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Support mechanisms for research generation and application for postgraduate students in four universities in Uganda.

Health Res Policy Syst 2021 Sep 15;19(1):125. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: A large proportion of postgraduate students the world over complete a research thesis in partial fulfilment of their degree requirements. This study identified and evaluated support mechanisms for research generation and utilization for masters' students in health institutions of higher learning in Uganda.

Methods: This was a self-administered cross-sectional survey using a modified self-assessment tool for research institutes (m-SATORI). Read More

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September 2021

Basic concepts of radiation emergency medicine.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Health Division, IRSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92260, FRANCE.

Nuclear and radiological accidents are not frequent but may lead to major consequences in the population. For the health systems, the need to handle a large number of victims will probably remain as an exception. However, a high number of affected victims can be expected in some terrorist scenarios. Read More

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September 2021

Microencapsulated phages show prolonged stability in gastrointestinal environments and high therapeutic efficiency to treat Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection.

Vet Res 2021 Sep 14;52(1):118. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Key Lab of Animal Bacteriology, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 bacterial infection causes severe disease in mammals and results in substantial economic losses worldwide. Due to the development of antibiotic resistance, bacteriophage (phage) therapy has become an alternative to control O157:H7 infection. Read More

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September 2021

Proteomic profiling of extracellular vesicles and particles reveals the cellular response to cisplatin in NSCLC.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Hunan Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is a therapeutic strategy against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, cancers relapse after chemotherapy due to a dormant state of residual cancer cells. Extracellular vesicles and particles (EVPs) are active carriers of proteins and nucleic acid. Read More

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September 2021

Isotype-Specific Fc Effector Functions Enhance Antibody-Mediated Rift Valley Fever Virus Protection .

mSphere 2021 Sep 8:e0055621. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

University of Pittsburghgrid.21925.3d, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, and Center for Vaccine Research, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Discovered in 1931, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an arbovirus that causes disease in humans and livestock. In humans, disease ranges from a self-limiting febrile illness to a more severe hepatitis or encephalitis. There are currently no licensed human therapeutics for RVFV disease. Read More

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September 2021

Community-acquired pneumonia.

Lancet 2021 Sep;398(10303):906-919

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, University of Texas Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Community-acquired pneumonia is not usually considered a high-priority problem by the public, although it is responsible for substantial mortality, with a third of patients dying within 1 year after being discharged from hospital for pneumoniae. Although up to 18% of patients with community-acquired pneumonia who were hospitalised (admitted to hospital and treated there) have at least one risk factor for immunosuppression worldwide, strong evidence on community-acquired pneumonia management in this population is scarce. Several features of clinical management for community-acquired pneumonia should be addressed to reduce mortality, morbidity, and complications related to community-acquired pneumonia in patients who are immunocompetent and patients who are immunocompromised. Read More

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September 2021

Comparative Evaluation of Connective Tissue Graft with Pouch/Tunnel Technique versus Connective Tissue Graft with Coronally Advanced Tunnel Flap for the Treatment of Maxillary Recession Cases in Severe Periodontitis.

Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Stomatology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079, China.

Background: The long-term stability for both the patient and periodontist remains an important priority after connective tissue graft to manage the gingival recession cases. The goal of this analysis was to assess and compare the connective tissue graft with Pouch/Tunnel technique versus connective tissue graft with coronally advanced tunnel flap for the treatment of maxillary recession cases in severe periodontitis.

Methods: The total sample size was comprised of 200 subjects. Read More

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September 2021

European Stroke Organization and European Academy Neurology joint guidelines on post-stroke cognitive impairment.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Stroke Research group, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background And Purpose: The optimal management of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) remains controversial. These joint European Stroke Organization (ESO) and European Academy of Neurology (EAN) guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations to assist clinicians in decision making regarding prevention, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Methods: Guidelines were developed according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the surveillance, prevention and control of antimicrobial resistance: a global survey.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Robert Koch Institute, WHO Collaborating Center for Emerging Infections and Biological Threats, Berlin, Germany.

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on health systems. The WHO Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Surveillance and Quality Assessment Collaborating Centres Network conducted a survey to assess the effects of COVID-19 on AMR surveillance, prevention and control.

Methods: From October to December 2020, WHO Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) national focal points completed a questionnaire, including Likert scales and open-ended questions. Read More

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September 2021

Metagenomic analysis of MWWTP effluent treated via solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH: Effects upon microbial community, priority pathogens, and antibiotic resistance genes.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 12;801:149599. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Engenharia, Departamento de Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, Research Group on Environmental Applications of Advanced Oxidation Processes (GruPOA), Av. Pres. Antônio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

The effectiveness of advanced technologies on eliminating antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and resistance genes (ARGs) from wastewaters have been recently investigated. Solar photo-Fenton has been proven effective in combating ARB and ARGs from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant effluent (MWWTPE). However, most of these studies have relied solely on cultivable methods to assess ARB removal. Read More

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Centralized registry for COVID-19 research recruitment: Design, development, implementation, and preliminary results.

J Clin Transl Sci 2021 14;5(1):e152. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had substantial global morbidity and mortality. Clinical research related to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19 is a top priority. Effective and efficient recruitment is challenging even without added constraints of a global pandemic. Read More

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Comparative effectiveness of endovascular treatment modalities for de novo femoropopliteal lesions in intermittent claudication: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Vascular Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Department of Vascular Surgery, Fuwai Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the most effective endovascular treatment modalities for de novo femoropopliteal lesions in intermittent claudication (IC) in terms of technical success, primary patency, target lesion revascularization (TLR) and all-cause mortality through network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Methods: Medical databases were searched on December 3, 2020. 16 studies (3265 patients) and 7 treatments were selected. Read More

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Priority effects in microbiome assembly.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2021 Aug 27. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Advances in next-generation sequencing have enabled the widespread measurement of microbiome composition across systems and over the course of microbiome assembly. Despite substantial progress in understanding the deterministic drivers of community composition, the role of historical contingency remains poorly understood. The establishment of new species in a community can depend on the order and/or timing of their arrival, a phenomenon known as a priority effect. Read More

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Use of Data to Understand the Social Determinants of Depression in Two Middle-Income Countries: the 3-D Commission.

J Urban Health 2021 08 18;98(Suppl 1):41-50. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Rockefeller Foundation-Boston University 3-D Commission on Determinants, Data, and Decision-making, Boston, USA.

Depression accounts for a large share of the global disease burden, with an estimated 264 million people globally suffering from depression. Despite being one of the most common kinds of mental health (MH) disorders, much about depression remains unknown. There are limited data about depression, in terms of its occurrence, distribution, and wider social determinants. Read More

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First core microsatellite panel identification in Apennine brown bears (Ursus arctos marsicanus): a collaborative approach.

BMC Genomics 2021 Aug 18;22(1):623. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department for the Monitoring and Protection of the Environment and for Biodiversity Conservation, Unit for Conservation Genetics (BIO-CGE), Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), Via Ca' Fornacetta, 9 - 40064 Ozzano dell'Emilia, Bologna, Italy.

Background: The low cost and rapidity of microsatellite analysis have led to the development of several markers for many species. Because in non-invasive genetics it is recommended to genotype individuals using few loci, generally a subset of markers is selected. The choice of different marker panels by different research groups studying the same population can cause problems and bias in data analysis. Read More

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The role of machine learning in clinical research: transforming the future of evidence generation.

Trials 2021 Aug 16;22(1):537. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Vector Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Interest in the application of machine learning (ML) to the design, conduct, and analysis of clinical trials has grown, but the evidence base for such applications has not been surveyed. This manuscript reviews the proceedings of a multi-stakeholder conference to discuss the current and future state of ML for clinical research. Key areas of clinical trial methodology in which ML holds particular promise and priority areas for further investigation are presented alongside a narrative review of evidence supporting the use of ML across the clinical trial spectrum. Read More

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Comparison of a Single-Session Pain Management Skills Intervention With a Single-Session Health Education Intervention and 8 Sessions of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Adults With Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Aug 2;4(8):e2113401. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.

Importance: Chronic low back pain (CLBP), the most prevalent chronic pain condition, imparts substantial disability and discomfort. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) reduces the effect of CLBP, but access is limited.

Objective: To determine whether a single class in evidence-based pain management skills (empowered relief) is noninferior to 8-session CBT and superior to health education at 3 months after treatment for improving pain catastrophizing, pain intensity, pain interference, and other secondary outcomes. Read More

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Investigation of Factors Associated With Immunogenicity Labeling Updates and Characteristics of Biologics License Applications.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Aug 12. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Immunogenicity, the potential to elicit an antidrug immune response, is a critical concern in developing biological products, but its consequences are difficult to predict with animal studies. The aims of the present study are to investigate the evolution of immunogenicity information in labeling and to identify attributes associated with immunogenicity labeling updates. Biologics License Applications (BLAs) approved by the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, US Food and Drug Administration between 2008 and 2017 were studied. Read More

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Pioneering Global Best Practices in Atopic Dermatitis: Results from the Atopic Dermatitis Quality of Care Initiative.

Clin Exp Dermatol 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany.

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by unrelenting pruritus and recurrent eczematous lesions. It affects up to 15% of children and adolescents and up to 5% of adults and confers a high and multifactorial burden to patients, families, and society. With increasing awareness of this substantial burden, AD has become a priority for healthcare systems. Read More

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Occupational risk of organophosphates and other chemical and radiative exposure in the aircraft cabin: A systematic review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 28;796:148742. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Mount Royal University, Department of Earth & Environmental Science, Calgary, Alberta T3E 6K6, Canada.

Occupational exposure to oil fumes, organophosphates, halogenated flame retardants, and other volatile and semi-volatile contaminants is a concern within the aviation industry. There is no current consensus on the risk attributed to exposure to these chemical classes within the aircraft cabin. Contaminant concentrations rarely exceed conventional air quality guidelines, but concerns have been raised about these guidelines' applicability within the aircraft environment. Read More

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November 2021

Effects of Grain Shape Genes Editing on Appearance Quality of Erect-Panicle Geng/Japonica Rice.

Rice (N Y) 2021 Aug 10;14(1):74. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, China National Center for Rice Improvement, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, 310006, China.

Long grain geng/japonica rice has a higher market preference due its excellent appearance quality. The dense and erect-panicle 1 (dep1) gene has been widely used in the breeding of high-yielding geng/japonica rice cultivars in China. However, this gene causes short and round grain shape thus making it less attractive in global rice markets. Read More

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Functional Features of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus G Protein.

Viruses 2021 07 1;13(7). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of serious lower respiratory tract infections in children <5 years of age worldwide and repeated infections throughout life leading to serious disease in the elderly and persons with compromised immune, cardiac, and pulmonary systems. The disease burden has made it a high priority for vaccine and antiviral drug development but without success except for immune prophylaxis for certain young infants. Two RSV proteins are associated with protection, F and G, and F is most often pursued for vaccine and antiviral drug development. Read More

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A Review Study of a Green Diet and Healthy Ageing.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 29;18(15). Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Centre for Ageing and Healthcare Management Research, School of Professional Education and Executive Development, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

Nowadays people are living longer, and there has been a substantial growth in the global elderly population in the past decades. While life expectancy is increasing, there are growing concerns towards the heavy financial and social burdens related to chronic diseases among the elderly. These have been critical health care issues, and healthy ageing is considered a top priority in public health. Read More

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Leaching characteristics and hazard evaluation of bottom ash generated from common biomedical waste incinerators.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2021 Aug 6:1-11. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur, India.

India has more than 202 biomedical waste incinerators, however, knowledge on the chemical characteristics of incinerator ash is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the lecahablility characteristics of bottom ash and to study the levels of incineration by-products polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Bottom ash samples from 13 common biomedical waste treatment facilities (CBMWTF) were colleted and subjected to leachig test, sequential extraction procedure (SEP) and PAHs and PCBs analysis. Read More

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Household attributes associated with peak period domestic appliance loads.

Authors:
John Curtis

Heliyon 2021 Jul 12;7(7):e07559. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Economic and Social Research Institute, Sir John Rogerson's Quay, Dublin, Ireland.

Household appliances represent substantial electricity load within the residential sector, particularly during the electricity system's period of peak evening load. While there is broad understanding of the factors that systematically impact on aggregate residential loads, much less is known about appliance loads. A research priority is understanding how socio-demographic, dwelling, and appliance factors are associated with the timing and scale of appliance loads. Read More

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Availability of HLA-allele-matched unrelated donors and registry size: Estimation from haplotype frequency in the Italian population.

Hum Immunol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Italian National Transplant Centre, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.

In Italy, an HLA-matched unrelated donor is currently the primary donor when a HLA matched sibling is not found for allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Better outcomes for transplantation require optimal matching between donor and recipient at least at the HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 loci; therefore, the availability of HLA-matched unrelated donors is important. The enormous HLA polymorphism has always necessitated registries with a large number of individuals in order to be able to provide well-matched donors to a substantial percentage of patients. Read More

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Evaluating the energetics of entrainment in a human-machine coupled oscillator system.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 4;11(1):15804. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Biomedical Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

During locomotion, humans sometimes entrain (i.e. synchronize) their steps to external oscillations: e. Read More

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Integrating ecosystem services modeling into effectiveness assessment of national protected areas in a typical arid region in China.

J Environ Manage 2021 Nov 2;297:113408. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Chaoyang District, 100101, Beijing, China.

Protected areas (PAs) are essential for biodiversity conservation and for the delivery of ecosystem services (ESs). However, little is known about their effectiveness in providing ESs and contribution to species richness, especially in arid regions. Effectiveness evaluation is fundamental to understanding the extent of management enhancement required to fulfill conservation targets. Read More

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November 2021

Levels of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine coverage and indirect protection against invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia hospitalisations in Australia: An observational study.

PLoS Med 2021 Aug 3;18(8):e1003733. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Asia-Pacific Health Research Group, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: There is limited empiric evidence on the coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) required to generate substantial indirect protection. We investigate the association between population PCV coverage and indirect protection against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and pneumonia hospitalisations among undervaccinated Australian children.

Methods And Findings: Birth and vaccination records, IPD notifications, and hospitalisations were individually linked for children aged <5 years, born between 2001 and 2012 in 2 Australian states (New South Wales and Western Australia; 1. Read More

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Challenges in the Implementation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Guidelines in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: An Official American Thoracic Society Workshop Report.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Aug;18(8):1269-1277

There is a substantial burden of chronic respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). LMICs have particular challenges in delivering cost-effective prevention, diagnosis, and management of COPD. Optimal care can be supported by effective implementation of guidelines. Read More

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