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Application of Current Image-Enhanced Endoscopy in Gastric Diseases.

Authors:
Wansik Lee

Clin Endosc 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hwasun, Korea.

Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) plays an integral role in endoscopic diagnosis and treatment. IEE enables an early and accurate detection of cancer and characterization of lesions prior to therapeutic decisions. Ideal IEE can serve as an optical or digital chromoscopic endoscopy, as well as an optical biopsy that predicts exact histopathology. Read More

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Automatic segmentation of brain metastases using T1 magnetic resonance and computed tomography images.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, UNITED STATES.

An increasing number of patients with multiple brain metastases are being treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Manually identifying and contouring all metastatic lesions is difficult and time-consuming, and a potential source of variability. Hence, we developed a 3D deep learning approach for segmenting brain metastases on MR and CT images. Read More

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Transfusions in aplastic anemia patients cause HLA alloimmunization Comparisons of current and past cohorts demonstrate progress.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Blood Transfusion Center, Swiss Red Cross, Basel, Switzerland; Division of Hematology, University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: Transfusions are the mainstay of supportive therapy in patients with aplastic anemia (AA) and may lead to anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alloimmunization, thereby also increasing the risk for donor-specific antibodies in the setting of HLA-mismatched transplantation. Historically, AA patients were thought to be at particularly high risk for HLA alloimmunization.

Objective: In the past decades, blood product manufacturing (leukoreduction), but also HLA antibody testing has improved significantly by single antigen bead (SAB) technology. Read More

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Evaluation of targeted bupivacaine, bupivacaine-lidocaine-epinephrine, dexamethasone, and meloxicam for reducing acute postoperative pain in cats undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy.

Top Companion Anim Med 2021 Jul 24:100564. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study compared bupivacaine (BUP), bupivacaine-lidocaine-epinephrine (BLE), dexamethasone (DEX), and meloxicam (MEL) targeted at specific, potentially painful sites for reducing acute postoperative pain in cats undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. One hundred fifty-one cats were included in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial. Anesthesia consisted of a standardized protocol including buprenorphine, ketamine, dexmedetomidine, and isoflurane. Read More

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Protective effect of MSC-derived exosomes against cisplatin-induced apoptosis via heat shock protein 70 in auditory explant model.

Nanomedicine 2021 Jul 24:102447. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, 20 Ilsan-ro, Wonju 26426, South Korea; Research Institute of Hearing Enhancement, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, 20 Ilsan-ro, Wonju 26426, South Korea. Electronic address:

Therapeutics based on stem cell technology, including stem cell-derived exosomes, have emerged in recent years for the treatment of what were otherwise considered incurable diseases. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of human MSC-derived exosomes for protection against cisplatin induced ototoxic hearing loss. Incubation of cochlear explants with MSC-derived exosomes prior to addition of cisplatin induced a reduction in cisplatin-induced drug toxicity in auditory hair cells but not when the exosomes were introduced simultaneously with or after cisplatin. Read More

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Examining the influence of mental stress on balance perturbation responses in older adults.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Jul 24;153:111495. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Reach-to-grasp responses following balance perturbations are important to fall prevention but are often ineffective in older adults. The ability to shift attention from an ongoing cognitive task to balance related processes has been shown to influence reach-to-grasp effectiveness in older adults. However, the added influence of stress and anxiety - known to negatively affect attention shifting ability - has not yet been explored in relation to recovery from balance perturbations. Read More

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DrugWAS: Drug-wide association studies for COVID-19 drug repurposing.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, USA.

This study aimed to systematically investigate if any of the available drugs in Electronic Health Record (EHR) can be repurposed as potential treatment for COVID-19. Based on a retrospective cohort analysis of EHR data, drug-wide association studies (DrugWAS) were performed on 9,748 COVID-19 patients at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC). For each drug study, multivariable logistic regression with overlap weighting using propensity score was applied to estimate the effect of drug exposure on COVID-19 disease outcomes. Read More

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The 5-year course of neck pain among natural disaster survivors: The association of prior neck pain with new episodes of neck pain.

Pain Med 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Informatics and Public Health, Tohoku University Graduate School of Public Health, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575, Japan.

Objective: Neck pain is a common health problem among both the general population and natural disaster survivors. However, the long-term course of neck pain has rarely been reported. The aim of this study was to elucidate the 5-year course of neck pain among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) by assessing the association of neck pain 2 and 4 years after the disaster with that at 7 years. Read More

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Phase 2 Study of Danicopan in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Patients with an Inadequate Response to Eculizumab.

Blood 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterised by uncontrolled terminal complement activation and subsequent intravascular hemolysis (IVH). C5 inhibitors prevent membrane attack complex formation, but patients may experience extravascular hemolysis (EVH) and continue to require blood transfusions. Danicopan, an oral, proximal complement inhibitor of alternative pathway factor D (FD), is designed to control IVH and EVH. Read More

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The impact of increasing karyotypic complexity and evolution on survival in CLL patients treated with ibrutinib.

Blood 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States.

Complex karyotype defined as ≥3 cytogenetic abnormalities is prognostic of survival in patients treated with ibrutinib or venetoclax in relapsed/refractory (RR) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Recent studies re-evaluating this dichotomous variable have shown that higher numbers of cytogenetic abnormalities (i.e. Read More

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Barriers to HIV care in Uganda and implications for universal test-and-treat: a qualitative study.

AIDS Care 2021 Jul 27:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Achieving universal HIV test-and-treat will require targeted interventions for those with worse outcomes, including advanced HIV. We conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with healthcare workers (HCWs) and people living with HIV (PLWH) at 5 HIV clinics in Kampala, Uganda, to understand barriers to care. PLWH enrolled started/restarted on HIV treatment ≤3 months prior. Read More

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Longer term outcomes with single-agent belantamab mafodotin in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: 13-month follow-up from the pivotal DREAMM-2 study.

Cancer 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: On the basis of the DREAMM-2 study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03525678), single-agent belantamab mafodotin (belamaf) was approved for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who received ≥4 prior therapies, including anti-CD38 therapy. The authors investigated longer term efficacy and safety outcomes in DREAMM-2 after 13 months of follow-up among patients who received belamaf 2. Read More

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Trajectories of victimization to violence among incarcerated women.

Health Justice 2021 Jul 27;9(1):18. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Programs and Envisioning Justice Solutions, Inc., University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Introduction: Limited research has focused on the trajectories of victimization to violence in women's lives. Furthermore, literature assessing women's use of violence has primarily focused on adult risk factors (e.g. Read More

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Bevacizumab-associated implant presence-triggered osteonecrosis: A case report and literature review.

J Oral Implantol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522, Japan.

The effect of bevacizumab-related osteonecrosis of the jaw on previously osseointegrated dental implants has not been adequately studied. Here, we report a case of osteonecrosis of the jaw detected around dental implants placed prior to bevacizumab therapy. A 66-year-old woman undergoing bevacizumab therapy for metastatic triple-negative breast cancer, developed malocclusion following buccal gingival swelling and pain in the #18, #19, and #20 tooth region. Read More

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Face Processing and Social Functioning in Pediatric Brain Tumor Survivors.

J Pediatr Psychol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and The University of Pennsylvania.

Objective: Pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) experience deficits in social functioning. Facial expression and identity recognition are key components of social information processing and are widely studied as an index of social difficulties in youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental conditions. This study evaluated facial expression and identity recognition among PBTS, youth with ASD, and typically developing (TD) youth, and the associations between these face processing skills and social impairments. Read More

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Comparative venous thromboembolic safety of oral and transdermal postmenopausal hormone therapies among women Veterans.

Menopause 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Angiology and Hemostasis, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland Seattle Epidemiologic Research and Information Center, Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development, Seattle, WA Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA Department of Health Systems Science, Kaiser Permanente Bernard J. Tyson School of Medicine, Pasadena, CA Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Objective: Hormone therapy (HT) is used by menopausal women to treat vasomotor symptoms. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important risk of HT use, and more knowledge on the comparative safety of different estrogenic compounds is useful for women who use HT for these symptoms. The objective was to compare the risk of VTE among users of oral conjugated equine estrogen (CEE), oral estradiol (E2), and transdermal E2, in a cohort of women veterans. Read More

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Preclinical characterization of dostarlimab, a therapeutic anti-PD-1 antibody with potent activity to enhance immune function in in vitro cellular assays and in vivo animal models.

MAbs 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1954136

External Innovations, IPSEN, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Inhibitors of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) have dramatically changed the treatment landscape for patients with cancer. Clinical activity of anti-PD-(L)1 antibodies has resulted in increased median overall survival and durable responses in patients across selected tumor types. To date, 6 PD-1 and PD-L1, here collectively referred to as PD-(L)1, pathway inhibitors are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for clinical use. Read More

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Target coverage and cardiopulmonary sparing with the updated ESTRO-ACROP contouring guidelines for postmastectomy radiation therapy after breast reconstruction: a treatment planning study using VMAT and proton PBS techniques.

Acta Oncol 2021 Jul 27:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: The European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Advisory Committee in Radiation Oncology Practice (ESTRO-ACROP) recently released new contouring guidelines for postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) after implant-based reconstruction (IBR). As compared to prior ESTRO guidelines, the new guidelines primarily redefined the chest wall (CW) target to exclude the breast prosthesis. In this study, we assessed the impact of these changes on treatment planning and dosimetric outcomes using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and proton pencil-beam scanning (PBS) therapy. Read More

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Clinical Benefit of Ripretinib Dose Escalation After Disease Progression in Advanced Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: An Analysis of the INVICTUS Study.

Oncologist 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Centre Léon Bérard & Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France.

Background: Ripretinib 150 mg once daily (QD) is indicated for advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) as ≥fourth-line therapy. In INVICTUS, ripretinib intra-patient dose escalation (IPDE) to 150 mg twice daily (BID) was allowed after progressive disease (PD) on 150 mg QD by blinded independent central review using modified RECIST 1.1. Read More

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Feasibility and longitudinal effects of repeated participation in an annual, brief and intense exercise program in individuals with Parkinson's disease: A case report.

Physiother Theory Pract 2021 Jul 27:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Physical Therapy, Arcadia University, Glenside, PA, United States.

Background: Functional decline is expected over time in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). Intense exercise (RPE ≥ 5-7/10), incorporating motor learning principles, may be beneficial. The purpose of this case report is to describe the feasibility and longitudinal effects after individuals with PD participated in multiple, 3. Read More

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'Dalarinji': A flexible clinic, belonging to and for the Aboriginal people, in an Australian emergency department.

Emerg Med Australas 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Emergency Department, St Vincent's Hospital Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objective: Equity and access to high-quality healthcare for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Aboriginal) people has remained refractory for complex and multifactorial reasons, and there are sound ethical arguments for addressing this urgently. In EDs all patients who 'leave at own risk' (LAOR) or 'do not wait to be seen' (DNW) are at increased risk of readmission, morbidity or death. This also incurs additional resource costs to the health system. Read More

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Pain Medication and Corticosteroid Use in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and Rheumatoid Arthritis in the United States: A Retrospective Observational Study.

Rheumatol Ther 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Anthem Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Objective: We compared pain medication use in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) versus matched control over 2 years; a subgroup analysis assessed changes in pain medication use in patients who initiated a biologic during 12 months before and after.

Methods: This was a retrospective observational cohort study using an administrative claims database. Newly diagnosed adult patients with AS, PsA, or RA identified between 1/1/2014 and 7/31/2017 were included. Read More

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Albumin use in bleeding cardiac surgical patients and associated patient outcomes.

Can J Anaesth 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management, Toronto General Hospital - University Health Network, Sinai Health System, Women's College Hospital, University of Toronto, 200 Elizabeth Street, 3EN-464, Toronto, ON, M5G 2C4, Canada.

Purpose: Albumin solution is a colloid used for resuscitation in cardiac surgical patients, but it is unclear if it offers advantages over crystalloids. We examined current clinical practice across 11 cardiac surgical centres and the association of albumin with outcomes in a cohort of bleeding cardiac surgical patients.

Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of data from the Effect of Fibrinogen Concentrate vs Cryoprecipitate on Blood Component Transfusion After Cardiac Surgery (FIBRES) trial. Read More

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Cardiovascular Event Rates After Myocardial Infarction or Ischaemic Stroke in Patients with Additional Risk Factors: A Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study.

Adv Ther 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Amgen (Europe) GmbH, Suurstoffi 22, 6343, Risch-Rotkreuz, Switzerland.

Introduction: The impact of additional risk factors on major cardiovascular event (MACE) rates in patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) or ischaemic stroke (IS) treated with statins is not well defined.

Methods: In this retrospective population-based cohort study, patients with a history of MI or IS treated with moderate- or high-intensity statins were identified using Swedish national register data. Patients were incident (index event between July 2006 and December 2014 and followed from diagnosis) or prevalent (MI or IS before July 2006 and followed thereafter). Read More

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Simultaneous herpes zoster rash in the upper extremity and interscapular region that resembles innervation zone of the dorsal ramus of the cervical nerve root: a case report.

AME Case Rep 2021 25;5:25. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Nomura Orthopaedic Clinic, Yamaguchi, Japan.

In daily medical practice, scapular pain associated with cervical radiculopathy is commonly seen prior to the onset of pain of the upper extremity; however, the cause of the scapular pain is uncertain. We report a case of herpes zoster with simultaneous skin rash in both the upper extremity and interscapular region, which corresponds to the painful scapular region in case of C8 cervical radiculopathy. A 71-year-old healthy woman complained of shoulder and scapular pain followed by a blistering skin rash on both the ulnar side of her upper extremity and intrascapular region on the right side. Read More

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Thymoma associated with severe pancytopenia and Good's syndrome: case report.

AME Case Rep 2021 25;5:22. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Surgery, Kaiser Permanente Oakland Medical Center, Oakland, CA, USA.

We report a rare case of thymoma associated with pancytopenia and Good's syndrome. The patient was a previously healthy 60-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a severe headache. Her initial work up was significant for a parenchymal hemorrhage and severe pancytopenia. Read More

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Honey bee queen health is unaffected by contact exposure to pesticides commonly found in beeswax.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 26;11(1):15151. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Applied Ecology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, USA.

Honey bee queen health is crucial for colony health and productivity, and pesticides have been previously associated with queen loss and premature supersedure. Prior research has investigated the effects of indirect pesticide exposure on queens via workers, as well as direct effects on queens during development. However, as adults, queens are in constant contact with wax as they walk on comb and lay eggs; therefore, direct pesticide contact with adult queens is a relevant but seldom investigated exposure route. Read More

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Maternal Oxycodone Treatment Results in Neurobehavioral Disruptions in Mice Offspring.

eNeuro 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Christopher S Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 USA

Opioid drugs are increasingly being prescribed to pregnant women. Such compounds can also bind and activate opioid receptors in the fetal brain, which could lead to long term brain and behavioral disruptions. We hypothesized that maternal treatment with oxycodone (OXY), the primary opioid at the center of the current crisis, leads to later neurobehavioral disorders and gene expression changes in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of resulting offspring. Read More

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Clinical Reasoning: An Unexpected Response to Therapy in a Patient With HIV and Focal Seizures.

Neurology 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia

We present the case of a 23-year-old right-handed man who presented to an emergency department in Lusaka, Zambia with new-onset headaches and focal seizures. He was on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for HIV and had been started on anti-tuberculous therapy at his local clinic two weeks prior to presentation based on chest x-ray findings. On examination, he had subtle weakness and hyperreflexia in his left upper extremity. Read More

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Neurophysiological changes of brain and spinal cord in individuals with patellofemoral pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

BMJ Open 2021 Jul 26;11(7):e049882. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

Introduction: Reduced neuromuscular control due to altered neurophysiological functions of the central nervous system has been suggested to cause movement deficits in individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP). However, the underlying neurophysiological measures of brain and spinal cord in this population remain to be poorly understood. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence for altered cortical and spinal cord functions in individuals with PFP. Read More

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