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Doubling Recruitment of Pediatric Low-grade Glioma within Two Decades does not change Outcome - Report from the German LGG Studies.

Klin Padiatr 2021 May 10;233(3):107-122. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Childhood Cancer Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Centre of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Successive multicenter studies for pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG) in Germany were accompanied by a doubling of annual recruitment over 2 decades. We investigated whether this increase conveyed a change of epidemiologic characteristics or survival.

Methods And Results: Participating centers reported 4634 patients with the radiologic/histologic diagnosis of LGG (1996-2018), rising from 109 to 278/year. Read More

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[Frequency Distribution and Risk Factors for Latent Tuberculosis in Contact Persons: Cologne 2012-2016].

Pneumologie 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Gesundheitsamt der Stadt Köln, Abteilung Infektions- und Umwelthygiene, Tuberkulose-Beratungsstelle.

Background:  As part of tuberculosis control and the WHO end-TB strategy, contact persons of tuberculosis patients in Germany are examined for a possible infection with latent tuberculosis (LTBI). Activation of LTBI contributes a considerable proportion of newly reported tuberculosis cases in low-incidence countries such as Germany. Therefore, the aim is to detect cases of LTBI and, through chemopreventive treatment of these cases, prevent future, post-primary, active tuberculosis. Read More

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Risk of Infection after Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery with Externalization and Local-Field Potential Recordings: Twelve-Year Experience from a Single Institution.

Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 2021 May 10:1-9. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Introduction: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been an established surgical procedure in the field of functional neurosurgery for many years. The experimental electrophysiological method of local field potential (LFP) recordings in postsurgically externalized patients has made substantial contributions to the better understanding of pathophysiologies underlying movement disorders. As interest in LFP recordings for the development of improved stimulation strategies increases, this study's aim was to provide evidence concerning safety of this research method, in a major DBS center. Read More

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Patient Experiences of Postinfectious Olfactory Dysfunction.

ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2021 May 10:1-5. Epub 2021 May 10.

Fifth Sense, Phoenix Business Centre, Unit 8, Barrow-in-Furness, United Kingdom.

Introduction: To highlight the importance of the need for new treatment modalities, this study aimed to characterise the experience of patients with postinfectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD) in terms of the treatment they received.

Methods: An online survey was hosted by the Norwich Clinical Trials Unit on the secure REDCap server. Members of the charity Fifth Sense (the UK charity that represents and supports people affected by smell and taste disorders) were invited to participate. Read More

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Effects of Short- and Long-Term Aerobic-Strength Training and Determinants of Walking Speed in the Elderly.

Gerontology 2021 May 10:1-11. Epub 2021 May 10.

Biomedical Research Center, Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, University Science, Park for Biomedicine, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Background/aims: Walking speed (WS) is an objective measure of physical capacity and a modifiable risk factor of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In this study, we (i) determined effects of 3-month supervised aerobic-strength training on WS, muscle strength, and habitual physical activity; (ii) evaluated capacity of long-term (21 months) training to sustain higher WS; and (iii) identified determinants of WS in the elderly.

Methods: Volunteers (F 48/M 14, 68. Read More

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Survival Outcomes of Hemoperfusion and Hemodialysis versus Hemodialysis in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Blood Purif 2021 May 10:1-13. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, International Renal Research Institute (IRRIV), San Bortolo Hospital, Vicenza, Italy.

Background: The maintenance treatment of ESRD puts a great burden on individual patients, society, and the country of China as a whole. Hemoperfusion plus hemodialysis (HP + HD) in ESRD patients can yield modified outcomes such as prolonged life expectancy and improved dialysis quality and quality of life. This study aimed to systematically analyze the effect of HP + HD on the overall survival (OS) rates of ESRD patients and to provide support for clinical decision-making. Read More

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Risk of Vaccine-Preventable Infections in Swiss Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Digestion 2021 May 10:1-9. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher risk of infection and are frequently not up to date with their immunizations.

Objectives: This study aims to review vaccination status and evaluate whether age, disease type, or treatment regimen could predict the absence of seroprotection against selected vaccine-preventable infection in adults with IBD.

Methods: Cross-sectional study using questionnaire, immunization records review, and assessment of tetanus-specific, varicella-specific, and measles-specific immunoglobulin G concentrations. Read More

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Digital Biomarkers of Cognitive Frailty: The Value of Detailed Gait Assessment Beyond Gait Speed.

Gerontology 2021 May 10:1-10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Interdisciplinary Consortium on Advanced Motion Performance (iCAMP), Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: Cognitive frailty (CF), defined as the simultaneous presence of cognitive impairment and physical frailty, is a clinical symptom in early-stage dementia with promise in assessing the risk of dementia. The purpose of this study was to use wearables to determine the most sensitive digital gait biomarkers to identify CF.

Methods: Of 121 older adults (age = 78. Read More

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The use of first-generation long-acting injectable antipsychotics in children and adolescents-A retrospective audit from India.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 May 4;61:102663. Epub 2021 May 4.

Dept of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore, India.

Objectives: There is a dearth of knowledge regarding the usage of first-generation long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics in children and adolescents, despite their off-label use, in low and middle-income countries (LAMIC).

Methods: Case records of subjects less than 18 years of age who received any first-generation LAI antipsychotics in the last 10 years(between 2010-19) were reviewed. Details documented for the study from the records included ICD-10 diagnoses, clinical profile, indication for use, medication details, severity of illness, improvement, and global functioning. Read More

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Pericoronary adipose tissue CT attenuation and volume: Diagnostic performance for hemodynamically significant stenosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Apr 28;140:109740. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, 127# West Changle Road, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi Province, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic abilities of both pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT) CT attenuation and volume for the predication hemodynamic significance of coronary artery stenosis as evaluated by fractional flow reserve (FFR).

Methods: Patients with ≥ 30 % in at least 1 major epicardial coronary artery were retrospectively included. Furthermore, all eligible patients underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) as well as FFR within 1 month. Read More

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Diagnostic value of electrocardiogram during routine electroencephalogram.

Seizure 2021 Apr 25;89:19-23. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Assistant Professor of Neurology; Division of Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Introduction: A single-lead electrocardiogram (EKG) is routinely recorded with electroencephalogram (EEG). This study investigates the frequency and types of EKG abnormalities during routine EEG.

Methods: All routine EEGs (20-60 min) over one year were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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Phytotoxicity test in check: Proposition of methodology for comparison of different method adaptations usually used worldwide.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 7;291:112698. Epub 2021 May 7.

Engineering Center, Federal University of Pelotas, 989 Benjamin Constant Street, Pelotas/RS, 96010-020, Brazil.

Seed germination tests have been widely used in recent years to indicate the toxicity levels of samples of organic compounds, biosolids, residues and effluents. Lactuca sativa L, commonly known as lettuce, has been one of the main indicative species for these tests due to its high sensitivity to low levels of toxicity, when compared to other seeds and also because it is cultivated worldwide. Although this type of analysis or essay is being widely used, it is necessary to reflect on the various adaptations of methods used by different researchers worldwide. Read More

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The association between intended drinking contexts and alcohol expectancies in college students: A daily diary study.

Addict Behav 2021 Apr 30;120:106967. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behaviors, 1100 NE 45th St., #300, Seattle, WA 98115, USA.

Background: Because of the role alcohol outcome expectancies play in subsequent drinking, it is important to understand factors that can shape alcohol expectancies to guide intervention efforts. This study examined among college students whether intended social contexts for drinking were associated with positive and negative alcohol expectancies at the daily-level.

Methods: Participants included in analyses were 323 students, ages 18 to 24 years, enrolled at a 4-year university in the Pacific Northwest. Read More

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Non-parameningeal head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma in children, adolescents, and young adults: Experience of the European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) - RMS2005 study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 7;151:84-93. Epub 2021 May 7.

SIREDO Oncology Center, Institute Curie, PSL University, Paris, France.

Background/objectives: The primary aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate the impact of different local treatments on the pattern of relapse in children with primary head and neck non-parameningeal (HNnPM) rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), treated in the European paediatric Soft tissue sarcoma Study Group (EpSSG) RMS2005 study. The secondary aim was to assess whether current risk stratification is valid for this specific site.

Design/methods: This study includes all patients with localised HNnPM RMS enrolled in the RMS2005 study between 2005 and 2016. Read More

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Sampling strategy for bacteriological diagnosis of intrathoracic tuberculosis.

Respir Med Res 2021 Apr 27;79:100825. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Laboratoire de bactériologie-hygiène, centre national de référence des mycobactéries et de la résistance des mycobactéries aux antituberculeux, groupe hospitalier, Sorbonne Université, Site Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, Paris, France; Inserm U1135, Sorbonne université, centre d'immunologie et des maladies infectieuses (CIMI-Paris), Paris, France; Département de bactériologie, groupe hospitalier, Sorbonne université, site Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent site of TB and the one leading its spread worldwide. Multiple specimens are commonly collected for TB diagnosis including those requiring invasive procedures. This study aimed to review the sampling strategy for the microbiological diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Read More

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Experiences with the routine use of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale from health visitors' and midwives' perspectives - An exploratory qualitative study.

Midwifery 2021 Apr 20;100:103017. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway. Electronic address:

Background: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale has been practiced as a routine screening for postnatal depression at a municipal health care centre for more than ten years.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine how health visitors and midwives perceive and practice this routine screening.

Study Design: We chose an exploratory qualitative approach, with analysis of data from focus group interviews. Read More

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Increased Risk of Asthma at Age 10 Years for Multiple-allergen Sensitized Children.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, USA.

Background: Childhood sensitization patterns have been previously found to be related to variable risk of early life allergic disease in several birth cohorts.

Objective: To determine whether these risks persist into later childhood.

Methods: In the WHEALS birth cohort, previous latent class analysis based on sensitization to ten allergens, found four early life sensitization patterns (ELSP): "Highly sensitized", "Milk/egg dominated", "Peanut and inhalant(s)", and "Low to no sensitization" at age two years. Read More

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Predictors of Serious, Preventable, and Costly Medical Complications in a Population of Adult Spinal Deformity Patients.

Spine J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California Davis, Davis, CA.

Background Context: In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) established a list of hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) with significant deleterious effects on both patients and providers. Adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is complex and highly invasive, and as such may result in significant morbidity including these HACs.

Purpose: Identify predictors for developing the most common HACs among adult spinal deformity(ASD) patients undergoing corrective surgery. Read More

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KRAS secondary mutations that confer acquired resistance to KRAS G12C inhibitors, sotorasib and adagrasib, and overcoming strategies: insights from the in vitro experiments.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka, Japan. Electronic address:

Introduction: KRAS mutations have been recognized as undruggable for many years. Recently, novel KRAS G12C inhibitors such as sotorasib and adagrasib are being developed in clinical trials and have shown promising results in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, it is strongly anticipated that acquired resistance will limit their clinical utility. Read More

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Hospitalized patients with diarrhea: rate of Clostridioides difficile infection underdiagnosis and drivers of clinical suspicion.

Anaerobe 2021 May 7:102380. Epub 2021 May 7.

National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani", Via Portuense, 292-00149, Rome, Italy.

Objectives: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) represents a challenging issue, with an evolving epidemiology. Main objectives of our study were: - to assess the frequency of diarrhea of overall etiology, including CDI, as a cause of hospital admission or occurring during hospital stay;- to determine the rate of underdiagnosis of community-acquired (CA-), health care associated (HCA)- and hospital onset (HO-) CDI, and explore factors associated with its clinical suspicion by physicians.

Methods: A prospective cohort study included all hospitalized patients with diarrhea at two acute-care hospitals. Read More

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eGFR Variability in Patients with Heart Failure and Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Card Fail 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

Background: Greater variability in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is associated with higher mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Heart failure (HF) is common in CKD and may increase variability through changes in hemodynamic and volume regulation. We sought to determine if patients with versus without HF have higher kidney function variability in CKD, and to define the association with mortality. Read More

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Association between ß-Blockers and Outcomes in HFpEF - Current Insights from the SwedeHF Registry.

J Card Fail 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Swede; Heart and Vascular Theme, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: ß-blockers have an uncertain effect in heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction of 50% or higher (HFpEF).

Methods: We included patients with HFpEF from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry (SwedeHF) enrolled from 2011 through 2018. In a 2:1 propensity-score matched analysis (β-blocker use versus no-use), we assessed the primary outcome first HF hospitalization, the co-primary outcome cardiovascular (CV) death, and the secondary outcomes all-cause hospitalization and all-cause death. Read More

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Salvage Enbloc Thulium Fiber Laser Enucleation of Prostate for Giant Prostatomegaly after Prostatic Urethral Lift.

Urology 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine-1400 NW 12th Ave, Miami, FL 33136. Electronic address:

Objective: Prostatic urethral lift (PUL) is an accepted treatment modality for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and is currently recommended for surgical management of prostates < 80 grams in size. However, in reality some patients with prostate > 80 gram also receive PUL. A substantial number of these patients may requirement re-treatment for recurrent or persistent lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after PUL. Read More

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Aortic Root Replacement with Autologous Pericardium Valved Conduit.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Heart & Vascular Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.. Electronic address:

Available aortic prosthesis replacement options are challenged to achieve low perioperative morbidity, low pressure gradients, and prolonged durability. Trileaflet aortic valve reconstruction using autologous pericardium offers an alternative treatment option with excellent postoperative gradients, large effective orifice areas, and the avoidance of long-term anticoagulation. The modified Bentall procedure with either tissue xenograft valved conduit or mechanical valved conduit is considered the gold standard for patients with aortic root pathology requiring surgical replacement. Read More

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Extrapleural Pneumonectomy versus Pleurectomy/Decortication for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Electronic address:

Background: Whether extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or extended pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) is the optimal resection for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains controversial. We therefore compared perioperative outcomes and long-term survival of patients who underwent EPP vs P/D.

Methods: Patients with the diagnosis of MPM who underwent either EPP or P/D from 2000 to 2019 were identified from our departmental database. Read More

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Sex Differences in Ascending Aortic and Arch Surgery: A Propensity-matched Comparison of 1153 Pairs.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine; Section of Adult Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Texas Heart Institute; Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, CHI St Luke's Health-Baylor St Luke's Medical Center; Cardiovascular Research Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background: We investigated the relationship of sex with clinical outcomes after proximal aortic (ascending and arch) operations, and whether sex-specific preoperative factors are associated with mortality.

Methods: Of 3745 patients who underwent elective, urgent, and emergency proximal aortic operations over a 20-year period, 1153 pairs of men and women were propensity-matched, and their early and long-term outcomes were compared. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate late survival. Read More

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The inflammatory profile of exacerbations in patients with severe refractory eosinophilic asthma receiving mepolizumab (the MEX study): a prospective observational study.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Centre for Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Biological Sciences, Queen's University, Belfast, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Clinical trials with mepolizumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5, show a 50% reduction in severe asthma exacerbations in people with severe eosinophilic asthma. Exacerbations in patients treated with mepolizumab seem to be different to exacerbations in those given placebo, as patients treated with mepolizumab report fewer symptoms, have a lower sputum eosinophil count, and smaller fall in peak expiratory flow. We aimed to investigate the inflammatory phenotype and physiological characteristics of exacerbation events in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma who were treated with mepolizumab. Read More

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Association of sex with outcome in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Am J Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Manzoni Hospital, Lecco, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Worse outcomes have been reported for women, compared to men, after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Whether this difference persists in elderly patients undergoing similar invasive treatment has not been studied. We investigated sex-related differences in one-year outcome of elderly acute coronary syndrome patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Read More

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Do Loneliness and Perceived Social Isolation Reduce Expected Longevity and Increase the Frequency of Dealing With Death and Dying? Longitudinal Findings Based on a Nationally Representative Sample.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Health Economics and Health Services Research, Hamburg Center for Health Economics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: Loneliness and social isolation are important factors for morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about whether increases in loneliness and perceived social isolation contribute to decreased expectations of longevity and an increased frequency of dealing with death and dying. Consequently, our aim was to clarify these relationships. Read More

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