126,635 results match your criteria primary pulmonary

Impact of Confinement in Patients under Long-Term Noninvasive Ventilation during the First Wave of the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic: A Remarkable Resilience.

Respiration 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Pulmonary Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: During the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Switzerland, confinement was imposed to limit transmission and protect vulnerable persons. These measures may have had a negative impact on perceived quality of care and symptoms in patients with chronic disorders.

Objectives: To determine whether patients under long-term home noninvasive ventilation (LTHNIV) for chronic respiratory failure (CRF) were negatively affected by the 56-day confinement (March-April 2020). Read More

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EML4-ALK fusion variant.3 and co-occurrent PIK3CA E542K mutation exhibiting primary resistance to three generations of ALK inhibitors.

Cancer Genet 2021 May 28;256-257:131-135. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan.

The ALK inhibitors are promising therapeutic agents against lung cancer harboring ALK fusion genes and are currently under development up to the third generation. However, its therapeutic effects are reported to be affected by differences in ALK variants and co-occurrent mutations. Materials and Methods; We experienced an autopsy case of an ALK-positive lung cancer patient who showed primary resistance to three generations of ALK inhibitors. Read More

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Early lung ultrasound assessment for the prognosis of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia. A pilot study.

Respir Med Res 2021 Jun 4;80:100832. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospitals KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Objective: SARS CoV-2 is an epidemic viral infection that can cause mild to severe lung involvement. Newly apprehended knowledge on thoracic imaging abnormalities and the growing clinical experience on the evolution of this disease make the radiographic follow-up of hospitalized patients relevant. The value of consecutive bedside lung ultrasonography in the follow-up of hospitalized patients with SARS CoV-2 pneumonia and its correlation with other clinical and laboratory markers needs to be evaluated. Read More

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Performance of the EarlyCDT® Lung test in detection of lung cancer and pulmonary metastases in a high-risk cohort.

Lung Cancer 2021 Jun 10;158:85-90. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, J.B. Winsløws Vej 19, 3, 5000 Odense C, Denmark; Department of Internal Medicine, Vejle Hospital, University Hospital of Southern Denmark, Beriderbakken 4, 7100 Vejle, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objectives: Early detection of lung cancer is pivotal for an optimal prognosis. CT screening is currently implemented in USA. To decrease the amount of CT scans, the application of a blood-based biomarker as part of screening criteria is desirable. Read More

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Inhaled bronchodilators use and clinical course of adult inpatients with Covid-19 pneumonia in Spain: A retrospective cohort study.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jun 12:102007. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Pneumology Department, La Paz University Hospital, IdiPAZ, Madrid.

Background: In the current coronavirus health crisis, inhaled bronchodilators(IB) have been suggested as a possible treatment for patients hospitalized. Patients with evidence of Covid-19 pneumonia worldwide have been prescribed these medications as part of therapy for the disease, an indication for which this medications could be ineffective taken on account the pathophysiology and mechanisms of disease progression.

Objective: The main objective was to evaluate whether there is an association between IB use and length of stay. Read More

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Low blood transfusion rate after implementation of tranexamic acid for fast- track hip- and knee arthroplasty. An observational study of 5205 patients.

Acta Orthop Belg 2021 Mar;87(1):9-16

The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the efficacy of a tranexamic acid (TXA) perioperative protocol for primary hip- and knee arthroplasty, in terms of allogenic blood transfusion rates. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and included all primary hip and knee arthroplasty procedures in the period of 2014-2019. Patients who underwent surgery due to trauma or revision were excluded. Read More

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"It's Really Like Any Other Study": Rural Radiology Facilities Performing Low-Dose Computed Tomography for Lung Cancer Screening.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Oregon Health & Science University, 6684, Portland, Oregon, United States.

Rationale: The majority of eligible people have not been screened for lung cancer. There is emerging evidence that there are location-based disparities applicable to lung cancer screening.

Objective: Describe lung cancer screening radiologic services in rural Oregon and understand the barriers and facilitators to implementation of lung cancer screening using LDCT. Read More

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Bi-level Nasal Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) versus Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) for Preterm Infants with Birth Weight Less Than 1500 g and Respiratory Distress Syndrome Following INSURE Treatment: A Two-center Randomized Controlled Trial.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Neonatology, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) versus continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants with birth weight less than 1500 g and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) following intubation-surfactant-extubation (INSURE) treatment. A two-center randomized control trial was performed. The primary outcome was the reintubation rate of infants within 72 h of age after INSURE. Read More

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Integrated transcriptomic analysis of human tuberculosis granulomas and a biomimetic model identifies therapeutic targets.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Southampton, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a persistent global pandemic and standard treatment has not changed for thirty years. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has undergone prolonged co-evolution with humans, and patients can control Mtb even after extensive infection, demonstrating the fine balance between protective and pathological host responses within infected granulomas. We hypothesised that whole transcriptome analysis of human TB granulomas isolated by laser capture microdissection could identify therapeutic targets, and that comparison with a non-infectious granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis, would identify disease-specific pathological mechanisms. Read More

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A novel nomogram with preferable capability in predicting the overall survival of patients after radical esophageal cancer resection based on accessible clinical indicators: A comparison with AJCC staging.

Cancer Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) is a malignant tumor with high mortality. Nomogram is an important tool used in clinical prognostic assessment. We aimed to establish a novel nomogram to predict the overall survival (OS) of EC patients after radical esophagectomy. Read More

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Modeling the risk of radiation pneumonitis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy.

Esophagus 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Centre for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Esophageal Cancer Institute, Guangzhou, China.

Background: To develop and validate a nomogram for the prediction of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who received definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

Methods: Clinical factors, dose-volume histogram parameters, and pulmonary function parameters were collected from 402 ESCC patients between 2010 and 2017, including 321 patients in the primary cohort and 81 in the validation cohort. The end-point was the occurrence of symptomatic RP (grade ≥ 2) within the first 12 months after radiotherapy. Read More

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The Improvement Effect of Sodium Ferulate on the Formation of Pulmonary Fibrosis in Silicosis Mice Through the Neutrophil Alkaline Phosphatase 3 (NALP3)/Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/α-Smooth Muscle Actin (α-SMA) Pathway.

Med Sci Monit 2021 Jun 15;27:e927978. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Occupational Disease, Hangzhou Red Cross Hospital, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Pneumoconiosis is a chronic progressive fibrotic interstitial pneumonia for which the pathogenesis and treatment remain unclear. Previous studies showed that sodium ferulate (SF) may have a therapeutic effect, and this study explored the mechanism underlying SF-related improvement. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, a silicosis mouse model and primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts were established. Read More

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Pulmonary hypertension in interstitial lung disease: screening, diagnosis and treatment.

Curr Opin Pulm Med 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine V, University Hospital, LMU Munich and Lungenforschungsambulanz Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, Comprehensive Pneumology Center, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Munich, Germany Advanced Lung Disease and Transplant Program, Inova Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church, Virginia, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Pulmonary vascular disease resulting in pulmonary hypertension in the context of interstitial lung disease (PH-ILD) is a common complication that presents many challenges in clinical practice. Despite recent advances, the pathogenetic interplay between parenchymal and vascular disease in ILD is not fully understood. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge and recent advances in the field. Read More

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Breathlessness across generations: results from the RHINESSA generation study.

Thorax 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Breathlessness is a major cause of suffering and disability globally. The symptom relates to multiple factors including asthma and lung function, which are influenced by hereditary factors. No study has evaluated potential inheritance of breathlessness itself across generations. Read More

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Clinical management of immune-related adverse events following immunotherapy treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

J Investig Med 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Southern California - Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and Hospital, Los Angeles, California, USA

The advent of checkpoint blockade-based immunotherapy is rapidly changing the management of lung cancer. Whereas past anticancer drugs' primary toxicity was hematologic, the newer agents have primarily autoimmune toxicity. Thus, it is no longer enough for oncology practitioners to be skilled only in hematology. Read More

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Long-Term Prognostic Significance of Ventricular Repolarization Dispersion in Patients with Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

Am J Cardiol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan.

Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is frequently complicated by fatal ventricular arrhythmias. T-peak to T-end interval to QT interval ratio (TpTe/QT) on electrocardiograms (ECG) was proposed as a marker of ventricular repolarization dispersion. Although this ratio could be associated with the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in cardiovascular diseases, its prognostic implication in patients with CS is unclear. Read More

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Breath-holding as a novel approach to risk stratification in COVID-19.

Crit Care 2021 06 14;25(1):208. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham & Women's Hospital & Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Despite considerable progress, it remains unclear why some patients admitted for COVID-19 develop adverse outcomes while others recover spontaneously. Clues may lie with the predisposition to hypoxemia or unexpected absence of dyspnea ('silent hypoxemia') in some patients who later develop respiratory failure. Using a recently-validated breath-holding technique, we sought to test the hypothesis that gas exchange and ventilatory control deficits observed at admission are associated with subsequent adverse COVID-19 outcomes (composite primary outcome: non-invasive ventilatory support, intensive care admission, or death). Read More

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Usefulness of SS18-SSX antibody as a diagnostic marker for pulmonary metastatic synovial sarcoma.

Diagn Pathol 2021 Jun 14;16(1):54. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan.

Background: The novel SS18-SSX fusion-specific antibody is reported to have high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of primary synovial sarcoma (SS), which often metastasizes to the lung. Thus far, no study has validated the diagnostic efficacy of SS18-SSX antibody for pulmonary metastatic SS. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the usefulness of the SS18-SSX antibody in the diagnosis of pulmonary metastatic SS. Read More

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[Complete Remission of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma with Invasion of the Duodenum and Pancreas after Treatment with Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab Followed by Axitinib and Surgery : A Case Report].

Hinyokika Kiyo 2021 May;67(5):197-203

The Department of Urology, Kyoto University Hospital.

A man in his 60s was diagnosed with clear cell carcinoma of the right kidney with multiple lung metastases, tumor thrombus of the inferior vena cava (IVC), and invasion of the duodenum and pancreas. Ipilimumab plus nivolumab was administered as first-line therapy. After 3 treatment courses, computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a slight decrease in the size of the primary tumor and lung metastases. Read More

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Impact of smoking on sleep macro- and microstructure.

Sleep Med 2021 May 28;84:86-92. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Medicine, Service of Pulmonary Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland; Center for Investigation and Research in Sleep (CIRS), Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objectives: Existing data suggest that smoking may be associated with sleep disturbances. This study aimed to determine the association between smoking and both subjective and objective sleep quality.

Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of sleep characteristics in 3233 participants from the population-based CoLaus-HypnoLaus cohort (52. Read More

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Primary Mediastinal Nonseminomas: A Population-Based Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Analysis.

J Surg Res 2021 Jun 10;267:25-36. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; Western China Collaborative Innovation Center for Early Diagnosis and Multidisciplinary Therapy of Lung Cancer, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

Background: This study aimed to determine the disease characteristics and prognosis of patients with primary mediastinal nonseminomas (PMNS) in a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) analysis.

Materials And Methods: Demographic, treatment, and survival outcome data of cases with PMNS from 1975 to 2016 were retrieved. Cases with unknown variables mentioned in the analysis were excluded. Read More

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Multi-dimensional and spatiotemporal correlative imaging at the plasma membrane of live cells to determine the continuum nano-to-micro scale lipid adaptation and collective motion.

Methods 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, MRC-Research Complex at Harwell, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Harwell, OX11 0QX UK; National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London, SW7 2AZ UK; NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, London, SW7 2AZ UK. Electronic address:

The primary cilium is a specialized plasma membrane protrusion with important receptors for signalling pathways. In polarized epithelial cells, the primary cilium assembles after the midbody remnant (MBR) encounters the centrosome at the apical surface. The membrane surrounding the MBR, namely remnant associated membrane patch (RAMP), once situated next to the centrosome, releases some of its lipid components to form a centrosome-associated membrane patch (CAMP) from which the ciliary membrane stems. Read More

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The effect of the COVID-19 lockdown on children with asthma-related symptoms: A tertiary care center experience.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Background: Acute asthma exacerbations are a common cause for emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations in children. Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the education system closure/total lockdown in Israel on March 2020, we have noticed a decrease in pediatric ED visits and an increase in hospitalizations of asthma exacerbations.

Objective: to examine the patterns of ED visits for asthma exacerbations during COVID-19 outbreak, in comparison to the previous year. Read More

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Metastatic Liver Tumors in Surgical Pathology: Impact of Contemporary Diagnostic and Therapeutic Paradigms in a Tertiary Care Center.

Int J Surg Pathol 2021 Jun 14:10668969211022708. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

12250Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

We analyzed metastatic liver tumors received in the department of pathology in a tertiary care center over a 3-year period. There were 509 metastatic liver tumors; counterintuitively, there were as many resections (235 cases) as biopsies (274 cases). This unexpected finding reflects contemporaneous organ-specific paradigms for diagnosis and management of metastatic liver disease in oncologic practice, and the association of our practice with a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center with expertise and specialization in liver surgery. Read More

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Key Metabolic Enzymes Involved in Remdesivir Activation in Human Lung Cells.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Jun 14:AAC0060221. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA 94404, USA.

Remdesivir (RDV; GS-5734; Veklury®), the first FDA-approved antiviral to treat COVID-19, is a single diastereomer monophosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine analogue. RDV is taken up in the target cells and metabolized in multiple steps to form the active nucleoside triphosphate (TP) (GS-443902), which in turn acts as a potent and selective inhibitor of multiple viral RNA polymerases. In this report, we profiled the key enzymes involved in the RDV metabolic pathway with multiple parallel approaches: (1) bioinformatic analysis of nucleoside/tide metabolic enzyme mRNA expression using public human tissue and lung single-cell RNAseq datasets; (2) protein and mRNA quantification of enzymes in human lung tissue and primary lung cells; (3) biochemical studies on the catalytic rate of key enzymes; (4) effects of specific enzyme inhibitors on the GS-443902 formation; and (5) the effects of these inhibitors on RDV antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture. Read More

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Driving Pressure-Guided Individualized Positive End-Expiratory Pressure in Abdominal Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Anesth Analg 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

From the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Xinhua Hospital, affiliated with Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The optimal positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) remains unclear. Recent evidence showed that driving pressure was closely related to PPCs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an individualized PEEP guided by minimum driving pressure during abdominal surgery would reduce the incidence of PPCs. Read More

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A Bayesian approach to tissue-fraction estimation for oncological PET segmentation.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jun 14;66(12). Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, United States of America.

Tumor segmentation in oncological PET is challenging, a major reason being the partial-volume effects (PVEs) that arise due to low system resolution and finite voxel size. The latter results in tissue-fraction effects (TFEs), i.e. Read More

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Ultrasound Hypotension Protocol Time-motion Study Using the Multifrequency Single Transducer Versus a Multiple Transducer Ultrasound Device.

West J Emerg Med 2021 Apr 8;22(3):775-781. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Denver Health Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Denver, Colorado.

Introduction: Ultrasound hypotension protocols (UHP) involve imaging multiple body areas, each with different transducers and imaging presets. The time for task switching between presets and transducers to perform an UHP has not been previously studied. A novel hand-carried ultrasound (HCU) has been developed that uses a multifrequency single transducer to image areas of the body (lung, heart, abdomen, superficial) that would typically require three transducers using a traditional cart-based ultrasound (CBU) system. Read More

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Activation of p38α stress-activated protein kinase drives the formation of the pre-metastatic niche in the lungs.

Nat Cancer 2020 Jun 25;1(6):603-619. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104; USA.

Primary tumor-derived factors (TDFs) act upon normal cells to generate a pre-metastatic niche, which promotes colonization of target organs by disseminated malignant cells. Here we report that TDFs-induced activation of the p38α kinase in lung fibroblasts plays a critical role in the formation of a pre-metastatic niche in the lungs and subsequent pulmonary metastases. Activation of p38α led to inactivation of type I interferon signaling and stimulation of expression of fibroblast activation protein (FAP). Read More

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Case report: multimodality imaging to diagnose cardiac diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Eur Heart J Case Rep 2021 May 7;5(5):ytab172. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 1009 rue de Bleury, Apt 1009, Montréal, QC H2Z 0A3, Canada.

Background: Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is rare and can present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, frequently leading to a delay in diagnosis.

Case Summary: We report a case of a PCL in an 81-year-old man. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple masses in the right atrium and a mass in the right ventricular outflow tract extending to the pulmonary artery. Read More

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