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Association and Familial Coaggregation of Type 1 Diabetes and Eating Disorders: A Register-Based Cohort Study in Denmark and Sweden.

Diabetes Care 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.

Objective: To ascertain the association and coaggregation of eating disorders and childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in families.

Research Design And Methods: Using population samples from national registers in Sweden ( = 2,517,277) and Demark ( = 1,825,920), we investigated the within-individual association between type 1 diabetes and eating disorders and their familial coaggregation among full siblings, half siblings, full cousins, and half cousins. On the basis of clinical diagnoses, we classified eating disorders into any eating disorder (AED), anorexia nervosa (AN) and atypical AN, and other eating disorder (OED). Read More

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Trace Element Concentration and Stable Isotope Ratio Analysis in Blueberries and Bilberries: A Tool for Quality and Authenticity Control.

Foods 2021 Mar 9;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia.

genus berries-wild bilberries ( L.) and cultivated highbush blueberries ( L.)-are consumed worldwide, and their consumption has a trend of stable increase. Read More

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Impact of Covid-19 pandemic on Ophthalmic Emergency Department in an Italian tertiary eye centre.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Feb 25:1120672121998223. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Purpose: To evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Ophthalmic Emergency Department (OED) activity of the tertiary eye centre of Verona.

Methods: OED reports of patients visited during lockdown (COVID-period) and in the corresponding period of 2017, 2018 and 2019 (COVID-free period) have been retrieved to draw a comparison. Patients' demographic and clinical data recorded and analysed are the following: age, gender, previous ocular history, aetiology, symptoms onset, type of symptoms, discharge diagnosis, urgency and severity of diagnosis. Read More

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February 2021

Detection of deletions in 1q25, 1p36 and 1pTEL and chromosome 17 aneuploidy in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

Oral Oncol 2021 Feb 17;116:105221. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Oral Pathology, University of Fortaleza / Universidade de Fortaleza, School of Dentistry, Fortaleza, Brazil.

Objective: To identify chromosome deletions in 1q25, 1p36 and 1pTEL, and chromosome 17 ploidy status in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).

Material And Methods: Samples from 57 OED and 63 OSCC were selected. FISH was performed using centromeric probes 17 and n LSIR 1p36/LSI 1q25 Dual Color Probe. Read More

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February 2021

Oncology: etymology of the term.

Med Oncol 2021 Feb 9;38(3):22. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Graduate School of Arts and Social Science, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The OED lists oncologia (a Latinization of Greek ογκολογία, ὄγκος + λόγια) as a dictionary term attested from 1860. The neoclassical term is much older, however. The neo-Greek term was used in the title of two seventeenth-century medical tracts on assorted tumors, first in a 1618 medical dissertation by Balthasar Simon. Read More

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February 2021

Readdressing dysplasia at surgical margins as predictive biomarker of malignant transformation.

Oral Oncol 2021 Jan 23:105181. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, Division of Oral Pathology, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Clinical, histological and molecular alterations observed at surgical margins could be regarded as predictive markers of malignant transformation. However, there are contrasting views on usefulness of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) in predicting malignant transformation. In this regard, investigation of OED status at surgical margins could give an interesting perspective to this notion. Read More

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January 2021

Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Aided Virtual Search of OliveNet™ Directory for Secoiridoids to Combat SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Associated Hyperinflammatory Responses.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 7;7:627767. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jazan University, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.

Molecular docking and molecular dynamics aided virtual search of OliveNet™ directory identified potential secoiridoids that combat SARS-CoV-2 entry, replication, and associated hyperinflammatory responses. OliveNet™ is an active directory of phytochemicals obtained from different parts of the olive tree, (Oleaceae). Olive oil, olive fruits containing phenolics, known for their health benefits, are indispensable in the Mediterranean and Arabian diets. Read More

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January 2021

Comparative analysis of nucleomorphometric parameters in methyl green-pyronin-stained sections of oral epithelial dysplasia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Authors:
Esha Singh

J Oral Maxillofac Pathol 2020 May-Aug;24(2):401. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Rajarajeswari Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

Context: The diagnosis and grading of epithelial dysplasia is based on a combination of architectural and cytological changes. A gradual increase in quantitative DNA aberrations has been found to correlate with increasing degree of dysplasia in oral mucous membranes.

Aims: The aim of this study is to assess nuclear parameters in potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and to assess cytomorphometric changes in the nucleus and nucleolus in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral mucosa using methyl green-pyronin staining to determine its suitability for detecting potentially malignant lesions and the stage of carcinogenesis. Read More

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September 2020

Optimal Experimental Design for Systems and Synthetic Biology Using AMIGO2.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2229:221-239

School of Engineering, Institute for Bioengineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Dynamic modeling in systems and synthetic biology is still quite a challenge-the complex nature of the interactions results in nonlinear models, which include unknown parameters (or functions). Ideally, time-series data support the estimation of model unknowns through data fitting. Goodness-of-fit measures would lead to the best model among a set of candidates. Read More

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Long-term follow-up of oral epithelial dysplasia: A hospital based cross-sectional study.

J Dent Sci 2021 Jan 1;16(1):304-310. Epub 2020 May 1.

College of Medicine, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

Background/purpose: Oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) is characterized histopathologically by cellular and morphological changes that remain the single most important factor predicting risk for subsequent development of invasive neoplasia. Hence the aims of the present study were to determine the rate of malignant change of OED in a group of patients followed-up for a number of years, and hence determine factors likely to influence this malignant change, and to describe the clinical characteristics of patients who developed recurrence of OED and second dysplastic lesions.

Materials And Methods: This is hospital based cross-sectional study of all biopsy reports with histologically confirmed OED between 2012 and 2018 were retrospectivelly reviewed. Read More

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January 2021

'On the different Species of Phobia' and 'On the different Species of Mania' (1786): from popular furies to mental disorders in America.

Med Humanit 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Graduate School of Arts and Social Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

Benjamin Rush's twin 1786 letters on the different species of phobia and mania sit at an extended historical juncture at which an early modern quasi-medical troping of mental disorder in American social commentary sobered up to mental medicine. The letters' satirical drive hinged on a perennial problem still occupying George Beard almost a century onward: which idiosyncratic trepidation or ill-grounded idea warranted the nomination of national and epochal ill? Rush's mania letter exemplified an established genre identifying popular and especially political crazes; at the same time, it foreshadowed the early 19th-century rise and mid-century fall of monomania as forensic-nosological stopgap. The phobia text established the term's dictionary (OED) sense of specific morbid fears, but did so in the form of a mobilisation of nosological jargon for social diagnostics purposes: an ambivalent prelude to Rush's later formal engagement with unreasonable fears and follies. Read More

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December 2020

Gaussian Process Based Expected Information Gain Computation for Bayesian Optimal Design.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 Feb 24;22(2). Epub 2020 Feb 24.

School of Information Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China.

Optimal experimental design (OED) is of great significance in efficient Bayesian inversion. A popular choice of OED methods is based on maximizing the expected information gain (EIG), where expensive likelihood functions are typically involved. To reduce the computational cost, in this work, a novel double-loop Bayesian Monte Carlo (DLBMC) method is developed to efficiently compute the EIG, and a Bayesian optimization (BO) strategy is proposed to obtain its maximizer only using a small number of samples. Read More

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February 2020

Oral epithelial reactive atypia/dysplasia: An underestimated true atypia/dysplasia?

Med Hypotheses 2020 Nov 26;144:110217. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Oral Medicine Department, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina.

Several clinical and histological features, usually associated with chronic inflammation could complexify the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). These changes in response to inflammatory stimuli, or re-epithelialization events, are described as reactive epithelial atypia or dysplasia (REA/D). Within a REA/D scenario (for example in the edges of chronic traumatic ulcers), the diagnosis of OED could be challenging for oral pathologists due to an unfeasibility to accurate the true nature of that changes. Read More

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November 2020

Stathmin! An immunohistochemical analysis of the novel marker in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Oral Leukoplakia.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2020 Nov 1;21(11):3317-3323. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Mamata Dental College, Khammam, Telangana, India.

Background: Stathmin is an intracellular phosphoprotein that controls the microtubule dynamics by further regulating proper attachment and alignment of chromosomes in a dividing cell. Thus, any mutation or aberrantly expressed protein that reduces the fidelity of spindle assembly will enhance chromosomal instability contributing to aneuploidy. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma is an extensively studied malignancy that occurs due to accumulated genetic changes due to carcinogens. Read More

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November 2020

Comparison of the whole slide imaging and conventional light microscopy in the grading of oral epithelial dysplasia: a multi-institutional study.

Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2021 Jan 1;26(1):e8-e13. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School University of Campinas (UNICAMP) 901, Limeira Av., Areião, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

Background: Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) is an alternative method to light microscopy (LM). However, few studies have compared the diagnostic agreement between WSI and LM, especially to grade oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the variability in grading OED by the World Health Organization grading system, using WSI and conventional LM, and to investigate whether the access to clinical information, and psychologic or physical states of the pathologists could interfere with the diagnosis. Read More

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January 2021

UK consensus recommendations on the management of oral epithelial dysplasia during COVID-19 pandemic outbreaks.

Oral Oncol 2021 01 19;112:105110. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Cancer Medicine, Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology (ISMIB), University of Liverpool, Roy Castle Building, 200 London Road, Liverpool L3 9TA, UK.

Objectives: Oral Epithelial Dysplasia (OED) is associated with an increased risk of oral cancer development. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is necessitating the suspension or dramatic reduction of face-to-face non-urgent elective services, including OED clinics. Little is known regarding the potential impact of elective services suspension upon the risk of OED progression, and whether alternative strategies (e. Read More

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January 2021

Information needs and oral epithelial dysplasia: Development and psychometric evaluation of a novel instrument.

Oral Dis 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

UCL Eastman Dental Institute, University College London, London, UK.

Objectives: Oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) can lead to significant information needs (IN) related to the risk of cancer development, the need for long-term monitoring and potential intervention. The present study aimed to develop and perform preliminary psychometric testing for a novel IN instrument specific to OED.

Subjects And Methods: Patients diagnosed with OED were invited to complete the Oral Epithelial Dysplasia Informational Needs Questionnaire (ODIN-Q), which was developed based on a known theoretical framework and with items generated via expert input and the literature. Read More

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November 2020

Current challenges and the diagnostic pitfalls in the grading of epithelial dysplasia in oral potentially malignant disorders: A review.

J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2020 Oct-Dec;10(4):788-799. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Dept. of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, College of dental sciences, Davangere, Karnatka, India.

Oral cancer is one of the common cancers in the world causing high morbidity. Development of cancer is preceded by certain asymptomatic clinical lesions and conditions all together known as 'oral potentially malignant disorders'. Histologically they are represented by the term 'oral epithelial dysplasia'. Read More

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September 2020

Expression of transmembrane protein aquaporin-3 in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2021 Feb 17;131(2):202-208. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Assistant Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, PMS College of Dental Science and Research, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate aquaporin-3 (AQP3) expression in patient samples of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), thereby assessing the potential of AQP3 as a molecular marker for tumor progression.

Study Design: An in vitro comparative study was done to determine the AQP3 expression on 20 surgical biopsy specimens each of OED and OSCC using immunohistochemistry. Twenty specimens of normal oral mucosa were kept as controls. Read More

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February 2021

Relative Expression of SOX2 and OCT4 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Oral Epithelial Dysplasia.

Rep Biochem Mol Biol 2020 Jul;9(2):171-179

Oral and Maxillofacial Disease Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Over 90% of oral cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), originate from the oral cavity epithelium. Early detection for this lesion is as important. Evaluating cancer stem cell markers can improve the accuracy of early diagnosis, and be used as an OSCC prognostic indicator. Read More

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Digital Learning Games for Mathematics and Computer Science Education: The Need for Preregistered RCTs, Standardized Methodology, and Advanced Technology.

Authors:
Lara Bertram

Front Psychol 2020 15;11:2127. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

MPRG iSearch, Max-Planck-Institute for Human Development, Berlin, Germany.

In today's digital information society, mathematical and computational skills are becoming increasingly important. With the demand for mathematical and computational literacy rising, the question of how these skills can be effectively taught in schools is among the top priorities in education. Game-based learning promises to diversify education, increase students' interest and motivation, and offer positive and effective learning experiences. Read More

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October 2020

Assessment of apoptotic index in various grades of oral epithelial dysplasia: A cross-sectional study.

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2020 Oct-Dec;63(4):534-537

BDS, Practitioner, Sinhgad Dental College and Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Context: : Oral cancer is a major health problem worldwide. In cancer, the equilibrium between cell proliferation and apoptosis is disturbed. The defect in the apoptotic pathway allows cells to proliferate with genetic abnormalities. Read More

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November 2020

An Immunohistochemical Study Showing Ki-67 as an Analytical Marker in Oral Malignant and Premalignant Lesions.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2020 Aug 28;12(Suppl 1):S274-S278. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.

Introduction: Ki-67 is a nuclear protein. It is a proliferation marker that has an essential function in tumorigenesis due to its positive connection with tumor expansion.

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the articulation of Ki‑67 as prognostic marker in various grades of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Read More

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Non-Invasive Diagnostic System Based on Light for Detecting Early-Stage Oral Cancer and High-Risk Precancerous Lesions-Potential for Dentistry.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 29;12(11). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Oral Medicine and Stomatology, School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi University, 2-1-3 Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-8501, Japan.

Oral health promotion and examinations have contributed to the early detection of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders, leading to the adaptation of minimally invasive therapies and subsequent improvements in the prognosis/maintenance of the quality of life after treatments. However, the accurate detection of early-stage oral cancer and oral epithelial dysplasia is particularly difficult for conventional oral examinations because these lesions sometimes resemble benign lesions or healthy oral mucosa tissues. Although oral biopsy has been considered the gold standard for accurate diagnosis, it is deemed invasive for patients. Read More

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October 2020

The Use of Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Fluorescent Nanodiamond Particles to Detect Ebola Virus Glycoprotein: Technology Development and Proof of Principle.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 7;15:7583-7599. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Debina Diagnostics Inc., Newtown Square, PA, USA.

Background: There is a dire need for rapid diagnostic tests of high sensitivity, efficiency, and point-of-test reporting capability to mitigate lethal viral epidemic outbreaks.

Purpose: To develop a new operating system within the lateral flow assay (LFA) format for Ebola virus (EBOV), based on fluorescent nanodiamond particles (FNDP) nitrogen vacancy (NV) emitting near-infrared (NIR) light. Specifically, we aimed to detail technical issues and the feasibility of mobilizing FNDP-NV on nitrocellulose membranes (NCM) and capturing them at test and control lines. Read More

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December 2020

Strategies for selecting and evaluating information.

Cogn Psychol 2020 12 23;123:101332. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London, UK.

Within the domain of psychology, Optimal Experimental Design (OED) principles have been used to model how people seek and evaluate information. Despite proving valuable as computational-level methods to account for people's behaviour, their descriptive and explanatory powers remain largely unexplored. In a series of experiments, we used a naturalistic crime investigation scenario to examine how people evaluate queries, as well as outcomes, in probabilistic contexts. Read More

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December 2020

Prognostic Significance of ALDH1, Bmi1, and OCT4 Expression in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancer Control 2020 Jan-Dec;27(1):1073274820904959

Department of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Increasing evidence suggests the involvement of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in both oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Among the various CSC markers, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1, B cell-specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi1), and octamer-binding protein 4 (OCT4) have been noted to increase in OSCC. The aim of the study was to analyze ALDH1, Bmi1, and OCT4 expression in OED and OSCC with clinicopathologic correlation and survival analysis. Read More

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September 2020

Increased expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in oral lesions progressing to oral squamous cell carcinoma: a pilot study.

Sci Rep 2020 06 16;10(1):9705. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Oral cancer is a devastating disease and is commonly preceded by a range of oral premalignant disorders. We investigated the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) that progressed to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to non-progressing dysplasia. 49 oral biopsies were analyzed, including 19 progressing cases, 20 cases did not progress, and 10 OSCC. Read More

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The ventral striatum dissociates information expectation, reward anticipation, and reward receipt.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 06 11;117(26):15200-15208. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Temporal Dynamics of Learning Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093.

Do dopaminergic reward structures represent the expected utility of information similarly to a reward? Optimal experimental design models from Bayesian decision theory and statistics have proposed a theoretical framework for quantifying the expected value of information that might result from a query. In particular, this formulation quantifies the value of information before the answer to that query is known, in situations where payoffs are unknown and the goal is purely epistemic: That is, to increase knowledge about the state of the world. Whether and how such a theoretical quantity is represented in the brain is unknown. Read More

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Intra-observer and inter-observer variability in two grading systems for oral epithelial dysplasia: A multi-centre study in India.

J Oral Pathol Med 2020 Oct 9;49(9):948-955. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer, London, UK.

Background: The presence and grading of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) are considered the gold standard for predicting the malignant risk of oral potentially malignant disorders. However, inter-observer and intra-observer agreement in the context of reporting on OED grading has been reputedly considered unreliable.

Methods: We undertook a multi-centre study of six Indian oral pathologists to assess variations in reporting OED using the World Health Organization (WHO; 2005) system and also the recently introduced binary system. Read More

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October 2020