555,771 results match your criteria problem


Yao & Artusio's Anesthesiology: Problem-Oriented Patient Management, 9th ed.

Anesth Analg 2021 May;132(5):e69-e70

Institute of Applied Health Sciences, Epidemiology Group, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Department of Anaesthesia, National Health Service (NHS) Grampian, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

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Cabergoline in Treatment of Methamphetamine-Dependent Patients and Its Effect on Serum Level of Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

Eur Addict Res 2021 Apr 15:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Methamphetamine use disorder is an important public health problem, especially in the younger generation, and associated with various psychiatric, cognitive, social, economic, and legal issues. Cabergoline, a drug with dopaminergic properties and long half-life, has been considered for the treatment of stimulant dependence. The systemic use of cabergoline has been shown to increase glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) expression. Read More

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Modelling the visual response to an OUReP retinal prosthesis with photoelectric dye coupled to polyethylene film.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Rd, Toronto, Toronto, M5S3G4, CANADA.

Objective: Retinal prostheses have been developed to restore vision in blind patients suffering from diseases like retinitis pigmentosa.

Approach: A new type of retinal prosthesis called the Okayama University-type Retinal Prosthesis (OUReP) was developed by chemically coupling photoelectric dyes to a polyethylene film surface. The prosthesis works by passively generating an electric potential when stimulated by light. Read More

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Adverse childhood experiences and co-occurring psychological distress and substance abuse among juvenile offenders: the role of protective factors.

Public Health 2021 Apr 12;194:42-47. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Reno, USA.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to estimate associations between cumulative exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), protective factors, and co-occurrence among male and female juvenile offenders.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: Validated measures of ACEs, internal resilience, external youth assets, psychological distress, and substance abuse were collected from 429 youths involved in the juvenile justice system in Nevada. Read More

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Prevention and treatment of postoperative pain in pediatric patients undergone craniotomy: Systematic review of clinical evidence.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Apr 1;205:106627. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy.

Background: Prevention and treatment of postoperative pain after craniotomy in pediatric patients is an open and challenging clinical problem due to limited epidemiological data and significant concerns on safety of the most common analgesics in neurosurgical patients. We reviewed the literature to evaluate the possible available strategies in pain management in pediatric patients.

Methods: The systematic review was performed in accordance with PRISMA statement recommendations. Read More

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TaTME approach as a rescue during a laparoscopic TME for high rectal cancer. A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 7;82:105870. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Colorectal Surgery Unit, Università Campus Bio-Medico, Via Alvaro del Portillo 21, 00128, Rome, Italy.

Introduction And Importance: In the last years, transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has been described in rectal cancer treatment, especially in challenging patients, difficulties in pelvic exposure and limitations of instrumentation improving not only dissection but also the preservation of autonomic pelvic nerves and the achievement of a restorative procedure. Here we report a case report of anterior laparoscopic rectal resection for adenocarcinoma of the high-mid rectum converted to transanal approach.

Case Presentation: A 69-year-old male presented hepatic nodules during radiological follow-up for prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy (70 Gy). Read More

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Potential of antibody test using Schistosoma mansoni recombinant serpin and RP26 to detect light-intensity infections in endemic areas.

Parasitol Int 2021 Apr 12:102346. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; Program for Nurturing Global Leaders in Tropical and Emerging Communicable Diseases, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; The Joint Usage/Research Center on Tropical Disease, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; Nagasaki University, Kenya Research Station, NUITM-KEMRI Project, Nairobi, Kenya. Electronic address:

Schistosomiasis remains a worldwide public health problem, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization targets the goal for its elimination as a public health problem in the 2030 Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) Roadmap. Concerted action and agile responses to challenges will be necessary to achieve the targets. Read More

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fvVaginal drug delivery approaches for localized management of cervical cancer.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Cervical cancer or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) remain a major public health problem among women globally. Traditional methods such as surgery are often associated with possible complications which may impact future pregnancies and childbirth especially for young female patients. Vagina with a high contact surface is a suitable route for the local and systemic delivery of drugs but its abundant mucus in continuous exchange presents a barrier for the popularization of conventional vaginal formulations including suppositories, gel, patch, creams and so on. Read More

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On how the power supply shapes microbial survival.

Math Biosci 2021 Apr 12:108615. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

K.G. Jebsen Centre for Deep Sea Research, Allégaten, NO-5007 Bergen, Norway; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Thormøhlens gate 53A, NO-5006 Bergen, Norway; Computational Biology Unit, Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.

Understanding how environmental factors affect microbial survival is an important open problem in microbial ecology. Patterns of microbial community structure have been characterized across a wide range of different environmental settings, but the mechanisms generating these patterns remain poorly understood. Here, we use mathematical modelling to investigate fundamental connections between chemical power supply to a system and patterns of microbial survival. Read More

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Pyrazoles as novel protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors: An in vitro and in silico study.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

LAQV-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address:

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex chronic disorder and a major global health problem. Insulin resistance is the primary detectable abnormality and the main characteristic feature in individuals with type 2 DM. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathway, which dephosphorylates insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrates, suppressing the insulin signaling cascade. Read More

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COVID-19 and heat waves: New challenges for healthcare systems.

Environ Res 2021 Apr 12:111153. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute and Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, LMU Hospital, LMU Munich, Ziemssenstr. 1, 80336 Munich, Germany; Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (CPC-M), Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany.

Heat waves and Covid-19 overlap, as this pandemic continues into summer 2021. Using a narrative review, we identified overlapping risk groups and propose coping strategies. The high-risk groups for heat-related health problems as well as for high-risk COVID-19 groups overlap considerably (elderly with pre-existing health conditions). Read More

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Hepatitis C elimination among people incarcerated in prisons: challenges and recommendations for action within a health systems framework.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May;6(5):391-400

Viral Immunology Systems Program, Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health problem in correctional settings. The International Network on Health and Hepatitis in Substance Users-Prisons Network is a special interest group committed to advancing scientific knowledge exchange and advocacy for HCV prevention and care in correctional settings. In this Review, we highlight seven priority areas and best practices for improving HCV care in correctional settings: changing political will, ensuring access to HCV diagnosis and testing, promoting optimal models of HCV care and treatment, improving surveillance and monitoring of the HCV care cascade, reducing stigma and tackling the social determinants of health inequalities, implementing HCV prevention and harm reduction programmes, and advancing prison-based research. Read More

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Novel treatment dynamics for biofilm-related infections.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Infectious Diseases Division, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Introduction: : As a result of progress in medical care, a huge number of medical devices are used in the treatment of human diseases. In turn, biofilm-related infection has become a growing threat due to the tolerance of biofilms to antimicrobials, a problem magnified by the development of antimicrobial resistance worldwide. As a result, successful treatment of biofilm-disease using only antimicrobials is problematic. Read More

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Effects of Structural Dynamics on Charge Carrier Transfer in B-DNA: A Combined MD and RT-TDDFT Study.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

CNR-NANO Modena, 41125 Modena, Italy.

Hole transfer along the axis of duplex DNA has been the focus of physical chemistry research for decades, with implications in diverse fields, from nanotechnology to cell oxidative damage. Computational approaches are particularly amenable for this problem, to complement experimental data for interpretation of transfer mechanisms. To be predictive, computational results need to account for the inherent mobility of biological molecules during the time frame of experimental measurements. Read More

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Ultrasound-assisted dual-cloud point extraction with high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry for mercury speciation analysis in environmental water and soil samples.

J Sep Sci 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Public Health, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510310, China.

A method for simultaneous preconcentration and determination of mercury species in water and soil samples were established using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) -hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted dual-cloud point extraction. The extraction process was divided into two steps. In the first cloud point extraction, inorganic mercury and methylmercury formed chelates with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and were extracted into Triton X-114 micelles. Read More

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'Azole Menace' - An underappreciated trigger perpetuating the epidemic of antifungal therapeutic failure in cutaneous mycoses.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Apr 15:e14959. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Dermatology, Nepal Medical College, Kathmandu, NEPAL.

The South-Asian epidemic of anti-fungal therapeutic failures (AFTF) is on the rise. Although many demographic, environmental, and socioeconomic factors have been implicated in the genesis of this problem, two pharmacological issues warrant attention. While detailed discussions on the role of topical corticosteroid (TCS) in the changing landscape of the superficial mycotic infections in this region have been making headlines, another equally, rather more important pharmacological factor seems to have been undermined by the hype around TCS. Read More

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Structural and thermodynamic analysis of factors governing the stability and thermal folding/unfolding of SazCA.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0249866. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Quantum and Molecular Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, India.

Molecular basis of protein stability at different temperatures is a fundamental problem in protein science that is substantially far from being accurately and quantitatively solved as it requires an explicit knowledge of the temperature dependence of folding free energy of amino acid residues. In the present study, we attempted to gain insights into the thermodynamic stability of SazCA and its implications on protein folding/unfolding. We report molecular dynamics simulations of water solvated SazCA in a temperature range of 293-393 K to study the relationship between the thermostability and flexibility. Read More

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Antibiotic prescription practices and opinions regarding antimicrobial resistance among veterinarians in Kentucky, USA.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(4):e0249653. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States of America.

Background: Inappropriate antimicrobial use (AMU) is a global concern. Opinions of veterinarians regarding AMU and its role in the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) may influence their prescription practices. It is important to understand these opinions, prescription practices and their potential impact on the development of AMR in order to guide efforts to curb the problem. Read More

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Accurate contact-based modelling of repeat proteins predicts the structure of new repeats protein families.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Apr 15;17(4):e1008798. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Science for Life Laboratory, Solna, Sweden.

Repeat proteins are abundant in eukaryotic proteomes. They are involved in many eukaryotic specific functions, including signalling. For many of these proteins, the structure is not known, as they are difficult to crystallise. Read More

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Particle swarm optimization of silicon photonic crystal waveguide transition.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(8):1904-1907

Slow light generated through silicon (Si) photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) is useful for improving the performance of Si photonic devices. However, the accumulation of coupling loss between a PCW and Si optical wiring waveguides is a problem when slow-light devices are connected in a series in a photonic integrated circuit. Previously, we reported a tapered transition structure between these waveguides and observed a coupling loss of 0. Read More

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Comprehensive vector analysis for electro-optical, opto-electronic, and optical devices.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(8):1856-1859

High-performance electro-optical (E-O), opto-electronic (O-E), and optical (O-O) devices are widely used in optical communications, microwave photonics, fiber sensors, and so on. Measurement of the amplitude and phase responses are essential for the development and fabrication of these devices. However, the previous methods can hardly characterize the E-O, O-E, and O-O devices with arbitrary responses. Read More

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Risk of a Major Depressive Episode in Asthma and COPD Patients Amidst Colombian SAR-CoV-2 Confinement.

Psychiatr Danub 2021 ;33(1):101-106

Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad del Magdalena, Carrera 32 No. 22-08, Santa Marta, 470004, Colombia.

Background: Chronic non-communicable diseases, such as asthma (AS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a public health problem that compromises patients' quality of life and is highly comorbid with medical and psychological conditions. The present study's objective was to know the variables associated with the risk of major depression during confinement due to SAR-CoV-2 in patients with AS and COPD in the Colombian Caribbean.

Subjects And Methods: An online cross-sectional observational study was done with the participation of patients diagnosed with AS or COPD. Read More

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January 2021

Consensus Control for Heterogeneous Multivehicle Systems: An Iterative Learning Approach.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 15;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

This article investigates the consensus tracking problem of the heterogeneous multivehicle systems (MVSs) under a repeatable control environment. First, a unified iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm is presented for all autonomous vehicles, each of which is governed by both discrete- and continuous-time nonlinear dynamics. Then, several consensus criteria for MVSs with switching topology and external disturbances are established based on our proposed distributed ILC protocols. Read More

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A Novel Formulation of Trace Ratio Linear Discriminant Analysis.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 15;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) method needs to be transformed into another form to acquire an approximate closed-form solution, which could lead to the error between the approximate solution and the true value. Furthermore, the sensitivity of dimensionality reduction (DR) methods to subspace dimensionality cannot be eliminated. In this article, a new formulation of trace ratio LDA (TRLDA) is proposed, which has an optimal solution of LDA. Read More

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Multi-objective Optimization of Quality in VVC Rate Control for Low-delay Video Coding.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Apr 15;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

In this paper, a multi-objective optimization of quality based coding tree unit (CTU) level rate control method, named MORC, for low-delay video coding of Versatile Video Coding (VVC) is proposed. Unlike the traditional rate control algorithms, objectives of minimizing average distortion and minimizing quality fluctuation are introduced and considered simultaneously to obtain the optimal solution. Weighting method is then used to convert the multi-objective optimization problem into a simplistic single-objective problem. Read More

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UGC-VQA: Benchmarking Blind Video Quality Assessment for User Generated Content.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Apr 15;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Recent years have witnessed an explosion of user-generated content (UGC) videos shared and streamed over the Internet, thanks to the evolution of affordable and reliable consumer capture devices, and the tremendous popularity of social media platforms. Accordingly, there is a great need for accurate video quality assessment (VQA) models for UGC/consumer videos to monitor, control, and optimize this vast content. Blind quality prediction of in-the-wild videos is quite challenging, since the quality degradations of UGC videos are unpredictable, complicated, and often commingled. Read More

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Angular-Driven Feedback Restoration Networks for Imperfect Sketch Recognition.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Apr 15;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Automatic hand-drawn sketch recognition is an important task in computer vision. However, the vast majority of prior works focus on exploring the power of deep learning to achieve better accuracy on complete and clean sketch images, and thus fail to achieve satisfactory performance when applied to incomplete or destroyed sketch images. To address this problem, we first develop two datasets that contain different levels of scrawl and incomplete sketches. Read More

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Learning Log-Determinant Divergences for Positive Definite Matrices.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Apr 15;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Representations in the form of Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD) matrices have been popularized in a variety of visual learning applications due to their demonstrated ability to capture rich second-order statistics of visual data. There exist several similarity measures for comparing SPD matrices with documented benefits. However, selecting an appropriate measure for a given problem remains a challenge and in most cases, is the result of a trial-and-error process. Read More

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Uncertainty Inspired RGB-D Saliency Detection.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Apr 15;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

We propose the first stochastic framework to employ uncertainty for RGB-D saliency detection by learning from the data labeling process. Existing RGB-D saliency detection models treat this task as a point estimation problem by predicting a single saliency map following a deterministic learning pipeline. We argue that, however, the deterministic solution is relatively ill-posed. Read More

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Antimicrobial stewardship strategies in wound care: evidence to support the use of dialkylcarbamoyl chloride (DACC)- coated wound dressings.

J Wound Care 2021 Apr;30(4):284-296

WoundCareSol Consultancy, UK.

Background: Traditionally, infections are treated with antimicrobials (for example, antibiotics, antiseptics, etc), but antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become one of the most serious health threats of the 21st century (before the emergence of COVID-19). Wounds can be a source of infection by allowing unconstrained entry of microorganisms into the body, including antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. The development of new antimicrobials (particularly antibiotics) is not keeping pace with the evolution of resistant microorganisms and novel ways of addressing this problem are urgently required. Read More

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