1,531,830 results match your criteria preventive measures

Biofilm characteristics and transcriptomic analysis of Haemophilus parasuis.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Apr 29;258:109073. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Diseases and Human Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

Haemophilus parasuis (H. parasuis) is a conditional pathogen with the ability to form biofilms which can lead to ineffective drug treatment and severe chronic infections resulting in significant economic losses to the pig industry. Currently, knowledge of biofilm formation by H. Read More

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Organ and tissue-specific distribution of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ApoE-KO mouse.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 24;286:117219. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, No. 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875, China. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most prevalent classes of environmental pollutants resulting from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Exposure to PAHs is implicated in the pathogenesis of the cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and even cancer. However, little is known about organ- and tissue-specific distribution patterns of PAHs in animals at macro-tissue and microscopic levels. Read More

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Can the combination of TasP and PrEP eliminate HIV among MSM in British Columbia, Canada?

Epidemics 2021 Apr 6;35:100461. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Introduction: In British Columbia (BC), the HIV epidemic continues to disproportionally affect the gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). In this study, we aimed to evaluate how Treatment as Prevention (TasP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), if used in combination, could lead to HIV elimination in BC among MSM.

Methods: Considering the heterogeneity in HIV transmission risk, we developed a compartmental model stratified by age and risk-taking behaviour for the HIV epidemic among MSM in BC, informed by clinical, behavioural and epidemiological data. Read More

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Cadmium disturbs epigenetic modification and induces DNA damage in mouse preimplantation embryos.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 11;219:112306. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, PR China; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, PR China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, the Ministry of Education of China, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium is an environmental pollutant that has extensive deleterious effects on the reproductive system. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of cadmium on preimplantation embryos are unclear. Here, we used a mouse model to investigate the effects of maternal cadmium (32 mg/l) exposure in drinking water for 2 days on early embryonic development, and studied the mechanisms associated with epigenetic modifications and DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. Read More

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Epidemiological and clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 cluster infection in Anhui Province, Eastern China.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Anhui Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 has spread worldwide and become a pandemic. We report the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cluster infections.

Methods: Data of clustered cases were retrieved from the public health emergency monitoring information system of China. Read More

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Performance- and cost-benefit analysis of an influenza point-of-care test compared to laboratory-based multiplex RT-PCR in the emergency department.

Am J Infect Control 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Infection Prevention, Regional Public Health Laboratory Kennemerland, Haarlem, the Netherlands.. Electronic address:

Introduction: Influenza poses a heavy burden on emergency departments (ED) and hospital wards. Fast and reliable bedside tests are invaluable in obtaining indications for (cohort) droplet isolation precautions and improving patient flow. We performed a cost-benefit analysis comparing influenza point-of-care testing (POCT) to laboratory-based multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Read More

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Interventions to Reduce Meat Consumption by Appealing to Animal Welfare: Meta-Analysis and Evidence-Based Recommendations.

Appetite 2021 May 10:105277. Epub 2021 May 10.

Stanford Solutions Science Lab, Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University. Electronic address:

Reducing meat consumption may improve human health, curb environmental damage, and limit the large-scale suffering of animals reared in factory farms. Most attention to reducing consumption has focused on restructuring environments where foods are chosen or on making health or environmental appeals. However, psychological theory suggests that interventions appealing to animal welfare concerns might operate on distinct, potent pathways. Read More

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Effectiveness of family-based eHealth interventions in cardiovascular disease risk reduction: A systematic review.

Prev Med 2021 May 10:106608. Epub 2021 May 10.

Integrated Care Academy, University of Suffolk, Ipswich, UK. Electronic address:

Family-based eHealth interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk have potential as a primary prevention strategy to improve the health of parents and their children. This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of such interventions in modifying parent and child/adolescent risk factors such as body mass index, physical activity, dietary intakes and alcohol use. Five electronic databases were searched up to April 2020. Read More

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Depressive-hypertension: A proposed human endotype of brain/gut microbiome dysbiosis.

Am Heart J 2021 May 10:100540. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville.

Background: Hypertension is frequently linked with depression in adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet the underlying mechanism and successful management remain elusive. We approached this knowledge gap through the lens that humans are eukaryote-prokaryote "meta-organisms", such that CVD dysregulation is a mosaic disorder involving dysbiosis of the gut. We hypothesized that patients diagnosed with hypertension plus depression harbor a unique gut microbial ecology with attending functional genomics engaged with their hosts' gut/brain axis physiology. Read More

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An investment case for the prevention and management of rheumatic heart disease in the African Union 2021-30: a modelling study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Program in Global Noncommunicable Disease and Social Change, Department of Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Partners In Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Despite declines in deaths from rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Africa over the past 30 years, it remains a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality on the continent. We present an investment case for interventions to prevent and manage RHD in the African Union (AU).

Methods: We created a cohort state-transition model to estimate key outcomes in the disease process, including cases of pharyngitis from group A streptococcus, episodes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), cases of RHD, heart failure, and deaths. Read More

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Immunogenicity of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 May 13:1-6. Epub 2021 May 13.

National Immunization Program, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Current evidence on the immunogenicity of influenza vaccination in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited. To address this need for additional knowledge, we conducted a study on the immunogenicity of trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) in COPD patients. We recruited patients from respiratory outpatient clinics of three hospitals in Tangshan, Hebei province who had stable confirmed COPD, were less than 80 y old, and reported not having had influenza or receiving TIV during the study season prior to enrollment. Read More

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Projected lifetime cancer risk from cone-beam computed tomography for orthodontic treatment.

Korean J Orthod 2021 May;51(3):189-198

Department of Orthodontics, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: To estimate the projected cancer risk attributable to diagnostic cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed under different exposure settings for orthodontic purposes in children and adults.

Methods: We collected a list of CBCT machines and their specifications from 38 orthodontists. Organ doses were estimated using median and maximum exposure settings of 105 kVp/156. Read More

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Syphilis Infection Markers Among HIV Positive Individuals In The Mexico City HIV/AIDS Program.

Salud Publica Mex 2020 Dec 22;63(1, ene-feb):27-33. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Clínica Especializada Condesa, CDMX.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of T. pallidum infection markers in HIV-positive individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the Mexico City HIV/AIDS Program, as well as predictive characteristics.

Methods: The reverse serologic algorithm method was used for the T. Read More

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December 2020

Evaluation of a smoking cessation patient decision aid that integrates information about e-cigarettes.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Family Medicine and Population Health, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond.

Introduction: Smokers increasingly use e-cigarettes to try to quit smoking, even more than recommended cessation methods. However, few smokers discuss the range of cessation options with their physicians. Decision aids can inform smokers about smoking cessation options, including evidence about e-cigarettes, and encourage smokers to engage in shared decision making with their physician. Read More

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Survey of New Zealand poultry consumers handling of raw poultry and food safety awareness to provide insight into risk factors for campylobacteriosis.

J Food Prot 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Lincoln University.

New Zealand (NZ) has a high rate of reported campylobacteriosis cases. Cross-contamination in home kitchens during poultry handling is considered to be the main factor in campylobacteriosis transmission. The main aim of this study was to measure NZ consumers' food safety awareness and self-reported food safety practices associated with handling raw poultry. Read More

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How early is too early? Challenges in ART initiation and engaging in HIV care under Treat All in Rwanda-A qualitative study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251645. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America.

Introduction: HIV treatment guidelines recommend that all people living with HIV (PLWH) initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) as soon as possible after diagnosis (Treat All). As Treat All is more widely implemented, an increasing proportion of PLWH are likely to initiate ART when they are asymptomatic, and they may view the relative benefits and risks of ART differently than those initiating at more advanced disease stages. To date, patient perspectives of initiating care under Treat All in sub-Saharan Africa have not been well described. Read More

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Malaria prevention practices and associated factors among households of Hawassa City Administration, Southern Ethiopia, 2020.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250981. Epub 2021 May 13.

Public Health Department, Pharma College Hawassa Campus, Hawassa, Sidama, Ethiopia.

Background: Despite it is easily preventable; malaria is still remains to be a major public health problem in globally as well as in Ethiopia. The disease can be easily prevented through individual and societal combined efforts by keeping the environment safe, effective utilization of long lasting Insecticide Nets and early treatment. However, the factors for poor knowledge and practices of malaria prevention is not well studied in Ethiopia; particularly, in the study area. Read More

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Long-term changes in body composition and their relationships with cardiometabolic risk factors: A population-based cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251486. Epub 2021 May 13.

Child Health Big Data Research Center, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, Beijing, China.

The aim of the present study was to classify the latent body fat trajectories of Chinese adults and their relationships with cardiometabolic risk factors. Data were obtained from the China Health Nutrition Survey for 3,013 participants, who underwent six follow-up visits between 1993 and 2009. Skinfold thickness and other anthropometric indicators were used to estimate body composition. Read More

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Effectiveness of thermal screening in detection of COVID-19 among truck drivers at Mutukula Land Point of Entry, Uganda.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0251150. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of National Health Laboratory and Diagnostic Services, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda.

Introduction: Despite the limited evidence for its effectiveness, thermal screening at points of entry has increasingly become a standard protocol in numerous parts of the globe in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to determine the effectiveness of thermal screening as a key step in diagnosing COVID-19 in a resource-limited setting.

Materials And Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study based on a review of body temperature and Xpert Xpress SARS CoV-2 test results records for truck drivers entering Uganda through Mutukula between 15th May and 30th July 2020. Read More

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New global targets for NTDs in the WHO roadmap 2021-2030.

Adriano Casulli

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 May 13;15(5):e0009373. Epub 2021 May 13.

European Union Reference Laboratory for Parasites, Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

The second World Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) Day was celebrated on 30 January 2021. To mark the occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched its roadmap for NTDs for the period 2021 to 2030, which is aimed at increasing prevention and control of these too-long neglected diseases. Described here is a global overview on past achievements, current challenges, and future prospects for the WHO NTDs roadmap 2021-2030. Read More

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Diagnostic Performance of an Antigen Test with RT-PCR for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in a Hospital Setting - Los Angeles County, California, June-August 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 14;70(19):702-706. Epub 2021 May 14.

Prompt and accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, has been important during public health responses for containing the spread of COVID-19, including in hospital settings (1-3). In vitro diagnostic nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), such as real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) can be expensive, have relatively long turnaround times, and require experienced laboratory personnel.* Antigen detection tests can be rapidly and more easily performed and are less expensive. Read More

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Phytohemagglutinin ameliorates HFD-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure.

J Mol Endocrinol 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

X Liu, Institute of Neuroscience and Translational Medicine, Zhoukou Normal University, Zhoukou, China.

Despite all modern advances in medicine, there are few reports of effective and safe drugs to treat obesity. Our objective was to screen anti-obesity natural compounds, and to verify whether they can reduce the body weight gain and investigate their molecular mechanisms. By using drug-screening methods, Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was found to be the most anti-obesity candidate natural compound. Read More

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Local Effects of Intervention: a Configural Analysis.

Prev Sci 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Missouri Prevention Science Institute and Department of Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology, University of Missouri, 16 Hill Hall, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.

In standard statistical data analysis, the effects of intervention or prevention efforts are evaluated in terms of variable relations. Results from application of regression-type methods suggest whether, overall, intervention is successful. In this article, we propose using configural frequency analysis (CFA) either in tandem with regression-type methods or by itself. Read More

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Healthcare for the Homeless (HCH) Projects and Medicaid Expansion.

J Community Health 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for Public Policy and Health, College of Public Health, Kent State University, 800 Hilltop Drive, Kent, OH, 44242, USA.

Medicaid expansion was ruled optional in 2012 by the Supreme Court, which allowed some states to adopt it while others did not. This study examines the differences in the percent uninsured, healthcare utilization by service type, and clinical quality of care measures at HCH (Healthcare for the Homeless) projects between expansion and non-expansion states. An exploratory state-level retrospective analysis of annual Uniform Data System data limited to HCHs from 2012 to 2019 from 50 states plus Washington DC is presented. Read More

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Disease-resistant identification and analysis to transcriptome differences of blueberry leaf spot induced by beta-aminobutyric acid.

Arch Microbiol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Agricultural College of Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China.

Leaf spot (Pestalotiopsis microspora) is one of the major fungal diseases in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) production and if not treated promptly that can eventually lead to plant death. To prevent and control leaf spot effectively, we selected BABA (beta-aminobutyric acid) as an inducer, "Canlan" in blueberries of rabbit eyes varieties as experimental material and then induced and inoculated leaf spot on blueberries as an experimental group and used uninduced blueberries inoculated with leaf spot as the control group. Read More

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Comparison of the Quality of Chronic Disease Management Between Adults With and Without Dementia.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e219622. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Health Policy and Management, UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles), Fielding School of Public Health.

Importance: Adults with dementia may experience poorer quality of chronic disease management because of the difficulty in reporting symptoms and engaging in shared decision-making associated with cognitive impairment.

Objective: To compare the quality of chronic disease management received by adults with and without dementia.

Design, Setting, And Participants: For this cross-sectional study, nationally representative data from noninstitutionalized patients 65 years or older were obtained from the 2002-2015 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Read More

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Evaluation of a Pharmacist-Led Penicillin Allergy Assessment Program and Allergy Delabeling in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e219820. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Importance: Penicillin allergies are frequently mislabeled, which may contribute to use of less-preferred alternative antibiotics.

Objective: To evaluate a pharmacist-led allergy assessment program's association with antimicrobial use and clinical outcomes.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A pharmacist-led allergy assessment program was launched in 2 phases (June 1, 2015, and November 2, 2016) at a single-center tertiary referral hospital. Read More

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Effects on smoking behavior of switching menthol smokers to non-menthol cigarettes.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

Introduction: Bans of menthol characterizing flavor in cigarettes have been implemented in some localities and have been proposed more broadly. One proposed benefit of such a ban is to increase cessation rates among current menthol smokers. There is currently relatively limited data regarding how smoking behavior changes if menthol smokers switch to non-menthol cigarettes. Read More

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Prevalence of Visual Acuity Loss or Blindness in the US: A Bayesian Meta-analysis.

JAMA Ophthalmol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

NORC at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Importance: Globally, more than 250 million people live with visual acuity loss or blindness, and people in the US fear losing vision more than memory, hearing, or speech. But it appears there are no recent empirical estimates of visual acuity loss or blindness for the US.

Objective: To produce estimates of visual acuity loss and blindness by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and US state. Read More

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