16,159 results match your criteria presumed degradation


Seizure-mediated iron accumulation and dysregulated iron metabolism after status epilepticus and in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of (Neuro)Pathology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Neuronal dysfunction due to iron accumulation in conjunction with reactive oxygen species (ROS) could represent an important, yet underappreciated, component of the epileptogenic process. However, to date, alterations in iron metabolism in the epileptogenic brain have not been addressed in detail. Iron-related neuropathology and antioxidant metabolic processes were investigated in resected brain tissue from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS), post-mortem brain tissue from patients who died after status epilepticus (SE) as well as brain tissue from the electrically induced SE rat model of TLE. Read More

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Extracellular Protons Mediate Presynaptic Homeostatic Potentiation at the Mouse Neuromuscular Junction.

Neuroscience 2021 07 21;467:188-200. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Biology, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112, USA. Electronic address:

At the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ), presynaptic homeostatic potentiation (PHP) refers to the upregulation of neurotransmitter release via an increase in quantal content (QC) when the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are partially blocked. The mechanism of PHP has not been completely worked out. In particular, the identity of the presumed retrograde signal is still a mystery. Read More

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A Piperine-Based Scaffold as a Novel Starting Point to Develop Inhibitors against the Potent Molecular Target ChtI.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jul 29;69(27):7534-7544. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection and Shenzhen Agricultural Genome Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, People's Republic of China.

The insect chitinase ChtI from the agricultural pest (Asian corn borer) is a promising target for green insecticide design. ChtI is a critical chitinolytic enzyme for the cuticular chitin degradation at the stage of molting. In this study, piperine, a natural amide compound isolated from black pepper, L. Read More

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Trypsin-type serine protease p37k hydrolyzes CPAP3-type cuticle proteins in the molting fluid of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Jun 25:103610. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, 400715, China; Biological Science Research Center, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, 400715, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Sericulture, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716, China. Electronic address:

Cuticular proteins analogous to peritrophin 3 (CPAP3)-type cuticle proteins constitute a family of proteins with three chitin-binding domains (CBDs) that play an important role in cuticle formation by associating with chitin. In our previous study, we identified CPAP3-type cuticle proteins in the silkworm genome, of which we characterized CPAP3-A2 (BmCBP1), a protein highly expressed in the epidermis. In this study, to elucidate the digestion mechanism of CPAP3-type cuticle proteins, we incubated CPAP3-A2 with molting fluid in vitro and found that its hydrolysis, which was inhibited by serine and cysteine protease inhibitors, produced two major bands with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kD and 11 kD. Read More

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Newborn screening for carnitine transporter defect in Bavaria and the long-term follow-up of the identified newborns and mothers: Assessing the benefit and possible harm based on 19 ½ years of experience.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Sep 12;28:100776. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Inborn Errors of Metabolism, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Lindwurmstr. 4, 80337, Munich, Germany.

Carnitine transporter defect (CTD) is a potentially life-threatening disorder causing acute metabolic decompensation, cardiac arrhythmia, and cardiac and skeletal myopathies. CTD is included in many newborn screening (NBS) programs. The screening parameter free carnitine, however, is influenced by maternal conditions due to placental transfer. Read More

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September 2021

Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer: A case of the chicken or the egg.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Jun;27(23):3148-3157

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2333 ZA, The Netherlands.

Acute pancreatitis (AP), chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic cancer are three distinct pancreatic diseases with different prognoses and treatment options. However, it may be difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant disease. AP may be a first symptom of pancreatic cancer, particularly in patients between the ages of 56 and 75 with presumed idiopathic AP who had a concomitant diagnosis of new-onset diabetes mellitus or patients who present with CP at diagnosis of AP. Read More

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Methanogenic archaea use a bacteria-like methyltransferase system to demethoxylate aromatic compounds.

ISME J 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Microbiology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Methane-generating archaea drive the final step in anaerobic organic compound mineralization and dictate the carbon flow of Earth's diverse anoxic ecosystems in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Although such Archaea were presumed to be restricted to life on simple compounds like hydrogen (H), acetate or methanol, an archaeon, Methermicoccus shengliensis, was recently found to convert methoxylated aromatic compounds to methane. Methoxylated aromatic compounds are important components of lignin and coal, and are present in most subsurface sediments. Read More

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CCHamide2-receptor regulates feeding behavior in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

Peptides 2021 Jun 9;143:170596. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Key Laboratory of Integrated Crop Pest Management of Shandong Province, College of Plant Health and Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, 700 Changcheng Road, Qingdao, Shandong, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Neuropeptide CCHamide-2 is a recently discovered peptide presents in many arthropods and it is the ligand of the CCHamide-2 receptor (CCHa2-R), which is playing a regulatory role in diverse physiological processes, such as feeding, insulin production, lipid metabolism, growth and reproduction, however, the function of this gene in aphids is still unknown. Here, we characterized and determined the presumed role of CCHa2-R signaling in the wingless pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed the expression levels of CCHa2-R transcripts in different development stages and different tissues, which indicates that the CCHa2-R expression was high in the first instar as compared to the upcoming nymphal instars and adult and was predominantly high in the brain. Read More

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Meningioma preceding CASPR2 antibody limbic encephalitis with a stroke mimic: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26241

Department of Neurology, Weifang People's Hospital (The First Affiliated Hospital of Weifang Medical University), Weifang, Shandong, China.

Rationale: Todd paralysis (a stroke-like presentation in some patients with epilepsy) caused by limbic encephalitis (LE) is not easily distinguished from acute ischemic stroke by clinicians in the emergency room.

Patient Concerns: We report a contactin-associated protein-like 2-antibody (CASPR2-Ab)-positive patient who presented with atypical LE.

Diagnoses: CASPR2-Ab-positive LE was the presumed diagnosis. Read More

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Biogeochemical Mobility of Contaminants from a Replica Radioactive Waste Trench in Response to Rainfall-Induced Redox Oscillations.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 07 10;55(13):8793-8805. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

UNSW Water Research Centre and School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, Australia.

Results of investigations into factors influencing contaminant mobility in a replica trench located adjacent to a legacy radioactive waste site are presented in this study. The trench was filled with nonhazardous iron- and organic matter (OM)-rich components, as well as three contaminant analogues strontium, cesium, and neodymium to examine contaminant behavior. Imposed redox/water-level oscillations, where oxygen-laden rainwater was added to the anoxic trench, resulted in marked biogeochemical changes including the removal of aqueous Fe(II) and circulation of dissolved carbon, along with shifts to microbial communities involved in cycling iron (, ) and methane generation (, ). Read More

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Highly efficient photoelectrochemical removal of atrazine and the mechanism investigation: Bias potential effect and reactive species.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 18;415:125681. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Chemical Science and Engineering, and Shanghai Key Lab of Chemical Assessment and Sustainability, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China. Electronic address:

In this work, efficient photoelectrochemical (PEC) removal of atrazine, one of the most widely used chemical herbicides in the world, was obtained by adjusting the bias potential applied on the photo-anode, and the optimal atrazine removal efficiency reached 96.8% at the potential of 0.2 V vs. Read More

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NDRG1 facilitates lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus by maintaining the stability of the KSHV helicase.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jun 2;17(6):e1009645. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

The presumed DNA helicase encoded by ORF44 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) plays a crucial role in unwinding viral double-stranded DNA and initiating DNA replication during lytic reactivation. However, the regulatory mechanism of KSHV ORF44 has not been fully elucidated. In a previous study, we identified that N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), a host scaffold protein, facilitates viral genome replication by interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the latent viral protein latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) during viral latency. Read More

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Genome-Wide Analysis of nsLTP Gene Family and Identification of Contributing to High Oil Accumulation in Sesame ( L.).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 18;22(10). Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Ministry of Agriculture, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062, China.

The biosynthesis and storage of lipids in oil crop seeds involve many gene families, such as nonspecific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs). nsLTPs are cysteine-rich small basic proteins essential for plant development and survival. However, in sesame, information related to nsLTPs was limited. Read More

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Baseline Levels of Vitamin D in a Healthy Population from a Region with High Solar Irradiation.

Nutrients 2021 May 13;13(5). Epub 2021 May 13.

Servicio de Reumatología, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, 38320 La Laguna, Spain.

The use of vitamin D (VitD) supplements has become widespread in the last decade due not only to the dissociation between the blood levels recommended as "optimal" and those shown by the healthy population but also to its presumed beneficial effects on multiple disorders. This work evaluated the levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in a healthy population of European origin living in a region with high solar irradiation. In serum samples from a population-based study conducted in the Canary Islands, levels of 25(OH)D were analyzed. Read More

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A Computational Study of the S State in the Oxygen-Evolving Complex of Photosystem II by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

Molecules 2021 May 4;26(9). Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Chemical and Forensic Science, Faculty of Science, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Private Bag 16, Palapye, Botswana.

The S state produces two basic electron paramagnetic resonance signal types due to the manganese cluster in oxygen-evolving complex, which are influenced by the solvents, and cryoprotectant added to the photosystem II samples. It is presumed that a single manganese center oxidation occurs on S → S state transition. The S state has readily visible multiline and g4. Read More

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Cigarette smoke extract-induced downregulation of p300 is responsible for the impaired inflammatory cytokine response of macrophages.

Cell Signal 2021 May 24;85:110050. Epub 2021 May 24.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea; Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are susceptible to infection owing to the impaired immune function of alveolar macrophages. This is presumed to be caused, at least partially, by cigarette smoke (CS), which is a major risk factor for COPD. Although CS has been reported to inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR) function and phagocytosis in macrophages, the molecular mechanism of CS-mediated impairment of macrophage immune function has not been completely elucidated. Read More

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Anaerobic Benzene Biodegradation Linked to the Growth of Highly Specific Bacterial Clades.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 06 27;55(12):7970-7980. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5, Canada.

Reliance on bioremediation to remove benzene from anoxic environments has proven risky for decades but for unknown reasons. Research has revealed a strong link between anaerobic benzene biodegradation and the enrichment of highly specific microbes, including in the family and the deltaproteobacterial Candidate Sva0485 clade. Using aquifer materials from Canadian Forces Base Borden, we compared five bioremediation approaches in batch microcosms. Read More

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The role of viscosupplementation in patellar chondropathy.

Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis 2021 13;13:1759720X211015005. Epub 2021 May 13.

Knee Surgery Division, Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia, Hospital das clínicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Patellar chondropathy has a high incidence in the general population, being more common in patients younger than 50 years, female and recreational athletes, and overweight and obese patients. The most common complaints are pain, limited mobility, crepitus, difficulty climbing and descending stairs, and joint instability, usually showing unsatisfactory results with anti-inflammatory, physiotherapy, rehabilitation, and many other conservative treatment methods. The presumed hyaluronic acid (HA) disease-modifying activity may include effects on cartilage degradation, endogenous HA synthesis, synoviocyte and chondrocyte function, and other cellular inflammatory processes. Read More

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Parasitic wasps do not lack lipogenesis.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 05 26;288(1951):20210548. Epub 2021 May 26.

Institute of Zoology, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, 93053 Regensburg, Germany.

Fatty acids are crucial primary metabolites for virtually all creatures on earth. Most organisms thus do not rely exclusively on a nutritional supply containing fatty acids, but have the ability to synthesize fatty acids and triacylglycerides de novo from carbohydrates in a process called lipogenesis. The ubiquity of lipogenesis has been questioned by a series of studies reporting that many parasitic wasps (parasitoids) do not accumulate lipid mass despite having unlimited access to sugar. Read More

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Ovalbumin Antigen-Specific Activation of Human T Cell Receptor Closely Resembles Soluble Antibody Stimulation as Revealed by BOOST Phosphotyrosine Proteomics.

J Proteome Res 2021 06 21;20(6):3330-3344. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912, United States.

Activation of the T cell receptor (TCR) leads to a network of early signaling predominantly orchestrated by tyrosine phosphorylation in T cells. The TCR is commonly activated using soluble anti-TCR antibodies, but this approach is not antigen-specific. Alternatively, activating the TCR using specific antigens of a range of binding affinities in the form of a peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) is presumed to be more physiological. Read More

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Vitamin B deficiency with normal plasma levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate in perinatal hypophosphatasia.

Bone 2021 09 14;150:116007. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, St. Louis Children's Hospital at Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Electronic address:

Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the principal circulating form of vitamin B (B), is elevated in the plasma of individuals with hypophosphatasia (HPP). HPP is the inborn-error-of-metabolism caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) of ALPL, the gene that encodes the "tissue-nonspecific" isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). PLP accumulates extracellularly in HPP because it is a natural substrate of this cell-surface phosphomonoester phosphohydrolase. Read More

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September 2021

Integrating Population Variants and Protein Structural Analysis to Improve Clinical Genetic Diagnosis and Treatment in Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

Front Pediatr 2021 29;9:566524. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Nephrology, National Pediatric Medical Center of China, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by renal inability to concentrate urine. We utilized a multicenter strategy to investigate the genotype and phenotype in a cohort of Chinese children clinically diagnosed with NDI from 2014 to 2019. Ten boys from nine families were identified with mutations in or along with dehydration, polyuria-polydipsia, and severe hypernatremia. Read More

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Adult GAMT deficiency: A literature review and report of two siblings.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Jun 26;27:100761. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Health Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency is a creatine deficiency disorder and an inborn error of metabolism presenting with progressive intellectual and neurological deterioration. As most cases are identified and treated in early childhood, adult phenotypes that can help in understanding the natural history of the disorder are rare. We describe two adult cases of GAMT deficiency from a consanguineous family in Pakistan that presented with a history of global developmental delay, cognitive impairments, excessive drooling, behavioral abnormalities, contractures and apparent bone deformities initially presumed to be the reason for abnormal gait. Read More

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Inactivation of TOPK Caused by Hyperglycemia Blocks Diabetic Heart Sensitivity to Sevoflurane Postconditioning by Impairing the PTEN/PI3K/Akt Signaling.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 23;2021:6657529. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Anesthesiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 Jiefang Avenue, Wuhan 430022, China.

The cardioprotective effect of sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) is lost in diabetes that is associated with cardiac phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (PTEN) activation and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt inactivation. T-LAK cell-originated protein kinase (TOPK), a mitogen-activated protein kinase- (MAPKK-) like serine/threonine kinase, has been shown to inactivate PTEN (phosphorylated status), which in turn activates the PI3K/Akt signaling (phosphorylated status). However, the functions of TOPK and molecular mechanism underlying SPostC cardioprotection in nondiabetes but not in diabetes remain unknown. Read More

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Exploring the toxic interactions between Bisphenol A and glutathione peroxidase 6 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Oct 30;259:119891. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Shandong Province Key Laboratory of Applied Mycology, College of Life Sciences, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China. Electronic address:

As primary industrial raw material, the widespread usage of bisphenol A (BPA) has resulted in sustained release and accumulation in the environment. Besides its endocrine-disrupting character, BPA was reported to generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the potential toxic mechanisms of the BPA-induced oxidative damage to plants were poorly understood. Read More

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October 2021

Gold(I) Phosphine Derivatives with Improved Selectivity as Topically Active Drug Leads to Overcome 5-Nitroheterocyclic Drug Resistance in .

J Med Chem 2021 05 11;64(10):6608-6620. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

causes the most common, nonviral sexually transmitted infection. Only metronidazole (Mz) and tinidazole are approved for treating trichomoniasis, yet resistance is a clinical problem. The gold(I) complex, auranofin, is active against and other protozoa but has significant human toxicity. Read More

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Inner hair cell stereocilia are embedded in the tectorial membrane.

Nat Commun 2021 05 10;12(1):2604. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences (BKV), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.

Mammalian hearing depends on sound-evoked displacements of the stereocilia of inner hair cells (IHCs), which cause the endogenous mechanoelectrical transducer channels to conduct inward currents of cations including Ca. Due to their presumed lack of contacts with the overlaying tectorial membrane (TM), the putative stimulation mechanism for these stereocilia is by means of the viscous drag of the surrounding endolymph. However, despite numerous efforts to characterize the TM by electron microscopy and other techniques, the exact IHC stereocilia-TM relationship remains elusive. Read More

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Physiological processes and lipidome dynamics in the soft coral Sinularia heterospiculata under experimental bleaching.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Aug-Sep;255:110609. Epub 2021 May 4.

A.V. Zhirmunsky National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russian Federation.

Coral polyps host intracellular symbiotic dinoflagellates (SD). The loss of SD (referred as bleaching) under stressful environmental conditions is the main reason of coral reef destruction, and therefore, intensively studied over the world. Lipids are the structural base of biomembranes and energy reserve of corals and are directly involved in the coral bleaching. Read More

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Host-microbial interactions in the metabolism of different dietary fats.

Cell Metab 2021 May;33(5):857-872

Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 11 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address:

Although generally presumed to be isocaloric, dietary fats can differ in their energetic contributions and metabolic effects. Here, we show how an explicit consideration of the gut microbiome and its interactions with human physiology can enrich our understanding of dietary fat metabolism. We outline how variable human metabolic responses to different dietary fats, such as altered ileal digestibility or bile acid production, have downstream effects on the gut microbiome that differentially promote energy gain and inflammation. Read More

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Comparison of changes in albumin binding capacity during hemodiafiltration or hemodialysis with middle cut off membranes.

Int J Artif Organs 2021 May 8;44(5):297-301. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology, University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

Background: Albumin is important for the transport of protein-bound substances (PBS). Albumin binding capacity (ABiC) is reduced in dialysis patients. This can contribute to worsening of uremic symptoms. Read More

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