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Pharmacy, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Purpose: The specific genes or pathways in fibroblasts responsible for the pathogenesis of postoperative abdominal adhesion (PAA) remain to be elucidated. We aim to provide a new insight into disease mechanisms at the transcriptome level.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish a PAA model. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chlorinated disinfection byproducts of diazepam perturb cell metabolism and induce behavioral toxicity in zebrafish larvae.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 11;220:112416. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Beijing 100013, China. Electronic address:

Numerous byproducts resulting from chlorinated disinfection are constantly being generated during water treatment processes. The potential risks of these new emerging pollutions remain largely unknown. Here, we determined the risks of chlorinated disinfection byproducts of diazepam (DZP) in the cellular and zebrafish exposure experiments. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Kinetics of Mn(II) adsorption and catalytic oxidation on the surface of ferrihydrite.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 4;791:148225. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Basin Agricultural Resource and Ecology of Jiangxi Province, College of Land Resource and Environment, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China. Electronic address:

Mn(II) adsorption-oxidation on iron (Fe) oxides (e.g., ferrihydrite) occurs in various soils and sediments, significantly affecting the toxicities and bioavailabilities of Mn and other associated elements. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metabolic reprogramming by traditional Chinese medicine and its role in effective cancer therapy.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Jun 10:105728. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing 100142, PR China. Electronic address:

Metabolic reprogramming, characterized by alterations of cellular metabolic patterns, is fundamentally important in supporting the malignant behaviors of cancer cells. It is considered as a promising therapeutic target against cancer. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and its bioactive components have been used in cancer therapy for an extended period, and they are well-known for their multi-target pharmacological functions and fewer side effects. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns associated with general psychopathology in children.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 May 28;140:214-220. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/ Psychology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Psychiatric symptoms are interrelated and found to be largely captured by a general psychopathology factor (GPF). Although epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation (DNAm), have been linked to individual psychiatric outcomes, associations with GPF remain unclear. Using data from 440 children aged 10 years participating in the Generation R Study, we examined the associations of DNAm with both general and specific (internalizing, externalizing) factors of psychopathology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Temporal responses of hydrochemical variables and dissolved Fe(II) to flooding at a lake riparian wetland under different vegetation revealing by high resolution DGT.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 9;294:112930. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, PR China.

The interplay between hydrological and biogeochemical processes in riparian wetland was recognized to lead directly to the temporal variations of surface water quality. However, the effects of flooding and vegetation on the release and entrapment of heavy metals and nutrients in riparian wetland remain poorly understood. The study aimed at investigating the influences of flooding and vegetation on the hydrochemical and Fe-redox change in the soil porewater and shallow groundwater, in Poyang lake riparian wetland through hydrochemical monitoring and diffusive gradient technology (DGT). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neurogenesis in the adult Drosophila brain.

Genetics 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Genetics Graduate Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's currently affect ∼25 million people worldwide (Erkkinen et al. 2018). The global incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is estimated at ∼70 million/year (Dewan et al. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Revealing the Modular Similarities and Differences Among Alzheimer's Disease, Vascular Dementia, and Parkinson's Disease in Genomic Networks.

Neuromolecular Med 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VD), and Parkinson's disease (PD) exert increasingly lethal or disabling effects on humans, but the associations among these diseases at the molecular level remain unclear. In our research, lists of genes related to these three diseases were acquired from public databases. We constructed gene-gene networks of the lists of disease-related genes using the STRING database and selected the plug-in MCODE as the most suitable method to divide the three disease-associated networks into modules through an entropy calculation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Novel clades of soil biphenyl degraders revealed by integrating isotope probing, multi-omics, and single-cell analyses.

ISME J 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, 04318, Leipzig, Germany.

Most microorganisms in the biosphere remain uncultured and poorly characterized. Although the surge in genome sequences has enabled insights into the genetic and metabolic properties of uncultured microorganisms, their physiology and ecological roles cannot be determined without direct probing of their activities in natural habitats. Here we employed an experimental framework coupling genome reconstruction and activity assays to characterize the largely uncultured microorganisms responsible for aerobic biodegradation of biphenyl as a proxy for a large class of environmental pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Real-time imaging of cellular forces using optical interference.

Nat Commun 2021 06 11;12(1):3552. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, UK.

Important dynamic processes in mechanobiology remain elusive due to a lack of tools to image the small cellular forces at play with sufficient speed and throughput. Here, we introduce a fast, interference-based force imaging method that uses the illumination of an elastic deformable microcavity with two rapidly alternating wavelengths to map forces. We show real-time acquisition and processing of data, obtain images of mechanical activity while scanning across a cell culture, and investigate sub-second fluctuations of the piconewton forces exerted by macrophage podosomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Estrogen Pendulum in Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's Disease: Review of Therapeutic Benefits and Outstanding Questions.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jun 8:136038. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Applied Neuroscience and Neuroimaging (RA) and Department of Experimental Neuroscience (SVO), National Institute of Mental Health, Topolová 748, 250 67, Klecany, Czech Republic.

Although produced largely in the periphery, gonadal steroids play a key role in regulating the development and functions of the central nervous system and have been implicated in several chronic neuropsychiatric disorders, with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) most prominent. Despite major differences in pathobiology and clinical manifestations, in both conditions, estrogen transpires primarily with protective effects, buffering the onset and progression of diseases at various levels. As a result, estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) emerges as one of the most widely discussed adjuvant interventions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Phosphatidylserine is Required for the Normal Progression of Cell Plate Formation in Arabidopsis Root Meristem.

Plant Cell Physiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570, Japan.

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is involved in various cellular processes in yeast and animals. However, PS functions in plants remain unclear. In Arabidopsis, PS is relatively enriched in flower and root tissues, and the genetic disturbance of PS biosynthesis in PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE SYNTHASE1 (PSS1)/pss1 heterozygotes induces sporophytic and gametophytic defects during pollen maturation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Protein Microarrays for Ocular Diseases.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2344:239-265

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

The eye is a multifaceted organ organized in several compartments with particular properties that reflect their diverse functions. The prevalence of ocular diseases is increasing, mainly because of its relationship with aging and of generalized lifestyle changes. However, the pathogenic molecular mechanisms of many common eye pathologies remain poorly understood. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Neuronal post-developmentally acting SAX-7S/L1CAM can function as cleaved fragments to maintain neuronal architecture in C. elegans.

Genetics 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Université du Québec à Montréal, Department of Biological Sciences, CERMO-FC Research Center, 141 President Kennedy Avenue, Montréal, QC H2X 1Y4, Canada.

Whereas remarkable advances have uncovered mechanisms that drive nervous system assembly, the processes responsible for the lifelong maintenance of nervous system architecture remain poorly understood. Subsequent to its establishment during embryogenesis, neuronal architecture is maintained throughout life in the face of the animal's growth, maturation processes, the addition of new neurons, body movements, and aging. The C. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Vanishing Thermal Equilibration for Hole-Conjugate Fractional Quantum Hall States in Graphene.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(21):216803

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

Transport through edge channels is responsible for conduction in quantum Hall (QH) phases. Robust quantized values of charge and thermal conductances dictated by bulk topology appear when equilibration processes become dominant. We report on measurements of electrical and thermal conductances of integer and fractional QH phases, realized in hexagonal boron nitride encapsulated graphite-gated bilayer graphene devices for both electron and hole doped sides with different valley and orbital symmetries. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intersectional analysis of chronic mild stress-induced lncRNA-mRNA interaction networks in rat hippocampus reveals potential anti-depression/anxiety drug targets.

Neurobiol Stress 2021 Nov 25;15:100347. Epub 2021 May 25.

Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Despite studies providing insight into the neurobiology of chronic stress, depression and anxiety, long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-mediated mechanisms underlying the common and distinct pathophysiology of these stress-induced disorders remain nonconclusive. In a previous study, we used the chronic mild stress paradigm to separate depression-susceptible, anxiety-susceptible and insusceptible rat subpopulations. In the current study, lncRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was comparatively profiled in the hippocampus of the three stress groups using microarray technology. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Development in a Dish- Models of Mammalian Embryonic Development.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:655993. Epub 2021 May 25.

Hubrecht Institute, KNAW (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences) and University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Despite decades of research, the complex processes of embryonic development are not fully understood. The study of mammalian development poses particular challenges such as low numbers of embryos, difficulties in culturing embryos , and the time to generate mutant lines. With new approaches we can now address questions that had to remain unanswered in the past. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Natural Biomaterials as Instructive Engineered Microenvironments That Direct Cellular Function in Peripheral Nerve Tissue Engineering.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 25;9:674473. Epub 2021 May 25.

UCL Centre for Nerve Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Nerve tissue function and regeneration depend on precise and well-synchronised spatial and temporal control of biological, physical, and chemotactic cues, which are provided by cellular components and the surrounding extracellular matrix. Therefore, natural biomaterials currently used in peripheral nerve tissue engineering are selected on the basis that they can act as instructive extracellular microenvironments. Despite emerging knowledge regarding cell-matrix interactions, the exact mechanisms through which these biomaterials alter the behaviour of the host and implanted cells, including neurons, Schwann cells and immune cells, remain largely unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF