54,345 results match your criteria problem cases

Learning with Multiclass AUC: Theory and Algorithms.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Jul 30;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The Area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a well-known ranking metric for imbalanced learning. The majority of existing AUC-optimization-based machine learning methods only focus on binary-class cases, leaving the multiclass cases unconsidered. In this paper, we start an early trial to consider the problem of learning multiclass scoring functions via optimizing multiclass AUC metrics. Read More

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Efficient Estimation of Pauli Observables by Derandomization.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jul;127(3):030503

Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125, USA.

We consider the problem of jointly estimating expectation values of many Pauli observables, a crucial subroutine in variational quantum algorithms. Starting with randomized measurements, we propose an efficient derandomization procedure that iteratively replaces random single-qubit measurements by fixed Pauli measurements; the resulting deterministic measurement procedure is guaranteed to perform at least as well as the randomized one. In particular, for estimating any L low-weight Pauli observables, a deterministic measurement on only of order log(L) copies of a quantum state suffices. Read More

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A New Concept of Safety Distance to Place Implants in the Area of the Inferior Alveolar Canal to Avoid Neurosensory Disturbance.

Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2021 Jul-Aug;41(4):e139-e146

Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) damage following implant placement is a severe complication that can compromise a patient's quality of life. Previous studies have suggested that a safety zone of 2 mm, if maintained, might avoid this problem. This retrospective study evaluates implants placed in closer proximity to the IAN without resulting in any postoperative neurologic complications and suggests a new concept of safety distance. Read More

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Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med 2021 Jun;29(Special Issue):619-624

Moscow Regional Dental Clinic, 129110, Moscow, Russia.

It is known that the oral cavity is an epidemiological hazard due to the high level of viral and bacterial contamination. Despite the narrow specialization and distant connection with the problem of viral pneumonia, dentists, nevertheless, are at risk of contracting the new coronavirus infection COVID-19. To reduce the epidemiological activity the provision of routine dental care was suspended in the vast majority of regions of the Russian Federation including the Moscow region, from the end of March 2020 to June 20, 2020. Read More

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Anthocyanin-rich fraction from black rice, Oryza sativa L. var. indica "Luem Pua," bran extract attenuates kidney injury induced by high-fat diet involving oxidative stress and apoptosis in obese rats.

Phytother Res 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Obesity is acknowledged as being a world health problem and increases the risk of several chronic diseases including chronic kidney disease. High-fat diet consumption and obesity-related renal disease show a close correlation with increased oxidative stress. Black rice bran extract, (BRE) Oryza sativa L. Read More

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Methodological issues in research on drug-related admissions - a meta-epidemiological review with focus on causality assessments.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Pharmacology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Aim: To investigate methodological aspects potentially related to the diverging scientific literature on the prevalence of drug-related hospitalisations, focusing on causality assessments.

Methods: Original studies contributing data to a recent meta-analysis were reviewed. Methodological aspects, in particular those related to causality assessments, were extracted and compiled. Read More

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Simultaneous septic arthrodesis of the tibiotalar and subtalar joints with the Ilizarov external fixator-an analysis of 13 patients.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Trauma Surgery and General Surgery, BG University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Ruhr University Bochum, Bürkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789, Bochum, Germany.

Purpose: Treatment of joint destruction of the tibiotalar and subtalar joints caused by acute or chronic infections in compromised hosts is a challenging problem. In these cases, simultaneous septic arthrodesis with the use of the Ilizarov external fixator represents a possible alternative to amputation. This case series presents the results and complications of patients with acute or chronic infection of the tibiotalar and subtalar joints. Read More

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Primary Total Hip Replacement in a Case of Unilateral Hypo Plastic Proximal Femur - A Case Report.

J Orthop Case Rep 2021 Apr;11(4):48-51

Department of Orthopaedics, Kamala Nehru Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Introduction: Primary total hip replacement in hypo plastic proximal femur is difficult due to the presence of a small canal, soft- tissue contracture, fragility of bone, and poor femoral cement mantle when used. Intraoperatively, there could be occurrence of fracture of the femur, inadequate fit, and fill with cement less femoral component.It is found unilaterally in cases of osteonecrosis of femoral head, post- traumatic, and in sequelae of childhood septic arthritis. Read More

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Usefulness of Hydrastis for the prevention of encrustation of long-term indwelling catheters in persons with neurogenic bladder dysfunction: a case series.

Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2021 Jul 30;7(1):66. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Homoepathie-pannek, Basel, Switzerland.

Introduction: Virtually every person with a spinal cord injury (SCI) suffers from a neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD). In the long term, about 15% of persons with SCI depend on indwelling (suprapubic or transurethral) catheters for bladder management. About 50% of these patients suffer from catheter encrustation and blockage, which may become a vital threat for persons with SCI, as it can lead to septicemia or autonomic dysreflexia. Read More

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Effectiveness of a Cloud-Based Telepathology System in China: Large-Sample Observational Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Jul 29;23(7):e23799. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

National Telemedicine Center of China, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Background: Whole-slide imaging allows the entire slide to be viewed in a manner that simulates microscopy; therefore, it is widely used in telepathology. However, managing the large digital files needed for whole-slide imaging is difficult. To solve this problem, we set up the Chinese National Cloud-Based Telepathology System (CNCTPS). Read More

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Novel Adjuvant Therapy with Zinc Supplementation in Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt.

Background: Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a common dangerous chest problem that is caused by a lack of surfactant.

Aim: The aim of this study was to show the role of zinc as an adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapy in neonatal RDS.

Objective: To study the effect of zinc supplementation in cases of neonatal RDS. Read More

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Association Between Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Risk of Heart Failure: A Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jul 30:e020071. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Public Health College of MedicineFu-Jen Catholic University New Taipei City Taiwan.

Background Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem worldwide because of its high morbidity and mortality. Recently, the role of the microvasculature in HF has gained more attention. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is manifested through geographic atrophy or the development of neovascularization. Read More

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MotilityJ: An open-source tool for the classification and segmentation of bacteria on motility images.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jul 21;136:104673. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Area de Microbiología Molecular, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de La Rioja (CIBIR), Logroño, Spain.

Background And Objectives: Infectious diseases produced by antimicrobial resistant microorganisms are a major threat to human, and animal health worldwide. This problem is increased by the virulence and spread of these bacteria. Surface motility has been regarded as a pathogenicity element because it is essential for many biological functions, but also for disease spreading; hence, investigations on the motility behaviour of bacteria are crucial to understand chemotaxis, biofilm formation and virulence in general. Read More

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The epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis in Texas, 2008-2017.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Jul 12;12(6):101788. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, United States; National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States; William T. Shearer Center for Human Immunobiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Tick-borne diseases in the United States, including ehrlichiosis, represent a growing public health problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the contemporary epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis in Texas by analyzing cases reported to the Texas Department of State Health Services. In Texas, 101 cases of ehrlichiosis were reported during 2008-2017. Read More

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Ethical Framework to Guide Decisions of Treatment Over Objection.

J Am Coll Surg 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Assistant Professor of Surgery and Critical Care. Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Background: Whether to proceed with a medical intervention over the objection of a patient who lacks capacity is a common problem facing practitioners. Despite this, there is a notable gap in the literature describing how to proceed in such situations in an ethically rigorous and consistent fashion. We elaborate on the practical application of the 2018 Rubin/Prager seven-question algorithm for ethics consultations regarding treatment over objection and we describe the impact of each of the seven questions. Read More

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COVID-19 In Lung transplant recipients: A single-center experience.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

University of Health Sciences, Ankara City Hospital, Department of Thoracic Surgery and Lung Transplantation, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global health problem. However, the course of this disease in immunosuppressed patients remains unknown. This study aimed to describe the course of COVID-19 infection and its effects on lung transplant recipients. Read More

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The Evaluation Of Urinary Incontinence In Secondary School Children And Risk Factors: A Epidemiological Study.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 Jul 29:e14657. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Departments of Paediatric Surgery, Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Aim: Urinary incontinence is an important problem that can arise due to neurogenic or functional reasons and negatively affect the psychological, social and personality development of children. This study was conducted on secondary school students to determine the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence at night and/or in the daytime.

Methods: The study universe included all secondary school students attending public elementary schools in the city center of Eskişehir (N=34. Read More

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Association between allergic or autoimmune diseases and incidence of endometriosis: a nested case-control study using a health insurance claims database.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2021 Jul 29:e13486. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Health Economics, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

Problem: Immune responses were reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of endometriosis. However, previous studies of an association between allergic or autoimmune diseases and endometriosis have reported inconsistent results. We investigated the association between allergic or autoimmune diseases and the incidence of endometriosis. Read More

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Discrete-time population dynamics of spatially distributed semelparous two-sex populations.

Horst R Thieme

J Math Biol 2021 Jul 28;83(2):18. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1804, USA.

Spatially distributed populations with two sexes may face the problem that males and females concentrate in different parts of the habitat and mating and reproduction does not happen sufficiently often for the population to persist. For simplicity, to explore the impact of sex-dependent dispersal on population survival, we consider a discrete-time model for a semelparous population where individuals reproduce only once in their life-time, during a very short reproduction season. The dispersal of females and males is modeled by Feller kernels and the mating by a homogeneous pair formation function. Read More

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Metabolic complications of childhood obesity.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Jun 2;10(6):2325-2330. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Pediatrics, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

Context: Childhood obesity is a global health problem. A percentage of 2.3 of Indian boys and 2. Read More

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Quetiapine, Misuse and Dependency: A Case-Series of Questions to a Norwegian Network of Drug Information Centers.

Drug Healthc Patient Saf 2021 21;13:151-157. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centre (RELIS Vest), Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Purpose: The second-generation antipsychotic quetiapine has been associated with misuse and dependency. We aimed to review questions to the Norwegian network of drug information centers concerning this potential drug safety problem.

Methods: We conducted a Boolean search in the database of the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS) combining the indexed categories "quetiapine" and "adverse drug reaction" with the text words "misuse" or "dependency". Read More

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Management of hepatitis B virus infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease under immunosuppressive treatment.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul;27(25):3762-3779

GI Unit, 3Academic Department of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Sotiria Hospital, Athens 11526, Greece.

Hepatitis B remains a significant global clinical problem, despite the implementation of safe and effective vaccination programs. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) largely follows the regional epidemiologic status. Serological screening with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and antibodies to hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) and core (anti-HBc) proteins is a key element in the management of IBD patients and, ideally, should be performed at IBD diagnosis. Read More

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Accuracy in Detecting Prenatal Drug Exposure.

J Drug Issues 1999 Apr;29(2):203-214

, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Pediatrics at Case Western Reserve University. His research interests indude motor development and prenatal drug exposure. , Ph.D., is a Professor of Pediatrics at Case Western Reserve University, and director of the Center for the Advancement of Mothers and Children at MetroHealth Medical Center. The Center, which serves a predominately underprivileged inner-city population of children at risk for developmental disabilities, provides clinical services and research support for studies in physiological, psychological, and social aspects of prenatal drug exposure. , Ph.D., is the coordinator of Project Newborn, a longitudinal study of prenatally cocaine exposed infants and their mothers, at Case Western Reserve University. Her research emphasizes the psychological and cognitive effects of chronic substance abuse on women. , M.S., is a biostatistician with the Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Pediatrics at Case Western Reserve University. Her research focus is on clinical trials and longitudinal research. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Case Western Reserve University, Department of Pediatrics, 11100 Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44106-6038.

A basic problem encountered by investigations of prenatal cocaine effects has been the valid identification and quantification of exposure. Based on a combination of sources: (a) medical record review, (b) maternal urine toxicology screen, (c) meconium analysis, and (d) maternal postpartum interview, drug exposure status of 415 infants was established. Using this combination as a benchmark, maternal postpartum interview was found most sensitive, while medical record review was slightly less accurate. Read More

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Discovering dynamic models of COVID-19 transmission.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Center for Applied Statistics, School of Statistics, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100872, China.

Existing models about the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission often assume the mechanism of virus transmission and the form of the differential equations. These assumptions are hard to verify. Due to the biases of country-level data, it's inaccurate to construct the global dynamic of COVID-19. Read More

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Characteristics of hearing loss in elderly outpatients over 60 years of age: an annual cross-sectional study.

Acta Otolaryngol 2021 Jul 28:1-6. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

College of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Chinese PLA General Hospital; National Clinical Research Center for Otolaryngologic Diseases; Key Lab of Hearing Science, Ministry of Education; Beijing Key Lab of Hearing Impairment for Prevention and Treatment, Beijing, China.

Background: The prevention and treatment of presbycusis becomes a serious health challenge and socio-economic problem.

Objectives: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the audiometry results of all elderly patients who visited our department throughout the year of 2018.

Material And Methods: A total of 5520 people aged 60 and over were included and divided into three groups: young-old group (60-74 years old), old-old group (75-89 years old), and longevous group (over 90 years old). Read More

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The experiences of telepractice nurses undertaking a vocational audiological rehabilitation program.

Int J Audiol 2021 Jul 28:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Graduate Program in Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Western University, London, Canada.

Objective: In response to modest outcomes in the field of vocational audiological rehabilitation, we examined the mechanism by which a group of workers with hearing challenges engaged with such a program.

Design: Telepractice nurses with hearing challenges participated in a four-session, online course teaching evidence-based communication strategies. Using multiple case study methodology, we collected ethnographic interviews, surveys, and discussion-forum comments before, during, and after the program. Read More

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Resurgence of tuberculosis amid COVID-19 in Peru: Associated risk factors and recommendations.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Kabul University of Medical Sciences, Kabul, Afghanistan.

Peru is one of the countries with the highest incidence of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the world. Although public health measures adopted in the country have improved the care, diagnosis and management of patients with tuberculosis, there are still failures in the control of the disease in the country, especially of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and among the prison population or people living with HIV. The COVID-19 pandemic has added a great burden to the Peruvian public health system, negatively impacting tuberculosis-focused health programs due to the diversion of resources to control the pandemic. Read More

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Intracoronary Lithoplasty in Percutaneous Treatment of Challenging Calcified Coronary Lesions.

JACC Case Rep 2020 Sep 8;2(11):1679-1683. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

GVM (Gruppo Villa Maria) Care and Research, Maria Cecilia Hospital, Cotignola, Italy.

Unexpanded stents in calcified coronary stenosis is a problem where intravascular lithotripsy could be effectively employed. In these 2 cases, we report possible issues associated with the use of this technology. (). Read More

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September 2020

Sensitivity of cultures of different biological origin to commercial bacteriophages and phages of var.

Vet World 2021 Jun 19;14(6):1588-1593. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Research Station of the Institute of Veterinary Medicine of NAAS, Ternopil, Ukraine.

Background And Aim: Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland, is an ongoing problem in dairy herds. In this study, we determined the sensitivity of cultures of different biological origins to commercial bacteriophages and phages of var which were isolated on dairy farms, to create a drug for the treatment of mastitis in cows.

Materials And Methods: We used cultures of isolated from different habitats, and other types of staphylococci isolated on dairy farms. Read More

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A Pattern-based Imaging Approach to Pediatric Jaw Lesions.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2021 Jan 23;31(1):210-223. Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Pathology, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Hospitals, New Delhi, India.

Jaw lesions in the pediatric population, although infrequently encountered in clinical practice, can cause functional impairment and cosmetic disfiguring. It is further complicated by the difficulty in diagnosis due to complex anatomy and facial developmental process during infancy and childhood. Intraosseous pediatric jaw lesions may vary from odontogenic to nonodontogenic types with nonspecific clinical features in most cases. Read More

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January 2021