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Concordance and discordance in SLE clinical trial outcome measures: analysis of three anifrolumab phase 2/3 trials.

Ann Rheum Dis 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca US, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA

Objectives: In the anifrolumab systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) trial programme, there was one trial (TULIP-1) in which BILAG-based Composite Lupus Assessment (BICLA) responses favoured anifrolumab over placebo, but the SLE Responder Index (SRI(4)) treatment difference was not significant. We investigated the degree of concordance between BICLA and SRI(4) across anifrolumab trials in order to better understand drivers of discrepant SLE trial results.

Methods: TULIP-1, TULIP-2 (both phase 3) and MUSE (phase 2b) were randomised, 52-week trials of intravenous anifrolumab (300 mg every 4 weeks, 48 weeks; TULIP-1/TULIP-2: n=180; MUSE: n=99) or placebo (TULIP-1: n=184, TULIP-2: n=182; MUSE: n=102). Read More

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Association of multimorbidity and physical activity among older adults in India: an analysis from the Longitudinal Ageing Survey of India (2017-2018).

BMJ Open 2022 May 17;12(5):e053989. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Public Health and Mortality Studies, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Objective: To examine the association of multimorbidity and physical activity among older adults in India.

Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted using large representative survey data.

Setting And Participants: The study used data from the nationally representative 'Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI),' conducted during 2017-2018. Read More

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Indoor solid fuel use for cooking and the risk of incidental non-fatal cardiovascular disease among middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults: a prospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2022 May 17;12(5):e054170. Epub 2022 May 17.

School of Public Health, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, China

Objectives: The harm of indoor air pollution to health has gradually attracted attention, but the effect of indoor air pollution from burning solid fuels on incidental non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not well understood. Under these circumstances, this study examined the association between solid fuel use and incidental non-fatal CVD.

Design: The prospective cohort study was conducted in 2011, 2013, 2015 and 2018. Read More

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Cervical spine ligamentum flavum gaps: MR characterisation and implications for interlaminar epidural injection therapy.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Radiology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Cervical epidural steroid injections are commonly performed to manage pain from cervical spine disease. Cadaveric studies have demonstrated incomplete ligamentum flavum fusion in the central interlaminar region with resultant midline gaps. We performed an MR-based characterization of cervical ligamentum flavum midline gaps to improve understanding of their prevalence and guide interventionalists in procedural planning. Read More

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The CAR-HEMATOTOX risk-stratifies patients for severe infections and disease progression after CD19 CAR-T in R/R LBCL.

J Immunother Cancer 2022 May;10(5)

Department of Medicine III, Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany

Background: CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy (CAR-T) represents a promising treatment modality for an increasing number of B-cell malignancies. However, prolonged cytopenias and infections substantially contribute to the toxicity burden of CAR-T. The recently developed CAR-HEMATOTOX (HT) score-composed of five pre-lymphodepletion variables (eg, absolute neutrophil count, platelet count, hemoglobin, C-reactive protein, ferritin)-enables risk stratification of hematological toxicity. Read More

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High-Frequency Percussive Ventilation in Viral Bronchiolitis.

Respir Care 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

Background: High-frequency percussive ventilation (HFPV) is an alternative mode of mechanical ventilation that has been shown to improve gas exchange in subjects with severe respiratory failure. We hypothesized that HFPV use would improve ventilation and oxygenation in intubated children with acute bronchiolitis.

Methods: In this single-center prospective cohort study we included mechanically ventilated children in the pediatric ICU with bronchiolitis 1-24 months old who were transitioned to HFPV from conventional invasive mechanical ventilation from November 2018-April 2020. Read More

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Relationship between impaired BMP signalling and clinical risk factors at early-stage vascular injury in the preterm infant.

Thorax 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Institute for Lung Biology and Disease and Comprehensive Pneumology Center with the CPC-M bioArchive, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany

Introduction: Chronic lung disease, that is, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication in preterm infants and develops as a consequence of the misguided formation of the gas-exchange area undergoing prenatal and postnatal injury. Subsequent vascular disease and its progression into pulmonary arterial hypertension critically determines long-term outcome in the BPD infant but lacks identification of early, disease-defining changes.

Methods: We link impaired bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling to the earliest onset of vascular pathology in the human preterm lung and delineate the specific effects of the most prevalent prenatal and postnatal clinical risk factors for lung injury mimicking clinically relevant conditions in a multilayered animal model using wild-type and transgenic neonatal mice. Read More

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Infertility treatment and postpartum mental illness: a population-based cohort study.

CMAJ Open 2022 Apr-Jun;10(2):E430-E438. Epub 2022 May 17.

Departments of Medicine, and of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Dayan, Basso, Nguyen), McGill University Health Centre; Research Institute (Dayan, Basso, Nguyen), McGill University Health Centre; Departments of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health (Dayan, Basso), McGill University, Montréal, Que.; Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Velez, Pudwell), Queen's University, Kingston Health Sciences Centre; ICES Queen's (Velez, Djerboua), Kingston, Ont.; ICES Central (Vigod, Ray), Toronto, Ont.; Department of Psychiatry (Vigod), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; ICES uOttawa (Fell); Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute (Fell); School of Epidemiology and Public Health (Fell), University of Ottawa; Better Outcomes Registry & Network (BORN Ontario) (Fell), Ottawa, Ont.; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (Joseph), School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Department of Medicine and Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Ray), University of Toronto, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ont.

Background: Subfertility and infertility treatment can be stressful experiences, but it is unknown whether each predisposes to postpartum mental illness. We sought to evaluate associations between subfertility or infertility treatment and postpartum mental illness.

Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study of individuals without pre-existing mental illness who gave birth in Ontario, Canada, from 2006 to 2014, stratified by fertility exposure: subfertility without infertility treatment; noninvasive infertility treatment (intrauterine insemination); invasive infertility treatment (in vitro fertilization); and no reproductive assistance. Read More

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Where to start? Injury prevention priority scores for traumatic injuries in Canada.

Can J Surg 2022 May-Jun;65(3):E326-E334. Epub 2022 May 17.

From the Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Jessula); the Section of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta (Yanchar); the Division of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, IWK Health Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Romao); Trauma Nova Scotia, Halifax, NS (Green); the Department of Critical Care, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Green); and the Department of Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Asbridge).

Background: Given limited resources for injury prevention, it is essential to determine which mechanisms of injury to target to provide the most benefit to the largest proportion of the population. We developed objective, evidence-based injury prevention priority scores (IPPSs) for the Canadian population across 4 prevention perspectives: mortality, injury severity, resource use and societal cost.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all injuries in Canada from 2009/10 to 2013/14. Read More

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Thigh muscle composition and its relationship to functional recovery post-hip fracture over time and between sexes.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Division of Gerontology and Palliative Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Background: CT-scan measures of muscle composition may be associated with recovery post hip fracture.

Methods: In an ancillary study to Baltimore Hip Studies 7th cohort, older adults were evaluated at 2 and 6 months post-hip fracture. CT-scan measures of muscle were acquired at 2 months. Read More

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RT-Cloud: A Cloud-based Software Framework to Simplify and Standardize Real-Time fMRI.

Neuroimage 2022 May 14:119295. Epub 2022 May 14.

Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ; Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. Electronic address:

Real-time fMRI (RT-fMRI) neurofeedback has been shown to be effective in treating neuropsychiatric disorders and holds tremendous promise for future breakthroughs, both with regard to basic science and clinical applications. However, the prevalence of its use has been hampered by computing hardware requirements, the complexity of setting up and running an experiment, and a lack of standards that would foster collaboration. To address these issues, we have developed RT-Cloud (https://github. Read More

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Causal effects of circulating cytokine concentrations on risk of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive function.

Brain Behav Immun 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: There is considerable evidence suggesting a role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Establishing causality is challenging due to bias from reverse causation and residual confounding.

Methods: We used two-sample MR to explore causal effects of circulating cytokine concentrations on Alzheimer's disease risk and cognitive function. Read More

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Naturally occurring Anaplasma marginale infection in cattle: Molecular prevalence and associated risk factors, haemato-biochemical alterations, oxidant/antioxidant status and serum trace mineral levels.

Microb Pathog 2022 May 14:105575. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Animal Genetics and Breeding, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Selesih, Aizawl, 796014, Mizoram, India.

The present investigation was undertaken to map the distribution of Anapalsma species infection in cattle from the Aizawl region of Mizoram, India, in relation to various risk factors, and to study the haemato-biochemical alterations, oxidant/antioxidant status and serum trace mineral levels in cattle with naturally occurring Anapalsma marginale infection. The study was carried out over 31 months from June, 2019 to December, 2021. A total of 401 cattle blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of Anaplasma spp. Read More

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Evaluation of Trefoil Factor 3 as a Non-Invasive Biomarker of Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer in a High-Risk Population.

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Operative Group of Chilean Association of Digestive Endoscopy (ACHED), Santiago, Chile.

Background: Adenocarcinoma is preceded by chronic atrophic gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a peptide secreted by goblet cells, which is abundantly present in intestinal metaplasia.

Aim: To evaluate the utility of serum TFF3 as a non-invasive biomarker for the diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Read More

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Low graft invariant natural killer T-cell dose is a risk factor for cytomegalovirus reactivation after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Medicine II, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is common after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and may result in fatal CMV disease. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are potent modulators of the immune system preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) while promoting graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects. It is thought that iNKT cells selectively influence mediators of both innate and adaptive immunity. Read More

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Quantitative anatomical analysis of the carpal tunnel in women and men.

Ann Anat 2022 May 14:151956. Epub 2022 May 14.

Unit of Human Anatomy and Embryology, University of Barcelona, C/Casanova 143, 08036 Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Arqueologia de la Universitat de Barcelona (IAUB), Faculty of Geography and History, University of Barcelona, 08001 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Purpose: The main objective of this study was to identify anatomical differences between men and women in the absolute and relative size of the carpal tunnel (CT), its inner structures, and related external anatomical structures in order to shed light on the higher prevalence of CT syndrome (CTS) in women.

Basic Procedures: We have dissected the forearms and hands of ten men and ten women and compared the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the CT between the two sexes. The size of the CT relative to the tendons passing through it, the median nerve (MN), and to hand and wrist size was also compared between men and women. Read More

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Mechanosignaling in vertebrate development.

Dev Biol 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Myriads forces are at play during morphogenesis. Their concerted activity shapes individual cells, tissues and the whole embryo, representing the most awe-inspiring marvel of developmental biology. In spite of their prevalence, the potential instructive role of cell mechanics in fate determination and patterning has remained long neglected, in part due to the difficulties in translating the physical world of cells in molecular terms. Read More

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Alcohol Consumption and Cardiovascular Health.

Am J Med 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinical School, The University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Introduction: Studies evaluating alcohol consumption and cardiovascular diseases have shown inconsistent results.

Methods: We performed a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications from an extensive query of Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Scopus, and Web of Science from database inception to March 2022 for all studies that reported the association between alcohol consumption in terms of quantity (daily or weekly amounts) and type of beverage (wine, beer or spirit) and cardiovascular disease events.

Results: The study population included a total of 1,579,435 individuals based on 56 cohorts from several countries. Read More

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The association of airborne particulate matter and benzo[a]pyrene with the clinical course of COVID-19 in patients hospitalized in Poland.

Environ Pollut 2022 May 14:119469. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Medical University of Białystok, 15-089, Białystok, Poland. Electronic address:

Air pollution can adversely affect the immune response and increase the severity of the viral disease. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between symptomatology, clinical course, and inflammation markers of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalized in Poland (n = 4432) and air pollution levels, i.e. Read More

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Aging of Glucose Profiles in an Adult Population without Diabetes.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2022 May 14:109929. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Psychiatry, Radiology, Public Health, Nursing and Medicine, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Research Methods (RESMET). Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, Spain; University Hospital of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Clinical Epidemiology.

Aims: This study aimed to determine the effect of aging on glucose profiles in a population without diabetes.

Methods: We investigated the evolution of glucose profiles in an adult population without diabetes using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in two periods separated by 5 years. Anthropometrics, laboratory tests (HbA1c, fasting blood glucose) and CGM data (mean glycemia level, coefficient of variation, time in range) were measured in both periods to study the change in values over time. Read More

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Ethnic disparities in the association between ambient air pollution and risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities in China.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 14:155940. Epub 2022 May 14.

West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cardiometabolic abnormalities (CAs), which, however, may be stronger in vulnerable populations, such as minorities. The variation of the association between ambient air pollution and CAs between the majority (Han) and minority populations in China have been poorly studied.

Objectives: We aimed to estimate and compare the Hans' and minorities' risks for CAs associated with long-term exposure to ambient air pollution in Southwest China. Read More

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Negative impacts of cleaning agent DEPTAL MCL® on activated sludge wastewater treatment system.

Sci Total Environ 2022 May 14:155957. Epub 2022 May 14.

Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal; LABBELS -Associate Laboratory, Braga/Guimarães, Portugal.

DEPTAL MCL® is a professional cleaning agent approved by the Portuguese Food Regulatory Authority and is used in agro-food industries, namely in fish canning industries in the north of Portugal. Its extensive use during cleaning procedures results in potential significant negative impacts on the performance of the downstream municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). A lab-scale extended areation activated sludge wastewater treatment system, continuously fed by influent collected at a municipal WWTP, was used to assess the impact of a range of DEPTAL MCL® concentrations during 72 h. Read More

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Endoscopic versus surgical step-up approach for infected necrotizing pancreatitis (ExTENSION): long-term follow-up of a randomized trial.

Gastroenterology 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

Dept. of Surgery; Netherlands; Dept. of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background & Aims: Previous randomized trials, including the TENSION trial, demonstrated that the endoscopic step-up approach might be preferred over the surgical step-up approach in patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis based on favorable short-term outcomes. We compared long-term clinical outcomes of both step-up approaches after a period of at least 5 years.

Methods: In this long-term follow-up study, we re-evaluated all clinical data on 83 patients (of the originally 98 included patients) from the TENSION trial who were still alive after the initial 6-months follow-up. Read More

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DZW-310, a novel phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, attenuates the angiogenesis and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis.

Biochem Pharmacol 2022 May 14:115093. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Life Science and Biochemistry, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110016, PR China; Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Northern Theater Command, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110840, PR China. Electronic address:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most malignant tumors worldwide with high lethality and prevalence. The deregulated phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway plays an indispensable role in mediating the progression of HCC. Among them, PI3K acts as the most pivotal initiator, contributing to multiple malignant biological processes, like proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Read More

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Ex Vivo Evaluation of the Cranial Tibial Artery and Its Compression through Fragment Rotation during Tibia Plateau Levelling Osteotomy: An Angiographic Three-Dimensional Reconstruction.

Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Clinic for Small Mammals, Reptiles and Birds, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover Foundation, Hannover, Germany.

Objective:  To illustrate the arterial vascularity of the proximal tibia three-dimensionally and to evaluate the impact of fragment rotation on the cranial tibial artery by tibia plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO).

Method:  Radiographic angiography and computed tomography (CT) were performed on 12 pelvic limbs from six large-breed canine cadavers before and after TPLO. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the stifle, including osseous and vascular structures, were obtained, and the integrity of the cranial tibial artery was assessed. Read More

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Social Environments and Physical Activity Among Active Black Women.

Am J Health Promot 2022 May 17:8901171221102139. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Acute, Chronic, and Continuing Care, 9968University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Purpose: To explore the social context of physical activity (PA) among active Black women, we examine the patterns of PA engagement and the benefits of social support in PA maintenance.

Design: A cross-sectional study design and descriptive phenomenological approach were used to examine social support and lived experiences of active Black women.

Setting: The study setting was an online survey of active Black women, ages 21 to 71 years who were recruited from across the United States. Read More

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Urinary Potassium Excretion and Mortality Risk in Community-Dwelling Individuals with and without obesity.

Am J Clin Nutr 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: Potassium intake has been shown to be inversely associated with blood pressure and premature mortality. Previous studies suggested that the association between potassium intake and blood pressure is modified by obesity, but whether obesity similarly influences the association between potassium intake and mortality is unclear.

Objectives: To investigate whether potassium intake, reflected by 24-hour urinary excretion, is associated with all-cause mortality, and to explore potential effect modification by obesity. Read More

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