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Saliva testing as a means to monitor therapeutic lithium levels in patients with psychiatric disorders: identification of clinical and environmental covariates, and their incorporation into a prediction model.

Bipolar Disord 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Epidemiology, University of California Irvine, Irvine, 92697, CA, USA.

Objective: The narrow therapeutic window of lithium medications necessitates frequent serum monitoring, which can be expensive and inconvenient for the patient. Compared to blood, saliva collection is easier, non-invasive, requires less processing, and can be done without the need for trained personnel. This study investigated the utility of longitudinal salivary lithium level monitoring. Read More

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September 2021

Acute Kidney Injury is a Common and Significant Complication Following Ileostomy Formation.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Surgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

Aim: To characterize the incidence and short-term prognostic value of an acute kidney injury (AKI) during the admission where an ileostomy is formed.

Methods: Adults with a baseline creatinine discharged alive after ileostomy formation from 2014-2016 were included. All patients had daily basic metabolic panels (BMP) and the Kidney Diseases Improving Global Outcomes criteria were used to determine the presence and severity of any AKI. Read More

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September 2021

Interleukin-6 blockade for prophylaxis and management of immune-related adverse events in cancer immunotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 15;157:214-224. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Melanoma Institute Australia, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Department of Medical Oncology, Royal North Shore and Mater Hospitals, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have activity across many tumor types, but activation of the immune system may also lead to significant, often steroid-refractory immune-related adverse events (irAEs). We sought to determine the activity of tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, in treatment or prevention of auto-immune irAE in ICI-treated patients.

Methods: Institutional databases from 2 melanoma centers were reviewed for patients treated with ICIs and tocilizumab. Read More

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September 2021

Primary external auditory canal meningioma: Case report and review of the literature.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Sep 11;43(1):103215. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Puget Sound Ear, Nose and Throat, 21911 76th Ave W, Edmonds, WA, 98026, United States of America.

Meningiomas are tumors that arise from arachnoid cells attached to both the pia mater and the inner portion of the arachnoid. They are common intracranial tumors, representing 12-25% of intracranial neoplasms. Intracranial meningiomas can spread extracranially to involve surrounding structures, including the ear and temporal bone. Read More

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September 2021

Do Health Insurance Mandates Spillover to Education? Evidence from Michigan's Autism Insurance Mandate.

J Health Econ 2021 Aug 12;80:102489. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Cornell University, NBER, and CES-Ifo, USA.

Social programs and mandates are usually studied in isolation, but unintended spillovers to other areas can impact individual behavior and social welfare. We examine the presence of spillovers from health care policy to the education sector by studying how health insurance coverage affects the education of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). We leverage a state mandate that increased insurance coverage of ASD-related services, which often are provided by both the private sector and within public schools. Read More

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Vaccination after prior COVID-19 infection: Implications for dose sparing and booster shots.

EBioMedicine 2021 Sep 15;72:103586. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

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September 2021

Reduction of pulse "antinutritional" content by optimizing pulse canning process is insufficient to improve fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability.

Food Chem 2021 Sep 2;370:131021. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Aix Marseille Univ, INRAE, INSERM, C2VN, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Some bioactive compounds found in pulses (phytates, saponins, tannins) display antinutritional properties and interfere with fat-soluble vitamin bioavailability (i.e., bioaccessibility and intestinal uptake). Read More

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September 2021

Reducing variability of breast cancer subtype predictors by grounding deep learning models in prior knowledge.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Sep 10;138:104850. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Biology, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Deep learning neural networks have improved performance in many cancer informatics problems, including breast cancer subtype classification. However, many networks experience underspecificationwheremultiplecombinationsofparametersachievesimilarperformance, bothin training and validation. Additionally, certain parameter combinations may perform poorly when the test distribution differs from the training distribution. Read More

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September 2021

Retaliatory aggressive driving: A justice perspective.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Sep 15;162:106393. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Driving anger and roadway aggression have previously been conceptualized using attributional theory, the theory of planned behavior, and the general aggression model (GAM) framework. The current study builds on these findings, testing the applicability of the attribution-of-blame model of perceptions of injustice and expanding existing models of retaliatory driving aggression to include unjust world beliefs and sensitivity to injustice. A sample of 269 participants from a large urban Canadian university viewed five animated driving scenarios (i. Read More

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September 2021

In-depth learning of automatic segmentation of shoulder joint magnetic resonance images based on convolutional neural networks.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Jul 31;211:106325. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Yancheng First Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, 166 Yulong Road West, Tinghu District, China; The First People's Hospital of Yancheng, 166 Yulong Road West, Tinghu District, China.

Objective: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is gradually replacing computed tomography (CT) in the examination of bones and joints. The accurate and automatic segmentation of the bone structure in the MRI of the shoulder joint is essential for the measurement and diagnosis of bone injuries and diseases. The existing bone segmentation algorithms cannot achieve automatic segmentation without any prior knowledge, and their versatility and accuracy are relatively low. Read More

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Distress in a Pandemic - The Association of the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic with Distress and Quality of Life in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT).

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Harvard Medical School, Boston MA; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston MA.

Background: The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has drastically disrupted cancer care, potentially exacerbating patients' distress levels. Patients undergoing HSCT may be especially vulnerable to this pandemic stress. However, the associations of the COVID-19 pandemic with distress, fatigue, and QOL are not well understood in this population. Read More

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September 2021

Chemogenetic inactivation of the nucleus reuniens impairs object placement memory in female mice.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2021 Sep 15:107521. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, 53211. Electronic address:

Episodic memory is a complex process requiring input from several regions of the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that coordinated activity between the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is required for episodic memory consolidation. However, the mechanisms through which the DH and mPFC interact to promote memory consolidation remain poorly understood. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of microglia in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease primed with L-DOPA after sub-anesthetic ketamine treatment.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Sep 15:136251. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

University of Arizona, College of Nursing, 1305 N. Martin Ave, P.O. Box 210203, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), characterized by motor dysfunction. While PD symptoms are well treated with L-DOPA, continuous use can cause L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). We have previously demonstrated that sub-anesthetic ketamine attenuated LID development in rodents, measured by abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs), and reduced the density of maladaptive striatal dendritic mushroom spines. Read More

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September 2021

Sensitivity, specificity and limitation of in vitro hippocampal slice and neuron-based assays for assessment of drug-induced seizure liability.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Sep 15:115725. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Gene Tox and In Vitro Cellular Toxicology, Safety Assessment & Laboratory Animal Resources (SALAR), Merck & Co., Inc., West Point, PA 19486, USA.

An effective in vitro screening assay to detect seizure liability in preclinical development can contribute to better lead molecule optimization prior to candidate selection, providing higher throughput and overcoming potential brain exposure limitations in animal studies. This study explored effects of 26 positive and 14 negative reference pharmacological agents acting through different mechanisms, including 18 reference agents acting on glutamate signaling pathways, in a brain slice assay (BSA) of adult rat to define the assay's sensitivity, specificity, and limitations. Evoked population spikes (PS) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons of hippocampus (HPC) in the BSA. Read More

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September 2021

Multi-ethnic genome-wide and HLA association study of total serum IgE.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

Background: Total serum IgE (tIgE) is an important intermediate phenotype of allergic disease. Whole genome genetic association studies across ancestries may identify important determinants of IgE.

Objective: By leveraging data from the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program, the Consortium on Asthma among African-ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA) and the Atopic Dermatitis Research Network (ADRN), we aim to increase understanding of genetic variants affecting tIgE production across the ancestry and allergic disease spectrum (N=21,901). Read More

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September 2021

Characterizing Expiratory Respiratory Muscle Degeneration in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Chest 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Electronic address:

Background: Expiratory muscle weakness and impaired airway clearance are early signs of respiratory dysfunction in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a degenerative muscle disorder in which muscle cells are damaged and replaced by fibrofatty tissue. Little is known about expiratory muscle pathology and its relationship to cough and airway clearance capacity; however, the level of muscle replacement by fat can be estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and expressed as a fat fraction (FF).

Research Question: How does abdominal expiratory muscle fatty infiltration change over time in DMD and relate to clinical expiratory function?

Study Design And Methods: Individuals with DMD underwent longitudinal MRI of the abdomen to determine FF in the internal oblique, external oblique, and rectus abdominis expiratory muscles. Read More

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September 2021

Cancer in Cystic Fibrosis: A Narrative Review of Prevalence, Risk Factors, Screening and Treatment Challenges.

Chest 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Surgery and Department of Family Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Cystic fibrosis is a progressive monogenetic disorder that causes persistent pulmonary disease, but also affects other organ systems including the digestive tract. Recent advances in treatment and care of CF patients including the use of new and highly effective CFTR modulators, have led to a dramatic increase in survival; young patients with CF can now expect to live to or beyond middle age, where cancer is more frequent. CF patients are now known to face an increased risk of digestive tract cancer-particularly cancer of the colon. Read More

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September 2021

Automated assignment of cell identity from single-cell multiplexed imaging and proteomic data.

Cell Syst 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON M5G 1X5, Canada; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada; Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3G3, Canada; Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 3A1, Canada; Ontario Institute of Cancer Research, Toronto, ON M5G 1M1, Canada; Vector Institute, Toronto, ON M5G 1M1, Canada. Electronic address:

A major challenge in the analysis of highly multiplexed imaging data is the assignment of cells to a priori known cell types. Existing approaches typically solve this by clustering cells followed by manual annotation. However, these often require several subjective choices and cannot explicitly assign cells to an uncharacterized type. Read More

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September 2021

Chronic Hypertension, Perinatal Mortality, and the Impact of Preterm Delivery: A Population-Based Study.

BJOG 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Objectives: To estimate the association between chronic hypertension and perinatal mortality and to evaluate the extent to which risks are impacted by preterm delivery.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis.

Setting: United States, 2015-2018. Read More

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September 2021

Low-dose aspirin use and mortality risk in patients with head and neck cancer - a nationwide cohort study of 10,770 patients.

Int J Cancer 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Unit of Virus, Lifestyle and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Several recent observational studies have linked low-dose aspirin use to improved survival in patients with head and neck cancer. However, studies of patterns of aspirin use and risk of cancer-specific mortality are lacking. This nationwide cohort study included all patients in the Danish Cancer Registry with a primary diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) during 2000-2016, aged 30-84 years, without prior cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer), and alive 1 year after diagnosis. Read More

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September 2021

Distinctive age distribution and hair loss pattern putatively highlighting uniqueness of Japanese cases of fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution.

J Dermatol 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Dermatology, Kyorin University Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution (FAPD) is a unique entity which presents clinicopathological characteristics of both male/female pattern androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and lichen planopilaris (LPP). This entity was first reported in 2000 and its criteria was recently proposed. Etiopathogenesis of FAPD has been speculated to be immunological destruction involving miniaturized hair follicles but still remains elusive. Read More

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September 2021

Natalizumab Versus Fingolimod in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Subgroup Analysis From Three International Cohorts.

CNS Drugs 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Neurology Unit, Garibaldi Hospital, Catania, Italy.

Introduction: Natalizumab has proved to be more effective than fingolimod in reducing disease activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Whether this association is universal for all patient groups remains to be determined.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of natalizumab and fingolimod in RRMS subgroups defined by the baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of interest. Read More

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September 2021

Articular and Extra-Articular Benefits in ACR20 Non-responders at Week 104 Treated With Apremilast: Pooled Analysis of Three Randomized Controlled Trials.

Rheumatol Ther 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Introduction: PALACE 1, 2, and 3 were phase 3 studies aimed to evaluate apremilast efficacy and safety in patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) despite prior treatment with conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and/or biologics. The pooled analysis reported here further characterized the clinical outcomes associated with long-term apremilast exposure in patients failing to achieve ≥ 20% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology response criteria (ACR20) at Week 104.

Methods: Patients randomized to apremilast 30 mg twice daily at baseline and classified as ACR20 non-responders (ACR20NRs) or ACR20 responders (ACR20Rs) at Week 104 were included. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Switching to Teneligliptin in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled with Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors: 52-Week Results from a Prospective Observational Study.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, 443-721, South Korea.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of switching to teneligliptin from other dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) inadequately controlled despite treatment with a stable dose of other DPP-4 inhibitors.

Methods: Patients with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 7% despite taking DPP-4 inhibitors other than teneligliptin, with or without other antidiabetic agents, for at least 3 months were enrolled in this study. Patients on DPP-4 inhibitors administered prior to participation in this study were switched to 20 mg teneligliptin once daily and the dose was maintained for the 52-week study period. Read More

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September 2021

Saliva secretion is reduced in mild reflux esophagitis patients.

Esophagus 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Gastroenterology, Nippon Medical School, Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-5 Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8603, Japan.

Background: Salivary secretion in patients with mild reflux esophagitis has not been examined. In this study, saliva secretion and salivary epidermal growth factor (EGF) in patients with mild reflux esophagitis were investigated.

Methods: Thirty-eight mild reflux esophagitis patients and 38 control subjects were recruited for this case-control study. Read More

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September 2021

Molecular dynamics investigation of structure evolution and thermodynamics of Ni-Fe nanoparticles during inert gas condensation.

J Mol Model 2021 Sep 18;27(10):288. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Center for Materials Genome Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles is relevant to many applications in the fields of catalysis, energy storage, and biomedicine. Understanding the growth mechanisms and morphology of nanoparticles during inert gas condensation is crucial to rationally improve the performance of the final nanoparticles. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to study the structural and thermodynamic behavior of Ni-Fe nanoparticles from homogenous vapor phase in Ar atmosphere. Read More

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September 2021

A comprehensive prognostic analysis of osimertinib treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients with acquired EGFR-T790M mutation: a real-world study.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37# Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.

Purpose: Osimertinib is the standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with T790M mutation after the failure of first-/second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI). We comprehensively analyzed factors that affect the therapeutic efficacy of the osimertinib treatment in NSCLC patients.

Methods: 351 NSCLC patients with T790M mutation receiving osimertinib treatment were included. Read More

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September 2021

How can fertility counseling be implemented for every newly diagnosed pediatric patient facing gonadotoxic treatment?-A single-center experience.

Ann Hematol 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Division for Stem Cell Transplantation and Immunology, Department for Children and Adolescents, University Hospital, Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

Since the survival rates of pediatric patients undergoing cancer treatment or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have increased rapidly in recent decades, the late effects of treatment are now an important focus of patient care. Access to fertility preservation (FP) procedures as well as their financing differs considerably across Europe. However, some countries in Europe have recently changed the legal basis for financing FP procedures; therefore, the implementation of structures is mandatory to give patients access to FP. Read More

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September 2021

A model integrating Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) haplotypes for risk prediction of COVID-19 clinical disease severity.

Immunogenetics 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Hematology, Immunogenetics Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Associations between inherited Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) genotypes and the severity of multiple RNA virus infections have been reported. This prospective study was initiated to investigate if such an association exists for COVID-19. In this cohort study performed at Ankara University, 132 COVID-19 patients (56 asymptomatic, 51 mild-intermediate, and 25 patients with severe disease) were genotyped for KIR and ligands. Read More

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September 2021

Acute myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 in a patient with former SARS-CoV-2 infection.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Medicine I, Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Am Klinikum 1, Jena, 07747, Germany.

We describe a case of a 20-year-old healthy man developing chest pain and classical symptoms of vaccine reactogenicity 12 h after receiving the first dose of mRNA-1273 (Moderna). Cardiac troponin T was increased, and subepicardial inflammation and focal contractile dysfunction were detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. We confirmed the diagnosis of acute myocarditis by endomyocardial biopsy demonstrating significant infiltration of monocytes and T lymphocytes. Read More

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September 2021