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Prevalence of Sarcopenia Among the Elderly in Korea: A Meta-Analysis.

J Prev Med Public Health 2021 Mar 4;54(2):96-102. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Objectives: Sarcopenia is a common disease in the elderly population that causes disability, poor quality of life, and a high risk of death. In the current study, we conducted a meta-analysis to report basic knowledge about the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly in Korea.

Methods: We searched for articles in the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, and Scopus databases published until December 28, 2020. Read More

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Association between burnout and wellness culture among emergency medicine providers.

Clin Exp Emerg Med 2021 Mar 31;8(1):55-64. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Integrative Emergency Services, John Peter Smith Health Network, Dallas, TX, USA.

Objective: Burnout is a common occurrence among healthcare providers and has been associated with provider wellness culture. However, this association has not been extensively studied among emergency medicine (EM) providers. We aim to determine the association between EM provider burnout and their culture of wellness, and to elicit the independent wellness culture domains most predictive of burnout prevention. Read More

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Association between the number of prehospital defibrillation attempts and neurologic outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients without on-scene return of spontaneous circulation.

Clin Exp Emerg Med 2021 Mar 31;8(1):21-29. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.

Objective: Delivery of prehospital defibrillation for shockable rhythms by emergency medical service providers is crucial for successful resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. The optimal range of prehospital defibrillation attempts for refractory shockable rhythms is unknown. This study evaluated the association between the number of prehospital defibrillation attempts and neurologic outcomes in OHCA patients. Read More

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Chronic Kidney Disease of Undetermined Etiology around the World.

Kidney Blood Press Res 2021 Apr 12:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Nephrology and Dialysis, G. Brotzu Hospital, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Background: Epidemics of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) are occurring on the Pacific coast of Central America, in Sri Lankan and Indian agricultural communities, and in other hotspots around the world. CKDu primarily affects male agricultural workers, and traditional risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension are not involved in the pathogenesis. Although a causal factor has not yet been identified, culprits include repeated volume depletion-induced kidney injury, as well as exposure to agrichemicals, heavy metals and nephrotoxins contained in drugs, beverages, and traditional medications. Read More

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Culture of prevention and early disease detection of cancer in Russia.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 3;277:113905. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Public Finance, Governors State University, 1 University Parkway, University Park, Il, 60484, United States. Electronic address:

This study analyzed the early cancer detection in Russia. Using data from the Russian Ministry of Health from 2005 to 2016, this study aims to evaluate relationships between the number of patients diagnosed with I-II stage of cancer with the number of preventive visits, screening tests, and expedited access to specialists. The results of de-trending time-series model indicate that the number of specialists in outpatient facilities and the number of patients' preventive visits positively affect the number of patients diagnosed with cancer for the first time and the number of patients diagnosed with I-II degree cancer. Read More

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Turning assessment for discrimination of frailty syndrome among community-dwelling older adults.

Gait Posture 2021 Apr 6;86:327-333. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Gerontology Health Management, College of Nursing, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wuxing Street, Xinyi District, Taipei, 11031, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome and is characterized by decreased physiological reserve and increased vulnerability towards adverse health outcomes including falls. Turning is a challenging task and is reported to be one of the daily activities that leads to falling in older populations.

Research Question: Does 180° walking turns and 360° turning on the spot differ among frail, pre-frail, and non-frail older adults? Can 180° walking turns and 360° turning on the spot cutoffs discriminate older adults with frailty from those without?

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on community-dwelling older adults aged over 65 years. Read More

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Supplementation with ribonucleotide-based ingredient (Ribodiet®) lessens oxidative stress, brain inflammation, and amyloid pathology in a murine model of Alzheimer.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 9;139:111579. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

ImmunoPharmaLab, Department of Pharmacy, School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Naples Federico II, Via Domenico Montesano 49, 80131 Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia worldwide, characterized by the deposition of neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Additionally, increasing evidence demonstrates that a neuroinflammatory state and oxidative stress, iron-dependent, play a crucial role in the onset and disease progression. Besides conventional therapies, the use of natural-based products represents a future medical option for AD treatment and/or prevention. Read More

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Understanding the effects of personal factors and situational factors for adolescent cyberbullying perpetration: The roles of internal states and parental mediation.

J Adolesc 2021 Apr 9;89:28-40. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Introduction: The risk and protective factors of cyberbullying perpetration have been widely investigated. Less attention is paid to explore the effects of personal and situational factors, internal states, and external states in an integrated framework. This study aims to fill this void by developing an integrated framework to investigate the effects of power imbalance, the online disinhibition effect, internal states, and parental mediation on cyberbullying among Chinese adolescents. Read More

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Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase inhibits Senecavirus A replication by enzyme activity-dependent and independent mechanisms.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Mar 17;256:109038. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Key Laboratory of Animal Diseases Diagnostic and Immunology, Ministry of Agriculture, MOE International Joint Collaborative Research Laboratory for Animal Health & Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China; Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Disease and Zoonosis, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, 225009, China. Electronic address:

Cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25 H), as a host restriction factor, has been reported to take a broad-spectrum antiviral effect. However, the role of CH25H in Senecavirus A (SVA) infection remains unknown. In this study, we first demonstrate that overexpression of CH25H inhibits SVA replication. Read More

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Dual disruption of eNOS and ApoE gene accelerates kidney fibrosis and senescence after injury.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 9;556:142-148. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Nephrology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima, 7708503, Japan.

The relationship between cellular senescence and fibrosis in the kidney is being elucidated and we have identified it as therapeutic target in recent studies. Chronic kidney disease has also become a lifestyle disease, often developing on the background of hypertension and dyslipidemia. In this study, we clarify the effect of interaction between these two conditions on kidney fibrosis and senescence. Read More

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Moderated-mediation analysis of problematic social networking use: The role of anxious attachment orientation, fear of missing out and satisfaction with life.

Addict Behav 2021 Mar 30;119:106938. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

College of Health and Human Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909, Australia; College of Health and Human Sciences, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909, Australia.

Anxious attachment orientation has a well document relationship with problematic social networking use. Additionally, the fear of missing out and satisfaction with life have emerged as robust predictors of problematic social networking use. However, it remains unclear how these determinants may converge to promote problematic social networking use. Read More

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Changing the paradigm: Using strategic communications to promote recognition of child sexual abuse as a preventable public health problem.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 9;117:105061. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Mental Health, United States.

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is common, severe, and substantively contributes to the global burden of disease through its impact on physical, mental, and behavioral health problems. While CSA is preventable through non-justice system response efforts, the vast majority of resources support criminal justice efforts to identify, prosecute, punish and monitor offenders after CSA has already occurred. Policy makers have not supported CSA prevention efforts in part because the public does not view CSA as a preventable public health problem. Read More

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Synthesis of ultralight three-dimensional nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/zinc ferrite composite aerogel for highly efficient electromagnetic wave absorption.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Mar 29;596:364-375. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

School of Chemical Engineering, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001, People's Republic of China.

Developing light-weight, thin thickness and high-efficiency electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorbers was regarded as an effective strategy for dealing with the increasingly serious problem of electromagnetic radiation pollution. Herein, nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotubes/zinc ferrite (NRGO/MWCNTs/ZnFeO) composite aerogel was synthesized via solvothermal followed by hydrothermal and lyophilization processes. Morphological characterization results manifested that the attained ternary composite aerogel displayed unique three-dimensional porous netlike structure, which was composed of partial stack of adjacent NRGO sheets entangled by MWCNTs and decorated with ZnFeO microspheres. Read More

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Relationship between unhealthy sleep status and dry eye symptoms in a Japanese population: The JPHC-NEXT study.

Ocul Surf 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: To investigate whether and how unhealthy sleep habits (i.e., the frequency of difficulty falling or staying asleep, and the frequency of waking up tired) and the duration of sleep are related to the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) in a general population. Read More

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Intellective and stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems in eyes.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 9:120591. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Eye Center, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, 310009. Electronic address:

Stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems have attracted widespread attention in recent years since they can control drug release in a spatiotemporal manner and can achieve tunable drug release according to patient's physiological or pathological condition. In this review, we briefly introduce the drug delivery barriers and drug delivery systems in the anterior and posterior segment of eyes, and collect the recent advances in stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems in eyes for controlled drug release in response to exogenous stimuli (ultrasound, magnetic stimulus, electrical stimulus, and light) or endogenous stimuli (enzyme, active oxygen species, temperature, ions, and pH). in both anterior and posterior segment of eyes. Read More

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Integrated metabolomics and network pharmacology approach to exploring the potential mechanism of Tianxiang Capsule for treating motion sickness.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 9:114107. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Motion sickness is a multi-system syndrome caused by abnormal spatial environmental sensory conflicts. Tianxiang Capsule (TXC) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula for the prevention and treatment of motion sickness for years. However, the main active components of TXC and mechanism of its therapeutic effects on motion sickness are still unclear. Read More

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Simultaneous detection and differentiation of porcine circovirus 3 and 4 using a SYBR Green І-based duplex quantitative PCR assay.

J Virol Methods 2021 Apr 9:114152. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Zhengzhou Key Laboratory for Pig Disease Prevention and Control, College of Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengdong New District Longzi Lake 15#, Zhengzhou, 450046, Henan Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Porcine circovirus 4 (PCV4) was a novel circovirus identified from diseased pigs in 2019 in Hunan Province, China, and PCV3 and PCV4 co-infection has been reported. In order to detect and differentiate PCV3 and PCV4 simultaneously, the SYBR Green І-based duplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was established in the present study. The two viruses could be easily distinguished by different Tm values: 86. Read More

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Reassessing the Inclusion of Race in Diagnosing Kidney Diseases: An Interim Report from the NKF-ASN Task Force.

Am J Kidney Dis 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine, Priscilla Chan and Mark Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Electronic address:

For almost two decades, equations that use serum creatinine, age, sex, and race to eGFR have included "race" as Black or non-Black. Given considerable evidence of disparities in health and healthcare delivery in African American communities, some regard keeping a race term in GFR equations as a practice that differentially influences access to care and kidney transplantation. Others assert that race captures important GFR determinants and its removal from the calculation may perpetuate other disparities. Read More

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Classification criteria for syphilitic uveitis.

Authors:

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Members of the SUN Working Group are listed online at ajo.com.

Purpose: To determine classification criteria for syphilitic uveitis DESIGN: Machine learning of cases with syphilitic uveitis and 24 other uveitides.

Methods: Cases of anterior, intermediate, posterior, and panuveitides were collected in an informatics-designed preliminary database, and a final database was constructed of cases achieving supermajority agreement on the diagnosis, using formal consensus techniques. Cases were analyzed by anatomic class, and each class was split into a training set and a validation set. Read More

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Performance of a Hospital-acquired complication algorithm using administrative data for detection of central line-associated bloodstream infections: experience at an Australian healthcare facility.

J Hosp Infect 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Infection Prevention and Healthcare Epidemiology Unit, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Victorian Healthcare-Associated Infection Surveillance Coordinating Centre, Melbourne, Australia; National Centre for Infections in Cancer, Melbourne, Australia.

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Adiposity and interstitial lung abnormalities in community dwelling adults: the MESA cohort study.

Chest 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY.

Background: Obesity is associated with restrictive ventilatory defects and faster rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC). This association is not exclusively mediated by mechanical factors and may reflect direct pulmonary injury by adipose-derived mediators.

Research Question: Is adipose tissue involved in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease (ILD)?

Study Design And Methods: We evaluated the association of CT measures of pericardial, abdominal visceral, and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, with high attenuation areas (HAA) and interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) in a large multi-center cohort study of community-dwelling adults, using multivariable-adjusted models. Read More

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Innate Immune Training for prevention of recurrent wheeze in early childhood.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

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Brazilian Portuguese versions and cross-cultural adaptation of two instruments to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the COVID‑19 pandemic in the Brazilian population.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Introduction: Studies based on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) theory are conducted to identify ways to improve strategies aimed at preventing and combatting certain conditions or diseases, to understand the way how behavioral changes are assimilated by the populations, and to reorient interventions. In view of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) pandemic, studies based on KAP theory have been useful to better understand certain behaviors, such as adherence to prevention measures and control of the spread of the virus.

Objective: To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of two complementary instruments for assessing KAP regarding the COVID‑19 pandemic in the Brazilian population. Read More

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[Leptospirosis in pediatrics, a diagnosis to be considered].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2020 Dec;37(6):728-738

Universidad CES y Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellín, Colombia.

Human leptospirosis is an important cause of acute febrile disease that most frequently affects tropical areas. Its main reserve is rodents, so the infection is limited by factors of poverty, health deficit, recreational and work activities that favor contact with the urine of infected animals, contaminated water or soil. Leptospira spp infections have a non-specific presentation, ranging from asymptomatic to multisystem compromise with high mortality; being the clinical suspicion and the presence of risk factors the initial variables for the diagnosis of the disease. Read More

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December 2020

[Taurolidine for the prevention of catheter-related infections in children with intestinal insufficiency: preliminary experience in a Chilean tertiary hospital].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2021 Feb;38(1):15-21

Hospital Gustavo Fricke, Universidad de Valparaíso, Viña del Mar, Chile.

Background: Taurolidine is a molecule with anti-endotoxic, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties that inhibits bacterial adhesion, allowing for its use as lock therapy for the prevention of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in long-term central venous catheters (CVC).

Aim: To report a preliminary experience, the first one in Chile, using lock therapy with taurolidine for the prevention of CRBSI and to report its efficacy.

Method: A taurolidine-based solution was instilled in the CVC of three children with intestinal insufficiency dependent on parenteral nutrition, attended in a Chilean tertiary hospital, and the rate of CRBSI before and after its use was compared in retrospect. Read More

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February 2021

[Adherence to COVID-19 trasmission prevention measures among health care workers].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Nov;148(11):1589-1597

División de Cirugía, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: COVID-19 is highly transmissible, thus requiring strict measures to prevent its propagation.

Aim: To report a survey about self-reported adherence to recommendations aimed to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, among health care personnel.

Material And Methods: A cross-sectional survey among health professionals about adherence to recommendations to prevent COVID-19 transmission was carried out in a public hospital in Chile. Read More

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November 2020

[Mortality in survivors of torture ad prison during the chilean dictatorship between 1973 and 1990].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Dec;148(12):1773-1780

Escuela de Salud Pública, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Studies on the long-term consequences of torture in survivors in Chile have only addressed the consequences for mental health, leaving aside the physical consequences.

Aim: To report the causes of death in the universe of victims of the Chilean civic-military dictatorship recognized by the Reports of the National Commission for Political Prison and Torture (CNPPT) and the Advisory Commission for the qualification of Disappeared Detainees, Politically Executed individuals and Victims of Political Prison and Torture.

Material And Methods: The causes of death, age at the time of death, sex, political context of death and opportunity of repair up to June 2016 are described in 38,254 victims of the Chilean civic-military dictatorship. Read More

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December 2020

[Cancer in Chile and worldwide: an overview of the current and future epidemiological context].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Oct;148(10):1489-1495

Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

Cancer is a chronic non-communicable disease associated with a high mortality burden. The prevalence of cancer is increasing rapidly worldwide. However, this scenario will be worse in low and middle-income countries such as Chile, where 70% of cancer deaths occur. Read More

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October 2020

[Association between von Willebrand disease and angiodysplasia].

Rev Med Chil 2020 Oct;148(10):1475-1480

Departamento de Pediatría, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Von Willebrand factor (vWf) is a fundamental multimeric plasma glycoprotein in the coagulation process. Its function is to mediate platelet adhesion and to stabilize circulating factor VIII. A functional or quantitative alteration of vWf gives rise to von Willebrand disease (vWD). Read More

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October 2020