115,330 results match your criteria prevalence proportion

Epidemiological feature, viral shedding, and antibody seroconversion among asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers and symptomatic/presymptomatic COVID-19 patients.

J Infect Public Health 2021 May 27;14(7):845-851. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. Electronic address:

Background: Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is pandemic. However, data concerning the epidemiological features, viral shedding, and antibody dynamics between asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers and COVID-19 patients remain controversial.

Methods: We enrolled 193 SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects in Ningbo and Zhoushan, Zhejiang, China, from January 21 to March 6, 2020. Read More

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The occurrence of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in aquaporin-4-antibody seronegative Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 May 28;53:103030. Epub 2021 May 28.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China; Department of Neurology, Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China. Electronic address:

Background: Despite inclusion in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab)-associated diseases are increasingly recognized as an independent disease entity. In this study, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to comprehensively update the rate of occurrence of MOG-Ab in Aquaporin4 (AQP4)-antibody seronegative NMOSD.

Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for studies reporting the rates of patients with MOG-Ab in NMOSD. Read More

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Fibrosing interstitial lung disease in primary Sjogren syndrome.

Joint Bone Spine 2021 Jun 9:105237. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Rheumatology Unit, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Objectives: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) represents the main pulmonary involvement in primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS). A proportion of patients with pSS develop a progressive fibrosing form of ILD, but no data are available about the prevalence of these patterns in pSS patients. Aim of this monocentric, cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of fibrosing patterns in pSS patients with ILD. Read More

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Identifying counties at risk of high overdose mortality burden during the emerging fentanyl epidemic in the USA: a predictive statistical modelling study.

Lancet Public Health 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Background: The emergence of fentanyl around 2013 represented a new, deadly stage of the opioid epidemic in the USA. We aimed to develop a statistical regression approach to identify counties at the highest risk of high overdose mortality in the subsequent years by predicting annual county-level overdose death rates across the contiguous USA and to validate our approach against observed overdose mortality data collected between 2013 and 2018.

Methods: We fit mixed-effects negative binomial regression models to predict overdose death rates in the subsequent year for 2013-18 for all contiguous state counties in the USA (ie, excluding Alaska and Hawaii). Read More

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Recent Insights on Genetic Testing in Primary Prostate Cancer.

Mol Diagn Ther 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Urology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstreet 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers in developed countries. The results of large trials indicate that the proportion of PCa attributable to hereditary factors is as high as 15%, highlighting the importance of genetic testing. Despite improved understanding of the prevalence of pathogenic variants among men with PCa, it remains unclear which men will most benefit from genetic testing. Read More

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Prevalence and Impact of Obesity on Disease-Specific Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort of Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Southwest Rochester, MN, USA.

Background And Aims: There remains a historical misconception that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are underweight. However, recent data suggests rates of obesity in IBD parallel those of the general population. The impact obesity has on the natural history of IBD is unclear. Read More

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Prevalence, recent infection and predictors of HIV infection in fishing community along the shore of Lake Victoria in Tanzania.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, Dar es Salaam 9083, Tanzania.

Background: Fishing communities are a subpopulation burdened by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), mainly due to their mobility and cash income access. Strategies to mitigate the spread of HIV in fishing communities have varying outcomes. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence of HIV, recent infection and associated factors among fishing communities at Lake Victoria in Tanzania. Read More

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Health- and treatment outcomes of patients with hemophilia in the Netherlands, 1972-2019.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Introduction: We conducted six cross-sectional nationwide questionnaire studies among all patients with hemophilia in the Netherlands from 1972 until 2019 to assess how health outcomes have changed, with a special focus on patients >50 years of age.

Methods: Data were collected on patient characteristics, treatment, (joint) bleeding, joint impairment, hospitalizations, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C infections, and general health status (RAND-36).

Results: In 2019, 1009 patients participated of whom 48% had mild, 15% moderate and 37% severe hemophilia. Read More

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Unmet need for palliative rehabilitation in inpatient hospices/palliative care units: a nationwide post-bereavement survey.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Palliative Nursing, Health Sciences, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

In end-of-life care, rehabilitation for terminally ill cancer patients is inconsistently provided and rarely discussed. We sought to clarify the prevalence of unmet rehabilitation need for patients admitted to inpatient hospice/palliative care units as perceived by bereaved family members. We conducted a nationwide questionnaire survey of 1001 family members of cancer patients who died at inpatient hospices/palliative care units. Read More

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Drug target gene-based analyses of drug repositionability in rare and intractable diseases.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12338. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Laboratory of Rare Disease Resource Library, Center for Rare Disease Research, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition (NIBIOHN), Tokyo, Japan.

Drug development for rare and intractable diseases has been challenging for decades due to the low prevalence and insufficient information on these diseases. Drug repositioning is increasingly being used as a promising option in drug development. We aimed to analyze the trend of drug repositioning and inter-disease drug repositionability among rare and intractable diseases. Read More

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What is the burden of heterosexually-acquired HIV due to HSV-2? Global and regional model-based estimates of the proportion and number of HIV infections attributable to HSV-2 infection.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, School of Public Health, Imperial College London. Department of Respiratory Sciences, University of Leicester. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom Department of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal (QC), Canada Bristol Veterinary School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Background: Biological and epidemiological evidence suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) elevates HIV acquisition and transmission risk. We improved previous estimates of the contribution of HSV-2 to HIV infections by using a dynamic-transmission model.

Setting: WHO regions. Read More

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Integrating pharmacists into aged care facilities to improve the quality use of medicine (PiRACF Study): protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Jun 11;22(1):390. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Health Research Institute, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Bruce, ACT, Australia.

Background: Medication management in residential aged care facilities is an ongoing concern. Numerous studies have reported high rates of inappropriate prescribing and medication use in aged care facilities, which contribute to residents' adverse health outcomes. There is a need for new models of care that enhance inter-disciplinary collaboration between residential aged care facility staff and healthcare professionals, to improve medication management. Read More

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Human papillomavirus genotypes and the risk factors associated with multicentric intraepithelial lesions of the lower genital tract: a retrospective study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 11;21(1):554. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Gynecology, Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute, No.44 Xiaoheyan Road, Shenyang, 110042, Liaoning province, China.

Background: Multicentric intraepithelial lesions of the lower genital tract (multicentric lesions) were defined as intraepithelial lesions of two or three sites within cervix, vagina, and vulva occurring synchronously or sequentially. The characteristics of multicentric lesions has been poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors for multicentric lesions, including specific HPV genotypes. Read More

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The Continuum of Recovery from Alcohol Dependence: From Addiction Remission to Complete Mental Health.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Jun 11:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Institute for Life Course & Aging, Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work, Cross-appointed to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Few representative studies have examined optimal mental health among those with a history of alcohol dependence (AD).

Objectives: In a representative sample of Canadians with a history of AD, to determine prevalence of, and factors associated with 1) remission from AD, 2) the absence of Substance Dependence and Psychiatric Disorders (SDPD) in the past year, and 3) complete mental health (CMH).

Method: Secondary analysis of a publicly available Statistics Canada database, the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (820 adults with AD history; 19,945 without AD). Read More

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Prevalence and Correlates of Gray Market Use for Aging and Dementia Long-Term Care in the U.S.

J Appl Gerontol 2021 Jun 11:7334648211023681. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

National Alliance for Caregiving, Washington, DC, USA.

Objectives: To estimate the national prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of gray market utilization, consisting of paid providers who are unrelated to the recipient, not working for a regulated agency, and potentially unscreened and untrained, for aging and dementia-related long-term care.

Methods: We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 1,037 American Life Panel respondents aged 18 years and older.

Results: Nearly a third of Americans who arranged paid care sought gray market care for persons with dementia, and most (65%) combined it with unpaid care. Read More

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The interaction effect between comorbidity and venous thromboembolism on mortality rates after venous thromboembolism: A 5-year cohort study.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Comorbidity influences venous thromboembolism (VTE) mortality, but it is unknown whether this is due to comorbidity alone or whether biological interaction exists.

Objectives: We examined whether comorbidity and VTE interact to increase VTE mortality beyond their individual effects.

Methods: This register-based 5-year cohort study included all VTE patients ≥18 years during 2000-2016, and an age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched comparison cohort of individuals without VTE. Read More

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Medical contraindications to combined hormonal contraceptive use among women using methods prescribed by a pharmacist.

Contraception 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Center for Health Systems Effectiveness, Oregon Health & Science University.

Objective: To determine whether pharmacist prescription of combined hormonal contraception is associated with inappropriate prescription to women with medical contraindications.

Study Design: We conducted a retrosopective cohort study of all short-acting, hormonal contraceptive users (pill, patch, ring, injectable) in Oregon's All Payer All Claims database from January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018. Our primary outcome was the proportion of women receiving a combined hormonal method who had a Medical Eligibility Category (MEC) 3 or 4 condition. Read More

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Clinicopathological and immunophenotypic features of early T cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: A flow cytometry score for the initial diagnosis.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Hematology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, India.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of early T precursor-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ETP-ALL), study its clinicopathological features and devise a 'flow score' based on immunophenotypic profiles.

Material Methods: This was a retrospective study where clinical and laboratory data of all consecutive T-ALL cases were analysed to identify features differentiating ETP from non-ETP-ALL. The utility of a flow score based on the five commonly used markers in leukaemia panels for T-ALL (CD34, CD8, CD5, CD13 and CD33) was evaluated to differentiate ETP from non-ETP-ALL. Read More

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Systematic review of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax polyclonal infections: Impact of prevalence, study population characteristics, and laboratory procedures.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(6):e0249382. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, United States of America.

Multiple infections of genetically distinct clones of the same Plasmodium species are common in many malaria endemic settings. Mean multiplicity of infection (MOI) and the proportion of polyclonal infections are often reported as surrogate marker of transmission intensity, yet the relationship with traditional measures such as parasite prevalence is not well understood. We have searched Pubmed for articles on P. Read More

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Evolving trends in risk profiles and outcomes in older adults undergoing kidney re-transplantation.

Transplantation 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

1 Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec 2 Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec 3 Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 4 Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD.

Background: In older adults (≥65) access to and outcomes following kidney transplantation (KT) have improved over the past three decades. It is unknown if there were parallel trends in re-KT. We characterized the trends, changing landscape, and outcomes of re-KT in older adults. Read More

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Musculoskeletal Urgent Care Centers Restrict Access for Patients with Medicaid Insurance Based on Policy and Location.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

L. C. Yousman, W. R. Hsiang, G. Jin, M. Najem, A. Mosier-Mills, A. Khunte, S. Jain, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: As the urgent care landscape evolves, specialized musculoskeletal urgent care centers (MUCCs) are becoming more prevalent. MUCCs have been offered as a convenient, cost-effective option for timely acute orthopaedic care. However, a recent "secret-shopper" study on patient access to MUCCs in Connecticut demonstrated that patients with Medicaid had limited access to these orthopaedic-specific urgent care centers. Read More

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Association of obesity with diabetic retinopathy in US adults with diabetes in a national survey.

Endocr Connect 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Z Xie, Clinical and Translational Science Institute, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, United States.

Objective: There is a lack of consensus on whether a high body mass index (BMI) increases the risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR). We aimed to investigate the association between BMI, overweight, obesity, and DR using the data of diabetes respondents in the 2015 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey.

Methods: Diabetes respondents aged over 18-year-old with complete information as well as undergone fundus examination in the past two years or had been diagnosed with DR were included. Read More

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External Validation Confirms Validity of a Simple Model to Predict Bowel Outcome After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.

Neurorehabil Neural Repair 2021 Jun 11:15459683211023191. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neuro-Urology, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zürich, Switzerland.

. The prediction of functional outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI) is essential to plan the rehabilitation phase and the social reintegration. Recently, 2 models to predict independent and reliable bowel management 1 year after traumatic SCI have been derived and validated in 2 cohorts of patients included in the European Multicenter Study about Spinal Cord Injury (EMSCI). Read More

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Staging childhood cancers in Europe: Application of the Toronto stage principles for neuroblastoma and Wilms tumour. The JARC pilot study.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Jun 11:e29020. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Developmental Biology and Cancer Programme, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UK.

Background: The 'Toronto consensus principles and guidelines' (TG) provided paediatric-specific staging system affordable by population-based cancer registries (CRs). Within the European Rare Cancers Joint Action, a pilot study of the application of TG for childhood cancer (CC) was conducted to test the ability of CRs to reconstruct stage, describe stage across countries and assess survival by stage.

Procedure: Twenty-five CRs representing 15 countries contributed data on a representative sample of patients with neuroblastoma (NB) and Wilms tumour (WT) <15 years, diagnosed between 2000 and 2016. Read More

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A pilot study on intravenous N-Acetylcysteine treatment in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Pharmacol Rep 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Fahmideh Ave, 6517838678, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: We designed this single-centre clinical trial to assess the potential benefits of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) in patients with COVID19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

Methods: Ninety-two patients with mild-to-moderate COVID19-associated ARDS were allocated to the placebo (45-cases) or NAC groups (47-cases). Besides standard-of-care treatment, the patients received either intravenous NAC at a dose of 40 mg/kg/day or the placebo for three consecutive days. Read More

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Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Analysis of the STRATIS Registry, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurol 2021 25;12:663058. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Neuroradiology, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The indications for mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke continue to broaden, leading neurointerventionalists to treat vessel occlusions at increasingly distal locations farther in time from stroke onset. Accessing these smaller vessels raises the concern of iatrogenic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) owing to increasing complexity in device navigation and retrieval. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SAH following mechanical thrombectomy, associated predictors, and resulting functional outcomes using a multicenter registry and compare this with a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Read More

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Variability in Emergency Management of Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Can J Diabetes 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: Our aim in this study was to identify pediatric patients presenting in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) who received initial treatment inconsistent with current guidelines, and then to track associated complications.

Methods: This retrospective chart review examined 47 pediatric patients admitted to our institution with DKA, including those transferred from community hospitals. Primary outcome measures were exposure to treatment-related risk factors for cerebral edema (CE), including administration of an intravenous (IV) insulin bolus, IV bicarbonate, insulin within 1 hour of IV fluid start and non-NPO (nil per os) status. Read More

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Development and implementation of a perioperative management guide for patients with hip fracture: Health management and clinical impact.

Rev Esp Cir Ortop Traumatol 2021 Jul-Aug;65(4):294-304

Facultativo especialista de Área de Anestesiología y Reanimación, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Hip fracture (HF) in the elderly has a high prevalence and risk of morbidity and mortality in the short and long term. It can reduce life expectancy by almost 2 years, and require permanent socio-sanitary assistance in one in 5 patients. Its management as a process where the patient takes priority over the activities of the organisation can bring new perspectives, optimisation tools and redesign of the workflow to make it more efficient. Read More

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The prevalence of multimorbidity and its association with physical activity and sleep duration in middle aged and elderly adults: a longitudinal analysis from China.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021 Jun 10;18(1):77. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Women & Child Health Program, GIC, The George Institute for Global Health at Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Background: Preventing chronic disease is important in health policy in countries with significantly ageing populations. This study aims to examine the prevalence of chronic disease multimorbidity and its association with physical activity and sleep duration; and to understand whether physical activity modifies associations between sleep duration and multimorbidity.

Methods: We utilized longitudinal data of a nationally-representative sample from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (in year 2011 and 2015; N = 5321; 54. Read More

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What is the burden of osteomyelitis in Germany? An analysis of inpatient data from 2008 through 2018.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 10;21(1):550. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department for Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053, Regensburg, Germany.

Background: The epidemiology of osteomyelitis in Germany is unknown, which makes it difficult to estimate future demands. Therefore, we aimed to analyse how the numbers of cases have developed over the last decade as a function of osteomyelitis subtype, age group, gender, and anatomical localization.

Methods: Osteomyelitis rates were quantified based on annual ICD-10 diagnosis codes from German medical institutions between 2008 through 2018, provided by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany (Destatis). Read More

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