Microb Pathog 2021 Jun 27;155:104905. Epub 2021 Apr 27.
Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:
Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a multifactorial disease, and different etiologies like metabolism and immunity disorders, bacterial superantigens, biofilms, and fungal allergens are known to develop this disease, especially the CRS with nasal polyps. Alternaria alternata (Alternaria) is one of the most prevalent airborne fungal species in the nasal discharge, which might have vigorous immunologic activities in nasal epithelial cells and play an essential role in the pathogenesis of CRS. Moreover, the interaction between this fungus and the innate and adaptive immune systems leads to the development of chronic inflammation. Read More