122,364 results match your criteria prevention strategies

Venous Thromboembolism among Noncritically Ill Hospitalized Children: Key Considerations for the Pediatric Hospital Medicine Specialist.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of morbidity and preventable harm among noncritically ill hospitalized children. Several clinical factors relevant to the noncritically ill hospitalized child significantly increase the risk of VTE including the presence of central venous catheters, systemic inflammation, and prolonged immobilization. Although risk mitigation strategies have been described, the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of VTE require standardization of institutional practices combined with multidisciplinary collaboration among pediatric hospitalists, hematologists, and other care providers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of a measles outbreak in northern Vietnam, 2013-2014.

J Clin Virol 2021 Apr 24;139:104840. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Infectious Disease Surveillance Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 162-8640, Japan.

Background: A nationwide measles outbreak occurred in Vietnam between 2013 and 2014.

Objectives: To provide an overview on the 2013-2014 measles outbreak in northern Vietnam using epidemiological and molecular analysis of the measles virus (MeV).

Study Design: Epidemiological information was collected from all suspected cases of measles/rubella. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Influenza vaccination in congenital heart disease in the pre-COVID19 era: Coverage rate, patient characteristics and outcome.

Can J Cardiol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Influenza vaccination is the most commonly recommended immune prevention strategy. However, data on influenza vaccination in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) is scarce. In this study, our goals were to (i) measure vaccination coverage rates (VCR) for influenza in a large cohort of children, adolescents and adults with CHD, (ii) identity patient characteristics as predictors for vaccination, and (iii) investigate the impact of influenza vaccination on hospitalization. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Financial Burden, Distress and Toxicity in Cardiovascular Disease.

Am Heart J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Medicine, Cardiology Section, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major source of financial burden and distress, which has three main domains: (1) psychological distress; (2) cost-related care non-adherence or medical care deferral, and (3) tradeoffs with basic non-medical needs. We propose four ways to reduce financial distress in CVD: (1) policymakers can expand insurance coverage and curtail underinsurance; (2) health systems can limit expenditure on low-benefit, high-cost treatments while developing services for high-risk individuals; (3) physicians can engage in shared-decision-making for high-cost interventions, and (4) community-based initiatives can support patients with system navigation and financial coping. Avenues for research include (1) analysis of how healthcare policies affect financial burden; (2) comparative effectiveness studies examining high and low-cost strategies for CVD management; and (3) studying interventions to reduce financial burden, financial coaching, and community health worker integration. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Emerging Role of B Cells in the Pathogenesis of NAFLD.

Hepatology 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Integrative Biology & Physiology, University of Minnesota, United States.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the leading causes of abnormal liver function worldwide. NAFLD refers to a group of liver conditions ranging from non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which involves inflammation, hepatocellular damage, and fibrosis. Triggering of inflammation in NASH is a key event in the progression of the disease and identifying the factors that initiate or dysregulate this process is needed to develop strategies for its prevention or treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Staff and participant perceptions of optimal recruitment and retention strategies for biomedical cohort studies in the Caribbean.

Cancer Causes Control 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Health Equities, City of Hope Medical Center, Center of Community Alliance for Research & Education, Duarte, CA, USA.

Purpose: To identify staff and participants perspectives of best practices that facilitate achieving enrollment and retention targets in biomedical cohort studies in Caribbean populations.

Methods: Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with research stakeholders including research (i) nurses/study supervisors, (ii) field staff/data collectors, and (iii) rural and urban participants of the Third Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey (a national NCD risk factor survey with biospecimen collection) to capture qualitative data on experiences with recruitment, training, retention challenges and potential solutions or strategies for strengthening future efforts.

Results: Our findings indicate that trained, experienced study staff with good interpersonal communication skills enhanced the proficiency of field operations and attracted study participants. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Scaling Up and Out HIV Prevention and Behavioral Health Services to Latino Sexual Minority Men in South Florida: Multi-Level Implementation Barriers, Facilitators, and Strategies.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2021 May;35(5):167-179

Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

Latino sexual minority men (LSMM) are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. Concurrently, behavioral health disparities, including mental health and substance use concerns, worsen HIV disparities affecting LSMM. Yet, evidence-based HIV prevention and behavioral health services are insufficiently scaled up and out to this population, perpetuating health disparities, thwarting efforts to control the HIV epidemic, and highlighting the need for culturally relevant evidence-based implementation strategies that address these disparities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Changes in High Weight-for-Length among Infants Enrolled in Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children during 2010-2018.

Child Obes 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Infants and young children with high weight-for-length are at increased risk for obesity in later life. This study describes prevalence of high weight-for-length and examines changes during 2010-2018 among 11,366,755 infants and young children 3-23 months of age in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Children's weights and lengths were measured. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Epidemiology and outcome of influenza-associated infections among hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, Egypt national surveillance system, 2016-2019.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Egypt Country Office, World Health Organization, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction: Egypt has established different types of surveillance systems to monitor influenza activities, early detect outbreaks, and tailor efficient prevention and control strategies. This is the first study to describe epidemiology and outcome of influenza-associated infections among hospitalized patients using the National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) data, 2016-2019.

Methods: Data reported from 284 hospitals all over Egypt were extracted from the NEDSS. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and Trauma Among Young People Who Offend: A Systematic Literature Review.

Trauma Violence Abuse 2021 May 7:15248380211013132. Epub 2021 May 7.

University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

This systematic review synthesized current knowledge about the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among young people known to have offended and examined evidence of associations between ACEs, trauma symptoms, and offending behavior. A systematic search of English-language, peer-reviewed studies published from the year 2000 onwards was conducted. A final pool of 124 studies that reported quantitative data were included in the review. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Unmet needs in the treatment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Future Cardiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a complex heterogeneous cardiovascular disorder characterized by hypertrophied and disorganized myocytes with varying degrees of interstitial fibrosis. The current management strategies include genetic and familial screening, symptom control and prevention of sudden cardiac death in those at high risk. Until recently, septal reduction therapy and heart transplantation were the only disease modifying treatments available to manage HCM, but emerging pharmacotherapies show promising results in controlled clinical trials. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

scFv-Anti-LDL(-)-Metal-Complex Multi-Wall Functionalized-Nanocapsules as a Promising Tool for the Prevention of Atherosclerosis Progression.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 20;8:652137. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Atherosclerosis can be originated from the accumulation of modified cholesterol-rich lipoproteins in the arterial wall. The electronegative LDL, LDL(-), plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis once this cholesterol-rich lipoprotein can be internalized by macrophages, contributing to the formation of foam cells, and provoking an immune-inflammatory response. Herein, we engineered a nanoformulation containing highly pure surface-functionalized nanocapsules using a single-chain fragment variable (scFv) reactive to LDL(-) as a ligand and assessed whether it can affect the LDL(-) uptake by primary macrophages and the progression of atherosclerotic lesions in mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dried blood spot sampling as an alternative for the improvement of hepatitis B and C diagnosis in key populations.

World J Hepatol 2021 Apr;13(4):504-514

Viral Hepatitis Laboratory, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro 21040360, Brazil.

Background: To achieve the elimination of hepatitis B and C, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies to increase the access of diagnosis, particularly among key populations such as people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), individuals with coagulopathies and chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients.

Aim: To evaluate the use of dried blood spot (DBS) in the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers.

Methods: A total of 430 individuals comprised of people living with HIV, coagulopathies and CKD provided paired serum and DBS samples. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Strategies for Using Muramyl Peptides - Modulators of Innate Immunity of Bacterial Origin - in Medicine.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:607178. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

National Research Center - Institute of Immunology of Federal Medico-Biological Agency, Moscow, Russia.

The spread of infectious diseases is rampant. The emergence of new infections, the irrational use of antibiotics in medicine and their widespread use in agriculture contribute to the emergence of microorganisms that are resistant to antimicrobial drugs. By 2050, mortality from antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria is projected to increase up to 10 million people per year, which will exceed mortality from cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Looking Beyond Assumptions to Understand Relationship Dynamics in Bullying.

Front Psychol 2021 20;12:661724. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.

To account for the complex relationships and processes that constitute the phenomenon of bullying, it is critical to understand how students and their parents and teachers conceptualize traditional and cyberbullying. Qualitative data were drawn from a mixed methods longitudinal study on cyberbullying. Semi-structured interviews were held with Canadian students in grades 4, 7, and 10 in a large urban school board, and their parents and teachers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Relationship Between Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Function: A Population-Based Study of Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults in Rural China.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 30;14:1927-1935. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Neurology, The Second People's Hospital of Wuhu, Wuhu, Anhui, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: To explore the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cognitive impairment in a low-income and low-education population.

Methods: All residents aged ≥45 years in a low-income population in Tianjin, China, were eligible to participate in this study. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale was used to conduct a preliminary screening and assessment of the participants' cognitive statuses. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gaps in health security related to wildlife and environment affecting pandemic prevention and preparedness, 2007-2020.

Bull World Health Organ 2021 May 2;99(5):342-350B. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

EcoHealth Alliance, 520 Eighth Avenue, Suite 1200, New York, NY 10018, United States of America (USA).

Objective: To describe and quantify the extent of wildlife and environment sector inclusion in country evaluation and prioritization tools for health security, and to provide practical recommendations for global and national action to improve pandemic prevention and preparedness.

Methods: To assess coverage of wildlife and other environmental aspects, we reviewed major health security reports (including World Organisation for Animal Health Performance of Veterinary Services reports, and World Health Organization Joint External Evaluations and follow-on National Action Plans for Health Security) published by 107 countries and territories. We extracted information on stated coverage gaps, wildlife surveillance systems and priority diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A natural symbiotic bacterium drives mosquito refractoriness to Plasmodium infection via secretion of an antimalarial lipase.

Nat Microbiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

CAS Key Laboratory of Insect Developmental and Evolutionary Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

The stalling global progress in the fight against malaria prompts the urgent need to develop new intervention strategies. Whilst engineered symbiotic bacteria have been shown to confer mosquito resistance to parasite infection, a major challenge for field implementation is to address regulatory concerns. Here, we report the identification of a Plasmodium-blocking symbiotic bacterium, Serratia ureilytica Su_YN1, isolated from the midgut of wild Anopheles sinensis in China that inhibits malaria parasites via secretion of an antimalarial lipase. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Variations of risk factors for ischemic stroke and its subtypes in Chinese patients in Taiwan.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9700. Epub 2021 May 6.

Stroke Center and Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, No 7, Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, 100, Taiwan.

Chinese have a higher stroke incidence and a different distribution of ischemic stroke (IS) subtypes as compared with Caucasians. Herein we aimed to investigate the prevalence and associations of major risk factors in IS and its subtypes in Chinese patients. From 2006 to 2011, we included 4953 acute IS patients consecutively recruited in National Taiwan University Hospital Stroke Registry (mean age 68 years; male 59%). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Intrapartum group B Streptococcal prophylaxis and childhood weight gain.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Pediatrics, Neonatology, Center for Pediatric Clinical Effectiveness, Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: To determine the difference in rate of weight gain from birth to 5 years based on exposure to maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP).

Design: Retrospective cohort study of 13 804 infants.

Setting: Two perinatal centres and a primary paediatric care network in Philadelphia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Years of Life Lost to Death.

Dtsch Arztebl Int 2021 Mar;118(9):137-144

Department 2, Epidemiology and Health Monitoring, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin; Department II 1 Environmental Hygiene, German Environment Agency, Berlin.

Background: Knowing which diseases and causes of death account for most of the years of life lost (YLL) can help to better target appropriate prevention and intervention measures. The YLL in Germany for specific causes of death were estimated as part of the BURDEN 2020 project at the Robert Koch Institute.

Methods: Data from cause-of-death statistics were used for the analysis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Knowledge of prostate cancer presentation, etiology, and screening practices among women: a mixed-methods systematic review.

Syst Rev 2021 May 6;10(1):138. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: With the burden of prostate cancer, it has become imperative to exploit cost-effective ways to tackle this menace. Women have demonstrated their ability to recognize early cancer signs, and it is, therefore, relevant to include women in strategies to improve the early detection of prostate cancer. This systematic review seeks to gather evidence from studies that investigated women's knowledge about (1) the signs and symptoms, (2) causes and risk factors, and (3) the screening modalities of prostate cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Identification and Treatment of Addiction in Medicaid Health Homes.

Psychiatr Serv 2021 May 7:appips202000374. Epub 2021 May 7.

Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia.

Objective: Coordinated care models, such as the Medicaid health home, may be well positioned to identify and address addiction, yet little is known about the strategies health home plans use to identify and treat this condition. This study examined state requirements of active Medicaid health home plans.

Methods: Content analyses of all 35 active Medicaid health home plans were conducted to identify state requirements related to enrollment eligibility; provision of addiction screening, treatment, and prevention services; inclusion of addiction treatment professionals within the health home provider care team; and outcomes monitoring. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Postoperative Epidural Fibrosis Prevention: Which Is Better-Autologous Fat versus Gelfoam.

Asian Spine J 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Orthopaedics, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College and Hospital, Faridkot, India.

Study Design: Prospective, randomized study of 100 patients with prolapsed intervertebral disc with an average of 12- to 18-month follow-up postoperatively.

Purpose: To compare the role of Gelfoam and autologous fat in the prevention of postoperative epidural fibrosis (EF) after lumbar spine surgery.

Overview Of Literature: EF is a possible sequelae of lumbar disc surgery. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[The "Fourth Wave"? COVID-19 and consecutive cognitive impairment].

Dtsch Med Wochenschr 2021 May 6;146(10):671-676. Epub 2021 May 6.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Technische Universität München.

The COVID-19 pandemic poses new challenges for the healthcare systems world-wide which will go beyond prevention, acute and intensive care treatment of patients with severe illness. A large proportion of "COVID-survivors" - and not only elderly patients - suffers from "post-COVID-syndrome". Risk factors are preexisting somatic multimorbidity, cognitive and cerebral changes together with pneumonia and hypoxemia, intensive care treatment and confusional states during the acute phase of illness. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Results of a tri-national online survey on the current status of sports injury prevention among members of the German-Speaking Orthopaedic Sports Medicine Society (GOTS).

Sportverletz Sportschaden 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orthopedics, University Medical Center, Rostock, Germany.

Objectives:  To assess the current opinions and state of knowledge in primary sports injury prevention among members of the (.

Methods:  On 21 August 2019, a web-based questionnaire was sent to the members of the tri-national society Austria, Germany and Switzerland). The survey was online until 21 November 2019 and included twenty-two questions, which were divided into five sections: 1) general importance of prevention (n = 4), 2) specifications of the study population (n = 3), 3) implementation of prevention (n = 8), 4) improvement opportunities in prevention (n = 4) and 5) future research areas (n = 3). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Gonadal Failure and Infertility in Cancer Survivors: Clinical Management and Strategies for Prevention.

Front Horm Res 2021 May 6;54:1-11. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Physiopathology of Reproduction and IVF Unit, Sant'Anna Hospital, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Modern advances in oncological treatments determined a significant improvement in survival rates for several malignancies. Nevertheless, survivorship and quality of life of cancer survivors may be negatively impaired by metabolic and endocrine side effects related to anticancer treatments, including alterations of pituitary-gonadal axis function. In fact, both medical (chemo- and radiotherapy) and surgical approaches may negatively impact on gonadal function, leading to transient or permanent hypogonadism and infertility. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of using different exposure data to estimate changes in premature mortality attributable to PM and O in China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 28;285:117242. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China. Electronic address:

The assessment of premature mortality associated with the dramatic changes in fine particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O) has important scientific significance and provides valuable information for future emission control strategies. Exposure data are particularly vital but may cause great uncertainty in health burden assessments. This study, for the first time, used six methods to generate the concentration data of PM and O in China between 2014 and 2018, and then quantified the changes in premature mortality due to PM and O using the Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program-Community Edition (BenMAP-CE) model. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Experience and attitudes on vaccinations recommended during pregnancy: survey on an Italian sample of women and consultant gynecologists.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 May 6:1-8. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.

Active immunization in pregnancy is recommended for the influenza and the tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines. Evidence indicates vaccine effectiveness in preventing influenza-related hospitalizations and pertussis in early infancy. We investigate vaccine uptake in pregnant and non-pregnant women through a sample of young women and consultant gynecologists, along with the potential predisposing and/or enabling factors affecting attitudes to vaccination (knowledge, beliefs, barriers). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An Arm and a Leg: The Rising Cost of Cancer Drugs and Impact on Access.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2021 Mar;41:1-12

Department of Oncology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Increasing cancer drug prices present global challenges to treatment access and cancer outcomes. Substantial variability exists in drug pricing across countries. In countries without universal health care, patients are responsible for treatment costs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF