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Integrative-omics for discovery of network-level disease biomarkers: a case study in Alzheimer's disease.

Brief Bioinform 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of BioHealth Informatics, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, 420 University Blvd, Indianapolis, IN 46204, USA.

A large number of genetic variations have been identified to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related quantitative traits. However, majority of existing studies focused on single types of omics data, lacking the power of generating a community including multi-omic markers and their functional connections. Because of this, the immense value of multi-omics data on AD has attracted much attention. Read More

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Risk of Vaccine-Preventable Infections in Swiss Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Digestion 2021 May 10:1-9. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Infectious Disease Unit, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher risk of infection and are frequently not up to date with their immunizations.

Objectives: This study aims to review vaccination status and evaluate whether age, disease type, or treatment regimen could predict the absence of seroprotection against selected vaccine-preventable infection in adults with IBD.

Methods: Cross-sectional study using questionnaire, immunization records review, and assessment of tetanus-specific, varicella-specific, and measles-specific immunoglobulin G concentrations. Read More

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Identification of potential autophagy-associated lncRNA in prostate cancer.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 10;13. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Urology, Sichuan Provincial People’s Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been linked to autophagy. It is urgent to identify and assess the hub autophagy-associated lncRNA in prostate cancer.

Methods: Differentially expressed lncRNAs associated with autophagy were identified in prostate cancer based on The Cancer Genome Atlas Prostate Adenocarcinoma (TCGA-PRAD) data. Read More

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DNA metabarcoding and morphological methods show complementary patterns in the metacommunity organization of lentic epiphytic diatoms.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147410. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Ecology Unit, University of León, Campus de Vegazana S/N, 24071 León, Spain; Institute of Environment, Natural Resources and Biodiversity, La Serna, 58, 24007 León, Spain. Electronic address:

Diatoms are important organisms in freshwater ecosystems due to their position as primary producers and therefore, analyzing their assemblages provides relevant information on ecosystem functioning. Diatoms have historically been identified based on morphological traits, which is time-consuming and requires well-trained specialists. Nevertheless, DNA barcoding offers an alternative approach to overcome some limitations of the morphological method. Read More

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Species, fractions, and characterization of phosphorus in sewage sludge: A critical review from the perspective of recovery.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 30;786:147437. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aza, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579, Japan.

Phosphorus recovery from municipal sewage sludge is a promising way to alleviate the shortage of phosphorus resources. However, the recovery efficiency and cost depend greatly on phosphorus species and fractions in different sewage sludges, i.e. Read More

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Myocardial extracellular volume fraction quantitation using cardiac dual-energy CT with late iodine enhancement in patients with heart failure without coronary artery disease: A single-center prospective study.

Eur J Radiol 2021 May 1;140:109743. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Shizi Street No.188, Suzhou, 215002, China; Institute of Medical Imaging, Soochow University, Shizi Street No.188, Suzhou, 215002, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between myocardial extracellular volume (ECV) fraction measured using dual-energy computed tomography with late iodine enhancement (LIE-DECT) and risk of heart failure (HF) in patients without coronary artery disease (CAD), and to evaluate the relationship between ECV and left ventricular structure and function.

Materials And Methods: Sixty consecutive HF patients without CAD and 60 consecutive participants without heart disease who underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA) following LIE-DECT were included. ECV of the left ventricle was calculated from the iodine maps and hematocrit levels using the American Heart Association (AHA) 16-segment model. Read More

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Robust prediction of mortality of COVID-19 patients based on quantitative, operator-independent, lung CT densitometry.

Phys Med 2021 Apr 30;85:63-71. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Medical Physics, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

Purpose: To train and validate a predictive model of mortality for hospitalized COVID-19 patients based on lung densitometry.

Methods: Two-hundred-fifty-one patients with respiratory symptoms underwent CT few days after hospitalization. "Aerated" (AV), "consolidated" (CV) and "intermediate" (IV) lung sub-volumes were quantified by an operator-independent method based on individual HU maximum gradient recognition. Read More

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The association between intended drinking contexts and alcohol expectancies in college students: A daily diary study.

Addict Behav 2021 Apr 30;120:106967. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Center for the Study of Health and Risk Behaviors, 1100 NE 45th St., #300, Seattle, WA 98115, USA.

Background: Because of the role alcohol outcome expectancies play in subsequent drinking, it is important to understand factors that can shape alcohol expectancies to guide intervention efforts. This study examined among college students whether intended social contexts for drinking were associated with positive and negative alcohol expectancies at the daily-level.

Methods: Participants included in analyses were 323 students, ages 18 to 24 years, enrolled at a 4-year university in the Pacific Northwest. Read More

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CircATRNL1 protects against osteoarthritis by targeting miR-153-3p and KLF5.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 May 7;96:107704. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopaedics, the 1st Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, China. Electronic address:

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by chondrocyte injury. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including OA. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential role of circATRNL1 in OA pathology in vitro. Read More

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General Surgery Residency Application Evaluation in a USMLE Step 1 Pass/Fail World: A Retrospective Comparison.

J Surg Res 2021 May 7;265:317-322. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of General Surgery, Geisinger Medical Center, 100 N Academy Ave, Danville, 17822, Pennsylvania.

Introduction The United States Medical Licensure Exam (USMLE) Step 1 has been used as both a licensing exam and a way for residency programs to evaluate applicants. It has had significant impact upon the match process over time. With the 2020 decision to make the exam pass/fail due to its unclear validity as an evaluation for future physician performance, programs will go through the match without the Step 1 score. Read More

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Sampling strategy for bacteriological diagnosis of intrathoracic tuberculosis.

Respir Med Res 2021 Apr 27;79:100825. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Laboratoire de bactériologie-hygiène, centre national de référence des mycobactéries et de la résistance des mycobactéries aux antituberculeux, groupe hospitalier, Sorbonne Université, Site Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, Paris, France; Inserm U1135, Sorbonne université, centre d'immunologie et des maladies infectieuses (CIMI-Paris), Paris, France; Département de bactériologie, groupe hospitalier, Sorbonne université, site Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is the most frequent site of TB and the one leading its spread worldwide. Multiple specimens are commonly collected for TB diagnosis including those requiring invasive procedures. This study aimed to review the sampling strategy for the microbiological diagnosis of pulmonary TB. Read More

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Treatment methods for vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnancy.

J Mycol Med 2021 May 7;31(3):101138. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Okan University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Introduction: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the three most common vaginal infections of women. Our goal is to check which treatment method (vaginal or vaginal combined with oral) is more effective for each trimester to treat VVC.

Materials And Method: A retrospective analysis was performed and vaginal culture results after treatment of 61 pregnant women who were treated with vaginal or vaginal plus oral antifungals, were collected. Read More

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Histopathological features of systemic sclerosis-associated myopathy: A scoping review.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 May 7:102851. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Rheumatology, Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM), CHUM Research Center, Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Scleromyositis (SM) is an emerging subset of myositis associated with features of systemic sclerosis (SSc) but it is currently not recognized as a distinct histopathological subset by the European NeuroMuscular Center (ENMC). Our aim was to review studies reporting muscle biopsies from SSc patients with myositis and to identify unique histopathological features of SM.

Methods: A scoping review was conducted and included all studies reporting histopathological findings in SSc patients with myositis searching the following databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and EBM-Reviews. Read More

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Predictors of Serious, Preventable, and Costly Medical Complications in a Population of Adult Spinal Deformity Patients.

Spine J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California Davis, Davis, CA.

Background Context: In 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) established a list of hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) with significant deleterious effects on both patients and providers. Adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is complex and highly invasive, and as such may result in significant morbidity including these HACs.

Purpose: Identify predictors for developing the most common HACs among adult spinal deformity(ASD) patients undergoing corrective surgery. Read More

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Artificial Intelligence for Adult Spinal Deformity: Current State and Future Directions.

Spine J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

As we experience a technological revolution unlike any other time in history, neurosurgery as a discipline is poised to undergo a dramatic transformation. As enormous amounts of data become digitized and more readily available, medical professionals approach a critical juncture with respect to how advanced computational techniques may be incorporated into clinical practices. Within neurosurgery, spinal disorders in particular, represent a complex and heterogeneous disease entity that can vary dramatically in its clinical presentation and how it may impact patients' lives. Read More

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Hospitalized patients with diarrhea: rate of Clostridioides difficile infection underdiagnosis and drivers of clinical suspicion.

Anaerobe 2021 May 7:102380. Epub 2021 May 7.

National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani", Via Portuense, 292-00149, Rome, Italy.

Objectives: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) represents a challenging issue, with an evolving epidemiology. Main objectives of our study were: - to assess the frequency of diarrhea of overall etiology, including CDI, as a cause of hospital admission or occurring during hospital stay;- to determine the rate of underdiagnosis of community-acquired (CA-), health care associated (HCA)- and hospital onset (HO-) CDI, and explore factors associated with its clinical suspicion by physicians.

Methods: A prospective cohort study included all hospitalized patients with diarrhea at two acute-care hospitals. Read More

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Effect of Reducing Sedentary Behavior on Blood Pressure (RESET BP): Rationale, design, and methods.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 May 7:106428. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Health and Human Development, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States of America.

Sedentary behavior (SB) has recently been recognized as a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with new guidelines encouraging adults to 'sit less, move more.' Yet, there are few randomized trials demonstrating that reducing SB improves cardiovascular health. The Effect of Reducing Sedentary Behavior on Blood Pressure (RESET BP) randomized clinical trial addresses this gap by testing the effect of a 3-month SB reduction intervention on resting systolic BP. Read More

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Feasibility of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the liver using deep learning reconstruction based on the deep learning denoising technique.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of High-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the liver using deep learning reconstruction (DLR) based on a deep learning denoising technique compared with standard-resolution (SR) imaging.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included patients who underwent abdominal MRI including both HR imaging using DLR and SR imaging between April 1 and August 31, 2019. DLR was applied to all HR images using 12 different strength levels of noise reduction to determine the optimal denoised level for HR images. Read More

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Anti-inflammatory pregnane-type steroid derivatives clathroids A-B from the marine Microcionidae sponge Clathria (Thalysias) vulpina: Prospective duel inhibitors of pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase.

Steroids 2021 May 7:108858. Epub 2021 May 7.

Marine Bioprospecting Section of Marine Biotechnology Division, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Ernakulam North, P.B. No. 1603, Cochin, India. Electronic address:

Two pregnane-type of steroid derivatives characterized as 5α-pregna-3β-methyl pent-3-enoate-12β, 16β diol-20-one (clathroid A) and 12β,15β- dihydroxypregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione (clathroid B) were purified from the crude extract of the marine sponge, Clathria (Thalysias) vulpina (family Microcionidae) by extensive chromatographic fractionation. The spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were employed to characterize the purified clathroids A-B. The studied compounds exhibited duel inhibitory potentials against pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase (median inhibitory concentration, IC < 1 mM), whereas the attenuation property of clathroid A against 5-lipoxygenase (IC 0. Read More

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Understanding the increased risk of infections in diabetes: innate and adaptive immune responses in type 1 diabetes.

Metabolism 2021 May 7:154795. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Internal Medicine (463), Radboud University Medical Center, PO Box 9101, 6500, HB, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Aims: Patients with diabetes have a higher incidence of infections with Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, yet factors contributing to this increased risk are largely unknown. We hypothesize that altered innate and adaptive immune responses during diabetes contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections.

Materials And Methods: We studied cytokine responses to ex vivo pathogenic stimulations in a cohort with type 1 diabetes (n = 243) and non-diabetic healthy control subjects (n = 56) using isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Read More

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Three-dimensional spheroid culture induces apical-basal polarity and the original characteristics of immortalized human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells.

Exp Cell Res 2021 May 7:112630. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Glial Cell Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan. Electronic address:

The proximal tubules, which are part of the kidney, maintain blood homeostasis by absorbing amino acids, glucose, water, and ions such as sodium (Na), potassium, and bicarbonate. Proximal tubule dysfunction is associated with the pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. Renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) are responsible for the main functions of the proximal tubules. Read More

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Sex Differences in Ascending Aortic and Arch Surgery: A Propensity-matched Comparison of 1153 Pairs.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine; Section of Adult Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Texas Heart Institute; Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, CHI St Luke's Health-Baylor St Luke's Medical Center; Cardiovascular Research Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background: We investigated the relationship of sex with clinical outcomes after proximal aortic (ascending and arch) operations, and whether sex-specific preoperative factors are associated with mortality.

Methods: Of 3745 patients who underwent elective, urgent, and emergency proximal aortic operations over a 20-year period, 1153 pairs of men and women were propensity-matched, and their early and long-term outcomes were compared. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate late survival. Read More

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F-fluciclovine-PET/CT imaging versus conventional imaging alone to guide postprostatectomy salvage radiotherapy for prostate cancer (EMPIRE-1): a single centre, open-label, phase 2/3 randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta GA, USA.

Background: Molecular imaging is increasingly used to guide treatment decisions and planning in prostate cancer. We aimed to evaluate the role of F-fluciclovine-PET/CT in improving cancer control compared with conventional imaging (bone scan and either CT or MRI) alone for salvage postprostatectomy radiotherapy.

Methods: In EMPIRE-1, a single-centre, open-label, phase 2/3 randomised controlled trial, patients with prostate cancer with detectable PSA after prostatectomy and negative conventional imaging (no extrapelvic or bone findings) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to radiotherapy directed by conventional imaging alone or to conventional imaging plus F-fluciclovine-PET/CT. Read More

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Safety and Performance of Transbronchial Cryobiopsy for Parenchymal Lung Lesions.

Chest 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Johns Hopkins Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Despite advances in technology, the bronchoscopic diagnosis of parenchymal pulmonary lesions (PPL) remains difficult to achieve. Transbronchial Lung Cryobiopsy (TLCB) offers the potential for larger samples with improved diagnostic yield, however, there remains a paucity of data describing its safety and utility for the diagnosis of PPL RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the safety profile of TLCB for PPL?

Study Design And Methods: An observational, retrospective, multicenter cohort study enrolling patients without endobronchial disease undergoing TLCB of PPL from 2015-2019. All procedures were performed using both rigid and flexible bronchoscopy with a flexible cryoprobe. Read More

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The Association between Lung Hyperinflation and Coronary Artery Disease in Smokers.

Chest 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Departments of Medicine. Electronic address:

Background: Smokers manifest varied phenotypes of pulmonary impairment.

Research Question: Which pulmonary phenotypes are associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) in smokers?

Study Design: & Methods: We analyzed data from the Pittsburgh SCCOR cohort (n=481), and the COPDGene cohort (n=2580). Participants were current and former smokers with >10 pack-years of tobacco exposure. Read More

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Analysis of Medical Device Alerts Issued by the Portuguese Medicines Agency: Scoping the Purpose of New Regulatory Recommendations.

Acta Med Port 2021 Mar 1;34(3):201-208. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Departamento de Sócio-Farmácia. Faculdade de Farmácia. Universidade de Lisboa. Lisboa. Portugal.

Introduction: Medical devices are healthcare technologies with a significantly growing market worldwide. This study aims to analyze medical device alerts issued by the Portuguese Medicines Agency, INFARMED, I.P. Read More

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Racial Segregation and Respiratory Outcomes among Urban Black Residents with and at Risk of COPD.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Johns Hopkins University, Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States;

Rationale: Racial residential segregation has been associated with worse health outcomes, but the link with COPD morbidity has not been established.

Objectives: To investigate whether racial residential segregation is associated with COPD morbidity among urban Black adults with or at risk of COPD.

Methods: Racial residential segregation was assessed using isolation index, based on 2010 decennial census and baseline address, for Black former and current smokers in the multi-center SPIROMICS study of adults with or at risk for COPD. Read More

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Sequencing Ultrarare Targets with Compound Nucleic Acid Cytometry.

Anal Chem 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158, United States.

Targeted sequencing enables sensitive and cost-effective analysis by focusing resources on molecules of interest. Existing methods, however, are limited in enrichment power and target capture length. Here, we present a novel method that uses compound nucleic acid cytometry to achieve million-fold enrichments of molecules >10 kbp in length using minimal prior target information. Read More

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Prevalence and burden of breathlessness in Australian adults: The National Breathlessness Survey-a cross-sectional web-based population survey.

Respirology 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Australian Centre for Airways disease Monitoring (ACAM), the Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background And Objective: Chronic respiratory symptoms (in particular, breathlessness and cough) can cause physical, social and emotional distress, and may indicate the presence of an underlying disease that presages future poor health outcomes. Our aim was to investigate the burden of breathlessness in Australian adults, including breathlessness that may be undiagnosed, unlabelled or untreated.

Methods: The National Breathlessness Survey was a cross-sectional, web-based survey conducted in October 2019. Read More

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Excessive daytime sleepiness, morning tiredness and major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with chronic coronary syndrome.

J Intern Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

From the, Uppsala Clinical Research Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs), particularly obstructive sleep apnoea, are associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, it is not known whether individual questions used for SRBD screening are associated with major adverse CV events (MACE) and death specifically in patients with chronic coronary syndrome (CCS).

Methods: Symptoms associated with SRBD were assessed by a baseline questionnaire in 15,640 patients with CCS on optimal secondary preventive therapy in the STABILITY trial. Read More

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