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A prospective cohort study of ambient air pollution exposure and risk of uterine leiomyomata.

Hum Reprod 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

Study Question: To what extent are ambient concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 microns (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) associated with risk of self-reported physician-diagnosed uterine leiomyomata (UL)?

Summary Answer: In this large prospective cohort study of Black women, ambient concentrations of O3, but not PM2. Read More

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A prediction model of risk factors for complications among SARS-CoV2 positive patients: Cases from Jordan.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Mar 6;14(6):689-695. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan; Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacotherapeutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Background: The number of COVID-19 infected patients has been soaring in the Middle East countries. The disease poses a significant threat, decisions about prioritizing care should be made in accordance with the proven risk factors for complications.

Objective: The present study provides the first bespoke prediction model in the Middle East to identify COVID-19 patients, who are at higher risk for complications. Read More

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Derivation and Validation of a Predictive Algorithm for Long-Term Care Admission or Death.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Center of Innovation in Long Term Services and Supports, Providence VA Medical Center, Providence, RI, USA; Brown School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA; Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Many older Veterans, like most adults, prefer to remain in their homes and communities as long as possible. Although targeted delivery of home- and community-based services for Veterans might delay long-term care placement, often, access to these services is inconsistently organized or delayed. To aid in early recognition of Veterans at high risk for long-term care placement or death, we developed and validated a predictive algorithm, "Choose Home. Read More

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The effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy in light versus heavier smokers.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Toronto, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Toronto, ON.

Purpose: The prevalence of light smoking has increased in North America; however, research on the effectiveness of current treatments in this sub-population of smokers is limited. We compared quit outcomes between light (1-10 cigarettes per day (CPD)) versus heavier smokers (>10 CPD) enrolled in a treatment program at their primary care clinic.

Methods: This secondary analysis analyzed 45,087 participants (light smokers (n=9,861); heavier smokers (n=35,226)) enrolled in a smoking cessation program between April 2016 and March 2020. Read More

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Predictive variables of prescription opioid misuse in patients with chronic noncancer pain. Development of a risk detection scale: A registered report protocol.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251586. Epub 2021 May 13.

Universidad de Málaga, Facultad de Psicología, Andalucía Tech, Málaga, Spain.

Background: Opioid therapy is utilized for a broad range of chronic pain conditions. Several studies have highlighted the adverse effects of opioid medication due to the misuse of these drugs. The gradual increase in the use of opioids has become a global phenomenon and is generating social concern. Read More

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Primary health care and social isolation against COVID-19 in Northeastern Brazil: Ecological time-series study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250493. Epub 2021 May 13.

Public Health Program, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

Background: Brazil is witnessing a massive increase of corona virus disease (COVID-19). Its peculiar primary health care (PHC) system faces a burden due to the contagion occurring in the community environment. Then, the aim is to estimate the effect of the coverage of primary health care and social isolation on the evolution of confirmed cases and deaths by COVID-19, controlling sociodemographic, economic and health system aspects. Read More

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Infratentorial pathology in frontotemporal dementia: cerebellar grey and white matter alterations in FTD phenotypes.

J Neurol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Computational Neuroimaging Group, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, Peter Bede, Room 5.43, Pearse Street, Dublin 2, Ireland.

The contribution of cerebellar pathology to cognitive and behavioural manifestations is increasingly recognised, but the cerebellar profiles of FTD phenotypes are relatively poorly characterised. A prospective, single-centre imaging study has been undertaken with a high-resolution structural and diffusion tensor protocol to systematically evaluate cerebellar grey and white matter alterations in behavioural-variant FTD(bvFTD), non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia(nfvPPA), semantic-variant primary progressive aphasia(svPPA), C9orf72-positive ALS-FTD(C9 + ALSFTD) and C9orf72-negative ALS-FTD(C9-ALSFTD). Cerebellar cortical thickness and complementary morphometric analyses were carried out to appraise atrophy patterns controlling for demographic variables. Read More

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Predicting Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pneumonia: epidemiological study of respiratory tract infection using multiplex PCR assays.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Primary Care and Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common illness that can lead to mortality. β-lactams are ineffective against atypical pathogen including Mycoplasma pneumoniae. We used molecular examinations to develop a decision tree to predict atypical pathogens with CAP and to examine the prevalence of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Read More

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Comparison of the Quality of Chronic Disease Management Between Adults With and Without Dementia.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e219622. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Health Policy and Management, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), Fielding School of Public Health.

Importance: Adults with dementia may experience poorer quality of chronic disease management because of the difficulty in reporting symptoms and engaging in shared decision-making associated with cognitive impairment.

Objective: To compare the quality of chronic disease management received by adults with and without dementia.

Design, Setting, And Participants: For this cross-sectional study, nationally representative data from noninstitutionalized patients 65 years or older were obtained from the 2002-2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Read More

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Telemedicine Use in Orthopaedic Surgery Varies by Race, Ethnicity, Primary Language, and Insurance Status.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 05 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

G. Xiong, N. E. Greene, H. M. Lightsey, A. M. Crawford, B. M. Striano, Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Residency Program, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA A. K. Simpson, A. J. Schoenfeld, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Healthcare disparities are well documented across multiple subspecialties in orthopaedics. The widespread implementation of telemedicine risks worsening these disparities if not carefully executed, despite original assumptions that telemedicine improves overall access to care. Telemedicine also poses unique challenges such as potential language or technological barriers that may alter previously described patterns in orthopaedic disparities. Read More

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Is the Preoperative Use of Antidepressants and Benzodiazepines Associated with Opioid and Other Analgesic Use after Hip and Knee Arthroplasty?

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 05 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

T. J. Rajamäki, A. Hietaharju, E. Jämsen, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland T. J. Rajamäki, T. Moilanen, E. Jämsen, Coxa Hospital for Joint Replacement, Tampere, Finland P. A. Puolakka, Department of Anaesthesia, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland A. Hietaharju, Department of Neurology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Mental health disorders can occur in patients with pain conditions, and there have been reports of an increased risk of persistent pain after THA and TKA among patients who have psychological distress. Persistent pain may result in the prolonged consumption of opioids and other analgesics, which may expose patients to adverse drug events and narcotic habituation or addiction. However, the degree to which preoperative use of antidepressants or benzodiazepines is associated with prolonged analgesic use after surgery is not well quantified. Read More

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The relationships between fear of cancer recurrence, spiritual well-being and psychological resilience in non-metastatic breast cancer survivors during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Psychooncology 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Medical Faculty, Department of Medical Oncology, Çanakkale, Turkey.

Objectives: This study examines the relationships between fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), spiritual well-being (SWB) and psychological resilience in breast cancer survivors during the COVID-19 outbreak, and investigates to what extent breast cancer survivors' sociodemographic characteristics affect FCR, SWB and psychological resilience levels.

Methods: The study was conducted at Canakkale University Hospital in Turkey. Included in the study were 82 non-metastatic breast cancer patients whose clinical outcomes were followed-up after primary treatment, but suspended due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Read More

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Fine root dynamics across pantropical rainforest ecosystems.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, University, P.O. Box 63, Kumasi, Ghana.

Fine roots constitute a significant component of the net primary productivity (NPP) of forest ecosystems but are much less studied than above-ground NPP. Comparisons across sites and regions are also hampered by inconsistent methodologies, especially in tropical areas. Here, we present a novel dataset of fine root biomass, productivity, residence time, and allocation in tropical old-growth rainforest sites worldwide, measured using consistent methods, and examine how these variables are related to consistently determined soil and climatic characteristics. Read More

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Prediction of the postoperative 90-day mortality after acute colorectal cancer surgery: development and temporal validation of the ACORCA model.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Surgical Science (CSS), Department of Surgery, Zealand University Hospital, Lykkebækvej 1, 4600, Koge, Denmark.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a model to predict 90-day mortality after acute colorectal cancer surgery.

Methods: The model was developed in all patients undergoing acute colorectal cancer surgery in 2014-2016 and validated in a patient group operated in 2017 in Denmark. The outcome was 90-day mortality. Read More

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Subterranean movement inferred by temporary emigration in Barton Springs salamanders ().

PeerJ 2021 23;9:e11246. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Watershed Protection Department, City of Austin, Austin, TX, United States of America.

Movement behavior is an important aspect of animal ecology but is challenging to study in species that are unobservable for some portion of their lives, such as those inhabiting subterranean environments. Using four years of robust-design capture-recapture data, we examined the probability of movement into subterranean habitat by a population of endangered Barton Springs salamanders (), a species that inhabits both surface and subterranean groundwater habitats. We tested the effects of environmental variables and body size on survival and temporary emigration, using the latter as a measure of subterranean habitat use. Read More

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Depression screening and treatment among uninsured populations in Primary Care.

Int J Clin Health Psychol 2021 Sep-Dec;21(3):100241. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Health Science Center Permian Basin, Texas Tech University, United States.

Uninsured populations have poor treatment engagement and are less likely to receive evidence-based interventions for depression. The objective of the current study was to retrospectively examine depression screening, diagnosis, and treatment patterns among uninsured patients in primary care. Study sample included all patients ( = 11,803) seen in nine community-based clinics. Read More

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How combining different caries lesions characteristics may be helpful in short-term caries progression prediction: model development on occlusal surfaces of primary teeth.

BMC Oral Health 2021 May 12;21(1):255. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2227, Cidade Universitária, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: Few studies have addressed the clinical parameters' predictive power related to caries lesion associated with their progression. This study assessed the predictive validity and proposed simplified models to predict short-term caries progression using clinical parameters related to caries lesion activity status.

Methods: The occlusal surfaces of primary molars, presenting no frank cavitation, were examined according to the following clinical predictors: colour, luster, cavitation, texture, and clinical depth. Read More

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Changes in Diagnostic and Demographic Characteristics of Patients Seeking Mental Health Care During the Early COVID-19 Pandemic in a Large, Community-Based Health Care System.

J Clin Psychiatry 2021 03 3;82(2). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California.

Objective: The early COVID-19 pandemic resulted in great psychosocial disruption and stress, raising speculation that psychiatric disorders may worsen. This study aimed to identify patients vulnerable to worsening mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: This retrospective observational study used electronic health records from March 9 to May 31 in 2019 (n = 94,720) and 2020 (n = 94,589) in a large, community-based health care system. Read More

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Nutritional Predictors of Wound Infection in Patients with Lower Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division Musculoskeletal Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) frequently requires high-risk surgery that predisposes patients to complex wounds. Past studies have identified a variety of tumor characteristics as risk factors for wound infection (WI); however, physiologic characteristics have not yet been studied in this population. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify any nutritional indicators and physiologic characteristics associated with the development of WI. Read More

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Citicoline and Memory Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Research & Innovation Center, Kyowa Hakko Bio Co., Ltd, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0841, Japan.

Background: Supplementation of citicoline (CDP-choline), a naturally occurring mononucleotide, has shown beneficial effects on memory function and behavior in populations with a wide range of impairments. However, few studies have investigated its effect in healthy older populations.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of citicoline (Cognizin®), on memory in healthy elderly populations with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). Read More

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Association between sleep disturbance and low back and pelvic pain in 4-month postpartum women: A cross-sectional study.

Eur Spine J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Public Health, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 7-10-2 Tomogaoka, Suma-ku, Kobe, Japan.

Purpose: Persistent low back and pelvic pain (LBPP) is a postpartum-specific health problem. Sleep disturbances' association with persistent LBPP is not yet clear. We aimed to examine the cross-sectional association between sleep disturbance and persistent LBPP at 4 months postpartum. Read More

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Identifying biotic drivers of population dynamics in a benthic-pelagic community.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 28;11(9):4035-4045. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Environmental and Marine Biology Åbo Akademi University Turku Finland.

Benthic species and communities are linked to pelagic zooplankton through life-stages encompassing both benthic and pelagic habitats and through a mutual dependency on primary producers as a food source. Many zooplankton taxa contribute to the sedimentary system as benthic eggs. Our main aim was to investigate the nature of the population level biotic interactions between and within these two seemingly independent communities, both dependent on the pelagic primary production, while simultaneously accounting for environmental drivers (salinity, temperature, and oxygen conditions). Read More

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Combining radiomic phenotypes of non-small cell lung cancer with liquid biopsy data may improve prediction of response to EGFR inhibitors.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9984. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Among non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with therapeutically targetable tumor mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), not all patients respond to targeted therapy. Combining circulating-tumor DNA (ctDNA), clinical variables, and radiomic phenotypes may improve prediction of EGFR-targeted therapy outcomes for NSCLC. This single-center retrospective study included 40 EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC patients treated with EGFR-targeted therapy. Read More

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Rural Veterans' Experiences With Outpatient Care in the Veterans Health Administration Versus Community Care.

Med Care 2021 Jun;59(Suppl 3):S286-S291

VA Boston Healthcare System.

Background: The 2014 Veterans Access, Choice and Accountability Act was intended to improve Veterans' access to timely health care by expanding their options to receive community care (CC) paid for by the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Although CC could particularly benefit rural Veterans, we know little about rural Veterans' experiences with CC.

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare rural Veterans' experiences with CC and VA outpatient health care services to those of urban Veterans and examine changes over time. Read More

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Adherence to oral antibiotic therapy in patients with bone and joint infection: A pilot study.

Infect Dis Now 2021 Jun 30;51(4):334-339. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Groupement Hospitalier Nord, Hôpital de la Croix-Rousse, Service Pharmacie, 103, Grande Rue de la Croix-Rousse, 69004 Lyon, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France; University Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, UMR CNRS 5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie Évolutive, Villeurbanne, France.

Objectives: The management of bone and joint infections (BJI) is complex and requires prolonged antimicrobial therapy. Few data exist on adherence to anti-infectious treatment other than HIV, and none on BJI, even though compliance is considered as a major determinant of clinical outcome. This work aimed at evaluating adherence to oral antimicrobial treatment in patients with BJI. Read More

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Smoking among inpatients in treatment for substance use disorders: prevalence and effect on mental health and quality of life.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 May 11;21(1):244. Epub 2021 May 11.

Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Concurrent Substance Abuse and Mental Health Disorders, Innlandet Hospital Trust, P.O. Box 104, 2381, Brumunddal, Norway.

Background: Smoking is still prevalent among people with substance use disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of smoking among patients in treatment for substance use disorders and to analyze the effect of smoking both at baseline and follow-up on drop-out, mental health and quality of life.

Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight inpatients (26% female), mainly with alcohol use disorder, staying at three different rehabilitation clinics in Eastern Norway, were interviewed at admission, and at 6 weeks and 6 months follow-up. Read More

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Surgery for Pulmonary Metastases: Long-Term Survival in 281 Patients.

Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Background:  Despite weak evidence, pulmonary metastasectomy (PM) is widely performed with intent to improve patient survival. Our single-institution analysis aims to evaluate outcomes and to identify factors influencing survival of patients undergoing PM for metastases from wide range of primary tumors.

Materials And Methods:  All patients undergoing curative-intent PM between 2008 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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Determinants of Survival in Skull Base Osteosarcoma: A National Cancer Database Study.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, USA;; Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, Irvine, Orange, CA, USA;. Electronic address:

Objective: Osteosarcomas of the skull base are rare and aggressive tumors that are most commonly treated with primary surgical resection and adjuvant chemoradiation. Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), we analyzed demographic and clinical prognosticators for overall survival (OS).

Methods: The NCDB was queried for cases of histologically confirmed skull base osteosarcoma treated between 2004 and 2015, excluding patients receiving palliation or having less than 1 month of follow-up. Read More

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Variables Prevalent Among Early Unplanned Readmissions in Infants Following Congenital Heart Surgery.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Section of Critical Care, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

Medically complex children including infants undergoing cardiac surgery are at increased risk for hospital readmissions. Investigation of this population may reveal opportunities to optimize systems and coordination of care. A retrospective study of all infants undergoing cardiac surgery from 2015 through 2016 at a large tertiary institution who were readmitted within 1 year of discharge from cardiac surgical hospitalization was performed. Read More

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Provider and Patient-panel Characteristics Associated With Initial Adoption and Sustained Prescribing of Medication for Opioid Use Disorder.

J Addict Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, City, UT (GC, AJG), Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (ESC, MS, DN, TB, CD, JD), School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (WFG, C-CH), Program Evaluation Research Unit, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (JP, JW), School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (JP), Pennsylvania Department of Drug and Alcohol Programs, Harrisburg, PA (ED), Pennsylvania Department of Human Services, Harrisburg, PA (DK).

Objectives: Limited information is available regarding provider- and patient panel-level factors associated with primary care provider (PCP) adoption/prescribing of medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD).

Methods: We assessed a retrospective cohort from 2015 to 2018 within the Pennsylvania Medicaid Program. Participants included PCPs who were Medicaid providers, with no history of MOUD provision, and who treated ≥10 Medicaid enrollees annually. Read More

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