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Contemporary Clinical Use of Aspirin: Mechanisms of Action, Current Concepts, Unresolved Questions, and Future Perspectives.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

The ability of aspirin to inhibit platelet aggregation has positioned this agent within the most frequently used drugs worldwide. The aim of this article is to review the contemporary clinical use of aspirin and also to discuss unresolved issues not yet translated into clinical practice. Results from several clinical trials have led to strong guideline recommendations for aspirin use in the acute management and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Read More

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From Proteinuria to Fibrosis: An Update on Pathophysiology and Treatment Options.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2021 Jun 15:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Renal Medicine, St. George Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Proteinuria is a key biomarker in nephrology. It is central to diagnosis and risk assessment and the primary target of many important therapies. Etiologies resulting in pathological proteinuria include congenital and acquired disorders, as well as both glomerular (immune/non-immune mediated) and tubular defects. Read More

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Early Goal-Directed Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Patients with Cardiorenal Syndrome.

Blood Purif 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Nephrology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to clarify the efficacy of early goal-directed renal replacement therapy (GDRRT) for treatment of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) patients after acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF).

Methods: In the retrospective, observational study, we enrolled 54 patients in the early GDRRT group and 63 patients in the late GDRRT group. Baseline characteristics, clinical data at initiation renal replacement therapy time, and the clinical outcome were collected and several parameters were compared and analyzed between 2 groups. Read More

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Predictive factors of severe early treatment-related toxicity in patients receiving first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: Pooled analysis of 2190 patients enrolled in Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive (FFCD) trials.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jun 12;153:40-50. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Saint Louis, Université de Paris, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Aim: Few studies have explored the association between baseline characteristics and the occurrence of early toxicities in patients treated with first-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).

Patients And Methods: Individual patient data of 2190 patients enrolled in 10 prospective FFCD (Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive) trials were analysed. Severe early toxicity was defined as the occurrence of grade ≥III toxicity within 3 months after initiation of chemotherapy (ET3). Read More

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Treatment breaks in first line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: An individual patient data meta-analysis.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 May 19;99:102226. Epub 2021 May 19.

MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Intermittent systemic anti-cancer therapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (aCRC) may improve quality of life without compromising overall survival (OS). We aimed to use individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA) from multiple randomised controlled trials evaluating intermittent strategies to inform clinical practice. We also aimed to validate whether thrombocytosis as a predictive biomarker identified patients with significantly reduced OS receiving a complete treatment break. Read More

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A novel organ-chip system emulates three-dimensional architecture of the human epithelia and the mechanical forces acting on it.

Biomaterials 2021 Jun 6;275:120957. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Emulate Inc., 27 Drydock Avenue, 5th Floor, Boston, MA, 02210, USA. Electronic address:

Successful translation of in vivo experimental data to human patients is an unmet need and a bottleneck in the development of effective therapeutics. Organ-on-Chip technology aims to address this need by leveraging recent significant advancements in microfabrication and biomaterials, which enable modeling of organs and their functionality. These microengineered chips offer researchers the possibility to recreate critical elements of native tissue architecture such as in vivo relevant tissue-tissue interface, air-liquid interface, and mechanical forces, including mechanical stretch and fluidic shear stress, which are crucial to recapitulate tissue level functions. Read More

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Aspirin Use and Risk of Subdural Hematoma: Updated Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 12;30(8):105911. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Medicine (Neurology), McMaster University, Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Purpose: Subdural hematomas are an uncommon, but a serious, bleeding complication of antithrombotic therapies. We update our previous inconclusive meta-analysis to better estimate the risk of subdural hematoma associated with aspirin use.

Methods: For the initial meta-analysis, nine randomized trials published between1980 and 2012 comparing aspirin with placebo/control were considered. Read More

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Oxidation induced by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment reduces IgG/IgE binding capacity and improves the functionality of glycinin.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 12;363:130300. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China. Electronic address:

The effect of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment times from 2 to 5 min at 40 kV on IgG/IgE binding capacity and functionality of soybean glycinin was examined. A substantial reduction in the binding capacity (91.64% for IgG and 81. Read More

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The antidepressant-like effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in GK rats by activating CREB/BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 21;89:153600. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Traditional Chinese Medicine•College of Intergrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Rd, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Background: High rates of co-morbidity have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus with depression (DD). Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD), a Traditional Chinese Medicine formula composed of Angelica and Astragalus, has been historically used for the treatment of diabetes.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigated whether DBD and its main active component, ferulic acid (FA) from Angelica, could ameliorate depression-like behavior in DD and the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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The advice given by physiotherapists to people with back pain in primary care.

Musculoskelet Sci Pract 2021 May 29;55:102403. Epub 2021 May 29.

University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Tremona Road, Southampton, UK; School of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Back pain guidelines endorse giving advice to enable people to self-manage and continue normal activities. Little is known however, about the content of advice that clinicians give and this project aimed to identify the advice given by clinicians to patients with back pain at their initial consultation.

Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted with 25 audio-recordings and transcriptions of consultations between patients with back pain and physiotherapists in a primary care outpatients department. Read More

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Measured energy expenditure in mildly hypothermic critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury: A sub-study of a randomized controlled trial.

Clin Nutr 2021 May 24;40(6):3875-3882. Epub 2021 May 24.

Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Monash University, St Kilda Road, Melbourne, 3004, Australia; Intensive Care Unit, The Alfred Hospital, Commercial Road, Melbourne, 3004, Australia.

Background & Aims: Prophylactic hypothermia, often used in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury, reduces energy expenditure and may affect energy delivered by nutrition therapy. The primary objective of this study was to measure energy expenditure in hypothermic patients over the first 3 days after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Secondary objectives included comparison of measured energy expenditure and nutrition delivery to day 7. Read More

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From hospital unit to intestinal failure center: Twenty years of history.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 27;40(6):3787-3792. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Clinical Nursing, Institute of Nursing and Midwifery, Faculty of Health Care, Jagiellonian University, Krakow, Poland.

Aim: Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is one of the most demanding medical therapies as it is the only option for patients for intestinal failure (IF). No unequivocal policy on how to start and progress with HPN has ever been presented. The IF Center at the Stanley Dudrick's Memorial Hospital in Skawina is one of the biggest centers in Poland, celebrating its twentieth birthday last year. Read More

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Evaluation of efficacy and safety of PARP inhibitors in breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Breast 2021 May 27;59:44-50. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Breast, Heping Hospital Affiliated to Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi, China. Electronic address:

Background: Many breast cancer clinical trials with PARPi have been completed or are currently carried out, either by monotherapy or combined with chemotherapy. We aim to assess the efficacy and safety of PARPi in breast cancer patients as compared to chemotherapy.

Methods: A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, conference meetings and clinical trial registry was performed. Read More

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Evaluation of arsenic species in leukocytes and granulocytes of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients treated with arsenic trioxide.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Jun 8;203:114201. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pharmacy, First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 23 YouZheng Str, Nangang District, Harbin, China. Electronic address:

Concentrations of arsenic metabolites were important to clarify the sensitivity and resistance of APL (acute promyelocytic leukemia) patients to arsenic trioxide (AsO). Our purpose was to evaluate levels and distributions of arsenic species in leukocytes and granulocytes of APL patients. Inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography coupled inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Read More

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Postpartum ultrasound for the diagnosis of obstetric anal sphincter injury.

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2021 Jun 12:100421. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Neonatology, Sydney Medical School Nepean, University of Sydney, Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.

This review presents the available data on the diagnosis of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) by postnatal ultrasound imaging. There is increasing evidence that anal sphincter tears are often missed after childbirth and, even when diagnosed, often sub- optimally repaired, with a high rate of residual defects after reconstruction. Even after postpartum diagnosis and primary repair, 25-50% of patients will have persistent anal incontinence (AI). Read More

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Treatment Outcomes After Single-Device Flow Diversion for Large or Giant Aneurysms.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of single-device flow diversion in patients with aneurysms measuring ≥15 mm in diameter.

Methods: For this retrospective study, we extracted medical record data for patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms, who underwent flow diversion, at the authors' institution between July 2014 and August 2019. The primary effectiveness outcome was defined as angiographic occlusion of the target aneurysm within 18 months without major (>50%) parent artery stenosis, major adverse events, or additional treatment. Read More

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Propofol represses cell growth and metastasis by modulating the circNCAPG/miR-200a-3p/RAB5A axis in glioma.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Hospital of Hebei Medicine University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei,050011, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: Glioma is a common primary intracranial tumor, with high infiltration and aggression. Propofol (Pro) is associated with growth and metastasis in glioma. Meanwhile, circular RNA non-SMC condensin I complex subunit G (circNCAPG, hsa_circ_0007244) has been reported to be upregulated in glioma. Read More

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Ototoxic hearing loss from antimalarials: A systematic narrative review.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Jun 12:102117. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Linguistics, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Drugs used in curative and prophylactic antimalarial treatment may be ototoxic and lead to permanent hearing loss, but there is no consensus regarding prevalence and permanence of ototoxic hearing loss caused by antimalarials. The purpose of this systematic narrative review was to synthesize current evidence on antimalarial ototoxicity in human populations.

Method: Studies published between 2005 and 2018 that reported prevalence of post-treatment hearing loss in individuals treated for malaria. Read More

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Implementation of a digital cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia pathway in primary care.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jun 12:106484. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

The Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health, A Centre of Research Excellence and Flinders Health and Medical Research Institute, Sleep Health, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; National Centre for Sleep Health Services Research, A NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background Insomnia is a prevalent and debilitating disorder commonly managed by family physicians. Insomnia guidelines recommend cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) as the 'first-line' treatment. However, family physicians report limited time, knowledge, access, support, and referral options to manage patients with CBTi. Read More

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Inhaled bronchodilators use and clinical course of adult inpatients with Covid-19 pneumonia in Spain: A retrospective cohort study.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 12:102007. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Pneumology Department, La Paz University Hospital, IdiPAZ, Madrid.

Background: In the current coronavirus health crisis, inhaled bronchodilators(IB) have been suggested as a possible treatment for patients hospitalized. Patients with evidence of Covid-19 pneumonia worldwide have been prescribed these medications as part of therapy for the disease, an indication for which this medications could be ineffective taken on account the pathophysiology and mechanisms of disease progression.

Objective: The main objective was to evaluate whether there is an association between IB use and length of stay. Read More

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Coenzyme Q supplementation - In ageing and disease.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 Jun 12;197:111521. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Se-581 85, Linköping, Sweden.

Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. It is also an antioxidant in cellular membranes and lipoproteins. All cells produce CoQ by a specialized cytoplasmatic-mitochondrial pathway. Read More

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Loss of hepatocyte identity following aberrant YAP activation: a key mechanism in alcoholic hepatitis.

J Hepatol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Univ. Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, U1286 - INFINITE - Institute for Translational Research in Inflammation, F-59000 Lille, France. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is a life-threatening disease with limited therapeutic options, because understanding of the molecular drivers leading to death are not well understood. This study evaluates the Hippo/Yes-associated protein (YAP) pathway which has been shown to play a role in liver regeneration.

Method: The Hippo/YAP pathway was dissected in explants of patients transplanted for AH or alcoholic cirrhosis and in control livers, using RNA-Seq, real-time PCR, Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and transcriptome analysis after laser microdissection. Read More

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Highly efficient uranium (VI) capture from aqueous solution by means of a hydroxyapatite-biochar nanocomposite: Adsorption behavior and mechanism.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 12:111518. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Radionuclides Pollution Control and Resources, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006, China; School of Civil Engineering, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

The exploration and rational design of easily separable and highly efficient sorbents with the sufficient capability of retaining radioactive and toxic uranium U(VI) is paramount. In this study, a hydroxyapatite (HAP) biochar nanocomposite (BR/HAP) was successfully fabricated from rice straw biochar (BR), to be used as a new and efficient adsorbent for removing U(VI) from aqueous solution. Both BR and the BR/HAP composite were characterized via Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Read More

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Transcriptional profiling of primary prostate tumor in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer and association with clinical outcomes: correlative analysis of the E3805 CHAARTED study.

Ann Oncol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The phase III CHAARTED trial established upfront androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plus docetaxel (D) as a standard for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) based on meaningful improvement in overall survival (OS). Biological prognostic markers of outcomes and predictors of chemotherapy benefit are undefined.

Patients And Methods: Whole transcriptomic profiling was performed on primary prostate cancer (PC) tissue obtained from patients enrolled in CHAARTED prior to systemic therapy. Read More

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Cytokinins initiate secondary growth in the Arabidopsis root through a set of LBD genes.

Curr Biol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Biotechnology, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland; Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, and Viikki Plant Science Centre, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland. Electronic address:

During primary growth, plant tissues increase their length, and as these tissues mature, they initiate secondary growth to increase thickness. It is not known what activates this transition to secondary growth. Cytokinins are key plant hormones regulating vascular development during both primary and secondary growth. Read More

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Subcuticular sutures versus staples for skin closure after primary hip arthroplasty.

Acta Orthop Belg 2021 Mar;87(1):55-64

High-quality and cost-effective health care are highly recommended especially in joint replacement surgeries, particularly in total hip arthroplasty. Therefore, it is indispensable for orthopaedic surgeons to spot the potential areas of quality improvement. Evaluating the efficacy of the different ways of skin closure is an unacknowledged topic. Read More

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Assessment of clinical efficacy of lidocaine/tetracaine 7%/7% peel cream in fractional micro-ablative laser procedure-associated pain for facial skin ageing treatment. A randomized, controlled, single-blind trial.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

R&D Cantabria Labs Difa Cooper.

Background: Lidocaine/tetracaine 7%/7% peel cream (L/T-pC) is very effective in reducing pain in several dermatological procedures, such as hair or tattoo laser removal or conventional photodynamic therapy associated pain. Fractional laser resurfacing (FLR) is an effective treatment strategy for facial skin ageing. The main drawback of FLR is the procedure-associated pain. Read More

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Interventions to prevent preterm delivery in twin-twin transfusion with short cervix.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, UTHealth The University of Texas McGovern Medical School and the Fetal Center at Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX.

Objective: Pre-operative short cervical length (CL) remains a major risk factor for preterm birth after laser surgery for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Interventions to prolong pregnancy remain elusive. The objective of this study is to compare secondary preventive methods used in the setting of short CL at the time of laser surgery by five North American Fetal Treatment Network (NAFTNet) centers. Read More

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Thiazolidinediones and Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cohort Study.

Hepatology 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

CARIM School for Cardiovascular Disease, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are potential pharmacological treatment options for patients at risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, we examined the association between the risk of NAFLD and the use of thiazolidinediones and GLP-1 receptor agonists compared with the use of sulfonylureas (SUs) and insulins. Additionally, we calculated the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in users of TZDs and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Read More

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The Serum Proteome and Ursodeoxycholic Acid Response in Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

Hepatology 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK.

Background And Aims: Stratified therapy has entered clinical practice in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), with routine use of second-line therapy in non-responders to first-line therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The mechanism for non-response to UDCA remains, however, unclear and we lack mechanistic serum markers. The UK-PBC study was established to explore the biological basis of UDCA non-response in PBC and to identify markers to enhance treatment. Read More

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