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Generalized two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis with regularization.

Neural Netw 2021 May 5;142:73-91. Epub 2021 May 5.

College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, PR China.

Recent advances show that two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (2DLDA) is a successful matrix based dimensionality reduction method. However, 2DLDA may encounter the singularity issue theoretically, and also is sensitive to outliers. In this paper, a generalized Lp-norm 2DLDA framework with regularization for an arbitrary p>0 is proposed, named G2DLDA. Read More

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Towards a mathematical framework to inform neural network modelling via polynomial regression.

Neural Netw 2021 Apr 30;142:57-72. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

uc3m-Santander Big Data Institute, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Getafe (Madrid), Spain.

Even when neural networks are widely used in a large number of applications, they are still considered as black boxes and present some difficulties for dimensioning or evaluating their prediction error. This has led to an increasing interest in the overlapping area between neural networks and more traditional statistical methods, which can help overcome those problems. In this article, a mathematical framework relating neural networks and polynomial regression is explored by building an explicit expression for the coefficients of a polynomial regression from the weights of a given neural network, using a Taylor expansion approach. Read More

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We lose ground: Global assessment of land subsidence impact extent.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 29;786:147415. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Vienna, Austria; AgriFood Institute of Aragon (IA2), Zaragoza, Spain.

Depletion of groundwater aquifers along with all of the associated quality and quantity problems which affect profitability of direct agricultural and urban users and linked groundwater-ecosystems have been recognized globally. During recent years, attention has been devoted to land subsidence-the loss of land elevation that occurs in areas with certain geological characteristics associated with aquifer exploitation. Despite the large socioeconomic impacts of land subsidence most of these effects are still not well analyzed and not properly recognized and quantified globally. Read More

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Prescription pattern of antimicrobial use in small animal veterinary practice in Cameroon.

Top Companion Anim Med 2021 May 10:100540. Epub 2021 May 10.

College of Technology, University of Bamenda, Bambili, Cameroon. Electronic address:

Retrospective data on antimicrobial use (AMU) within the period ranging from January 2012 to December 2015 was collected to assess the antimicrobial prescription patterns in pets (cats and dogs) treated by 16 veterinary private practitioners in the two main urban cities of Cameroon (Douala and Yaounde). The vet practitioners were interviewed in order to analyze prescribing behavior and factors influencing antimicrobial prescription. Out of a total of 3928 antimicrobial prescriptions, 3673(93. Read More

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An uncommon disease included commonly in the differential diagnosis of neurological diseases: Neuro-Behçet's syndrome.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 20;426:117436. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Istanbul University Cerrahpaşa School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Behçet's Syndrome (BS) may present with different neurological problems, related either directly (primary) or indirectly (secondary) to BS. Primary neurological involvement is named as neuro-Behcet's syndrome (NBS), and its two major subtypes that are classified mainly on the clinical and MRI findings are (1) Parenchymal-NBS (p-NBS) and (2) Extra parenchymal neuro-vascular involvement mostly seen as cerebral dural venous sinus thrombosis (CVST). The less commonly seen forms of NBS are cognitive and behavioral syndromes and peripheral nervous system involvement. Read More

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Prevalence, predictors and correlates of religious and spiritual struggles in palliative cancer patients.

J Pain Symptom Manage 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Religion, Health and Human Values, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.

Context: Religion and spirituality (r/s) are important resources in coping with cancer. However, there are aspects of r/s, such as religious and spiritual struggles, found to be associated with poorer outcomes. A new measure has been adapted from the Religious and Spiritual Struggles Scale (RSS) to assess r/s struggles: the RSS-14. Read More

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The screening of the safety profile of polymeric based amoxicillin nanoparticles in various test systems.

Toxicol Lett 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Nanotechnology-based drugs show superiority over conventional medicines because of increased bioavailability, lower accumulation in non-target tissues, and improved therapeutic index with increased accumulation at target sites. However, it is important to be aware of possible problems related to the toxicity of these products, which have therapeutically superior properties. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the safety profile of amoxicillin nanoparticles (AmxNPs) that we developed to increase the oral bioavailability of amoxicillin (Amx) in poultry. Read More

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A comparative study of the NAART and WRAT4 Word Reading subtest to estimate reading level.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2021 May 13:1-6. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Social Work, Wright State University, Dayton, OH, USA.

Patients are often asked to fill out paperwork in medical settings, but varying reading levels can affect the ability to self-report. By screening for reading level, clinicians can prevent potential patient confusion, frustration, and embarrassment. Clinicians can also avoid problems leading to misdiagnosis and providing materials that patients will not understand. Read More

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Functional Outcomes, Goals, and Goal Attainment Amongst Chronically Critically Ill Long-Term Acute Care Hospital Patients.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 14640, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

Rationale: Chronically critically ill patients admitted to a long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) setting are a vulnerable population of intensive care unit survivors. Little is known of the goals and functional outcomes achieved by patients after rehabilitation in the LTACH setting.

Objectives: We sought to examine patient goals and functional outcomes, including swallowing function, amongst ICU survivors admitted to an LTACH with a tracheostomy. Read More

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Preventing Memory Effects in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Substrates by Polymer Coating and Laser-Activated Deprotection.

ACS Nano 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

CIC biomaGUNE, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), 20014 San Sebastián, Spain.

The development of continuous monitoring systems requires sensors that are capable of screening multiple chemical species and providing real-time information. Such measurements, in which the sample is analyzed at the point of interest, are hindered by underlying problems derived from the recording of successive measurements within complex environments. In this context, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy appears as a noninvasive technology with the ability of identifying low concentrations of chemical species as well as resolving dynamic processes under different conditions. Read More

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Recent advances in the microbial production of C4 alcohols by metabolically engineered microorganisms.

Biotechnol J 2021 May 13:e2000451. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Graduate Program in System Health Science and Engineering, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 03760, Republic of Korea.

Background: The heavy global dependence on petroleum-based industries has led to serious environmental problems, including climate change and global warming. As a result, there have been calls for a paradigm shift towards the use of biorefineries, which employ natural and engineered microorganisms that can utilize various carbon sources from renewable resources as host strains for the carbon-neutral production of target products.

Purpose And Scope: C4 alcohols are versatile chemicals that can be used directly as biofuels and bulk chemicals and in the production of value-added materials such as plastics, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Read More

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The effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in light versus heavier smokers.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Toronto, ON.

Purpose: The prevalence of light smoking has increased in North America; however, research on the effectiveness of current treatments in this sub-population of smokers is limited. We compared quit outcomes between light (1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD)) versus heavier smokers (>10 CPD) enrolled in a treatment program at their primary care clinic.

Methods: This secondary analysis analyzed 45,087 participants (light smokers (n=9,861); heavier smokers (n=35,226)) enrolled in a smoking cessation program between April 2016 and March 2020. Read More

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Mesoporous silica coated CeO nanozymes with combined lipid-lowering and antioxidant activity induce long-term improvement of the metabolic profile in obese Zucker rats.

Nanoscale 2021 May 14;13(18):8452-8466. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Service of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Hospital Clinic Universitari, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Carrer de Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

Obesity is one of the most important public health problems that is associated with an array of metabolic disorders linked to cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. A sustained therapeutic approach to stop the escalating prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic comorbidities remains elusive. Herein, we developed a novel nanocomposite based on mesoporous silica coated cerium oxide (CeO) nanozymes that reduce the circulating levels of fatty acids and remarkably improve the metabolic phenotype in a model of obese Zucker rats five weeks after its administration. Read More

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Data-driven model reduction of agent-based systems using the Koopman generator.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250970. Epub 2021 May 13.

Modeling and Simulation of Complex Processes, Zuse Institute Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The dynamical behavior of social systems can be described by agent-based models. Although single agents follow easily explainable rules, complex time-evolving patterns emerge due to their interaction. The simulation and analysis of such agent-based models, however, is often prohibitively time-consuming if the number of agents is large. Read More

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Difficulties in reporting purpose and dosage of prescribed medications are associated with poor cognition and depression.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251374. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Neurology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Knowledge on prescribed medication is important for medication adherence. We determined the presence of cognitive impairment in neurological patients who report not to know reasons and dosages of their medication. Data from 350 patients were collected: sociodemographic data, German Stendal Adherence to Medication Score (SAMS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Read More

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Joint resource optimization in spectrum sharing decode and forward relaying networks.

Authors:
Dong Qin

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251509. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Information Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

This paper proposes an adaptive power allocation and subcarrier pairing algorithm for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing based decode and forward cognitive radio networks, where primary and secondary users achieve spectrum sharing in the same frequency band. The secondary network tries to maximize its sum rate while ensuring that the interference introduced to the primary network is below an acceptable level. Although similar problems have been investigated in traditional cooperative communication networks, it's still an open issue in cognitive radio networks due to interference thresholds. Read More

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Evaluation of the S-locus in Prunus domestica, characterization, phylogeny and 3D modelling.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251305. Epub 2021 May 13.

Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, California, United States of America.

Self-compatibility has become the primary objective of most prune (Prunus domestica) breeding programs in order to avoid the problems related to the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system present in this crop. GSI is typically under the control of a specific locus., known as the S-locus. Read More

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Trust-Tech Source-Point Method for Systematically Computing Multiple Local Optimal Solutions: Theory and Method.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 May 13;PP. Epub 2021 May 13.

In this article, a Trust-Tech source-point method is proposed to systematically compute multiple local optimal solutions (LOSs) for continuous unconstrained nonlinear optimization problems. This proposed method consists of four stages. Stage I finds one LOS (in which existing effective optimizers can be applied), stage II is the stage of escaping an LOS while stage III is the stage for entering the stability region (SR) of another stable equilibrium point (SEP) (i. Read More

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Qutrit-Inspired Fully Self-Supervised Shallow Quantum Learning Network for Brain Tumor Segmentation.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 May 13;PP. Epub 2021 May 13.

Classical self-supervised networks suffer from convergence problems and reduced segmentation accuracy due to forceful termination. Qubits or bilevel quantum bits often describe quantum neural network models. In this article, a novel self-supervised shallow learning network model exploiting the sophisticated three-level qutrit-inspired quantum information system, referred to as quantum fully self-supervised neural network (QFS-Net), is presented for automated segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images. Read More

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Acute urinary retention: patient investigations and treatments.

Authors:
Linda Nazarko

Br J Nurs 2021 May;30(9):S4-S7

Nurse Consultant, West London NHS Trust, London.

Acute urinary retention (AUR) is the sudden inability to pass urine. AUR is more common in men and older men are at highest risk. The most common causes are obstructive in nature-prostatic hyperplasia is responsible for more than half the cases of AUR in men. Read More

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Men's perception and understanding of male-factor infertility in the UK.

Br J Nurs 2021 May;30(9):S8-S16

Consultant Urologist, Newcastle Fertility Centre, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

Male-factor infertility is a common but stigmatised issue, and men often do not receive the emotional support and the information they need. This study sought to understand awareness of male fertility issues compared to female fertility among the UK general male public, and also what were perceived as being the optimum methods for providing support for affected men, emotionally and through information. Men feel that male infertility is not discussed by the public as much as female infertility. Read More

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A Bayesian approach to dynamical modeling of eye-movement control in reading of normal, mirrored, and scrambled texts.

Psychol Rev 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychology.

In eye-movement control during reading, advanced process-oriented models have been developed to reproduce behavioral data. So far, model complexity and large numbers of model parameters prevented rigorous statistical inference and modeling of interindividual differences. Here we propose a Bayesian approach to both problems for one representative computational model of sentence reading (SWIFT; Engbert et al. Read More

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Parent ethnic-racial socialization during childhood protects against increases in bedtime sleep problems in Black adolescents.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):236-245

School of Social Work, University of Washington.

Racial disparities in sleep have been reported with Black adolescents showing the least amount of sleep relative to other youth. Yet, few within-group studies have examined factors that protect Black adolescents from sleep problems. To address this gap, we tested whether parent ethnic-racial socialization (i. Read More

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January 2021

The longitudinal associations between attitudes to aging and attachment insecurities among combat veterans.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):162-170

3 I-Core Research Center for Mass Trauma, Bob Shapell School of Social Work, Tel Aviv University.

For combat veterans, the trauma of war can have lasting effects, that may later extend to attitudes toward one's own aging (ATOA). The present study sought to examine whether attachment insecurities may help to predict ATOA in later life, while also exploring the moderating role of combat exposure concerning the effects of attachment insecurities on subsequent ATOA. A cohort of 171 veterans of the Israeli 1973 Yom Kippur War (mean age = 68. Read More

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January 2021

Alcohol use and related consequences for monoracial and multiracial Native American/American Indian college students.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University.

Native American/American Indian (NA/AI) and Multiracial people (those who claim multiple racial identities) report notably high alcohol use compared to other racial groups in the United States. Nearly half of the NA/AI population is also Multiracial, yet NA/AI and Multiracial college students report different motivations for drinking alcohol. Therefore, it remains unclear if NA/AI individuals who are also Multiracial are at different risk for alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, and if there are distinct patterns of risk factors in these understudied populations. Read More

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The prefrontal cortex in a pandemic: Restoring functions with system-, family-, and individual-focused interventions.

Am Psychol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Child Study Center.

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unanticipated and uncontrollable chronic stressor that is detrimental to the mental and behavioral health of children and families, particularly those from disadvantaged and marginalized backgrounds. Chronic stress impairs a myriad of prefrontal cortical functions, important for coping with the COVID-19 pandemic, and has consequences on dyadic parent-child functioning. Informed by neuroscience and clinical evidence, sensitive parenting is a vital avenue of intervention that buffers against the toxic effects of COVID-19 on parent-child mental health. Read More

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-Ammonium Ylide Mediators for Electrochemical C-H Oxidation.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, United States.

The site-specific oxidation of strong C(sp)-H bonds is of uncontested utility in organic synthesis. From simplifying access to metabolites and late-stage diversification of lead compounds to truncating retrosynthetic plans, there is a growing need for new reagents and methods for achieving such a transformation in both academic and industrial circles. One main drawback of current chemical reagents is the lack of diversity with regard to structure and reactivity that prevents a combinatorial approach for rapid screening to be employed. Read More

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Care for Breast Cancer Survivors.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1187:511-524

Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

The number of cancer survivors is increasing globally. More than 15.5 million Americans in 2016 and 1. Read More

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January 2021

Current Biomarkers for Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1187:363-379

Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, South Korea.

Breast cancer has become the prototypical solid tumor where targets have been identified within the tumor allowing for personalized approach for systemic therapy. Biomarkers are beginning to play an important role in preparing the way for precision treatment. Mandatory biomarkers for every newly diagnosed case of breast cancer are estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors in selecting patients for endocrine treatment and HER2 for identifying patients likely to benefit from antiHER2 therapy. Read More

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January 2021